Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
Homo sapiens is the binomial nomenclature for the only extant human species. Homo is the genus, which includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid. Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, the binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus. The Latin noun homō means man, human being, subspecies of H. sapiens include Homo sapiens idaltu and the only extant subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Some sources show Neanderthals as a subspecies, the discovered specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies, but these last two subspecies classifications are not widely accepted by scientists. Traditionally, there are two competing views in paleoanthropology about the origin of H. sapiens, the recent African origin, since 2010, genetic research has led to the emergence of an intermediate position, characterised by mostly recent African origin plus limited admixture with archaic humans.
The recent African origin of humans is the mainstream model that describes the origin. The theory is called the Out-of-Africa model in the press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis, Replacement Hypothesis. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin was published in Charles Darwins Descent of Man, the concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-day mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens. The recent single origin of humans in East Africa is the near-consensus position held within the scientific community. However, recent sequencing of the full Neanderthal genome suggests Neanderthals, the authors of the study suggest that their findings are consistent with Neanderthal admixture of up to 4% in some populations. But the study suggests that there may be other reasons why humans. That study however does not explain why only a fraction of humans have Neanderthal DNA. The multiregional origin model provides an explanation for the pattern of evolution proposed by Milford H.
Wolpoff in 1988. Scientific study of evolution is concerned, with the development of the genus Homo. Modern humans are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu, the known subspecies, is now extinct. Similarly, the specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies
The Mauer 1 mandible is the oldest fossilized specimen of the genus Homo ever to be discovered in Germany. It was found in 1907 in a mine in the community Mauer. The Mauer 1 mandible is the specimen of the species Homo heidelbergensis. European researchers have classified the find as Homo erectus heidelbergensis, which is to be regarded as a subspecies of Homo erectus, in 2010 the mandibles age was for the first time exactly determined as to be 609,000 ±40,000 years. Previously specialist literature had referred to an age of either 600,000 or 500,000 years on the basis of accurate dating methods. Schoetensack had the workers taught the characteristics of human bones based on recent examples as he visited the sand mine in search for traces of mankind. As it was dug out the mandible was flung in the air and was discovered after it had already broken into two parts. Moreover, a piece of the left side broke off in the process. A thick cemented crust of coarse sands stuck on and around the canines, the cementing had been caused by carbonation of calcium.
The subsequent removal of the crusts layers led to further damage, the two left premolars went permanently missing as a result of inadequate storage during World War II. The sand mines contractor immediately reported the discovery to Schoetensack, who examined and documented the site and he presented the results of his studies in the autumn of the following year in a monograph, The lower jaw of Homo heidelbergensis from the sands of Mauer near Heidelberg. On November 19,1907 Schoetensack stated in a document that mine contractor Josef Rösch will leave the specimen to the Heidelberg University as a gift. The mandible remains in the Universitys Geological-Palaeontological Institute to this day as the most valuable object in the history collections of the University of Heidelberg. The fossils collection number GPIH1 and Mauer1 underneath, marked in small caps can be found on the inner side of the jaws right joint. GPIH stands for Geological-Palaeontological Institute Heidelberg, finds of the Mauer sand mine are the Hornstein artefacts, found in 1924 by Karl Friedrich Hormuth, which scholars interpreted as tools of Homo heidelbergensis.
In 1933 Wilhelm Freudenberg discovered a bone fragment which too. The available space would allow for a far greater flexibility of development And further on the find and it shows a combination of features, which has been previously found neither on a recent nor a fossil human mandible. The actual proof that we are dealing with human parts here only lies within the nature of the dentition, the completely preserved teeth bear the stamp human as evidence, The canines show no trace of a stronger expression in relation to the other groups of teeth
A number of morphologically-comparable fossil remains came to light in East Africa and North Africa during the 20th century and were classified as Homo rhodesiensis. Smith Woodward decided the fossils represented an extinct species as the. Thick skull, sloped forehead and giant brow ridges made the species distinct from living people, the finds were dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC. However, this group of fossils has been known by many other names, none ever having been accepted universally. The Saldanha cranium, found in 1954 in South Africa was subject to at least three taxonomic revisions from 1955 to 1996, consensus is confined to informal taxonomic categories, such as pre-modern. Most scientists now regard Homo rhodesiensis as to be the representative of Homo heidelbergensis. The cranium was found in a lead and zinc mine in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia in 1921 by Tom Zwiglaar, in addition to the cranium, an upper jaw from another individual, a sacrum, a tibia, and two femur fragments were found.
The skull was dubbed Rhodesian Man at the time of the find, the association between the bones is unclear, but the tibia and femur fossils are usually associated with the skull. Rhodesian Man is dated to be between 125,000 and 300,000 years old, cranial capacity of the Broken Hill skull has been estimated at 1,230 cm³. Bada, & al. published the date of 110 ka for this specimen measured by aspartic acid racemisation. The destruction of the site has made layered dating impossible. The massive skull suggests an extremely robust individual with the comparatively largest brow-ridges of any known hominid and it was described as having a broad face similar to that of Homo neanderthalensis. Consequently, researchers came up with such as African Neanderthal. However, with regard to the skulls extreme robustness, recent research has highlighted several intermediate features between modern Homo sapiens and Neanderthal. The 600.000 year old Bodo cranium was found in 1976 by members of an expedition led by Jon Kalb at Bodo Dar in the Awash River valley of Ethiopia.
Although the skull is most similar to those of Kabwe, Woodwards nomenclature was discontinued and it has features, that represent a transition between Homo ergaster/erectus and Homo sapiens. Another specimen, the hominid from Lake Ndutu in northern Tanzania, in 1976 R. J. Clarke classified it as Homo erectus and it has generally been viewed as such since, although points of similarity to H. sapiens have been recognized. After comparative studies with similar finds in Africa allocation to an African subspecies of H. sapiens seems most appropriate, an indirect cranial capacity estimate suggests 1100 ml
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
The State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, abbreviated SMNS, is one of the two state of Baden-Württembergs natural history museums. Together with the State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe it is one of the most important repositories for state-owned natural history collections, every year, the SMNS is visited by about 110,000 people. Prior to World War II, the history collection of Baden-Württemberg was located at the Neckarstraße in downtown Stuttgart. A part of the exhibits were destroyed during the war, when the building was destroyed by fire after Allied bombing. Luckily, most of the exhibits were sourced out and survived the war, some specimens were recovered form the rubble of the destroyed old museum building, including a spectacular plesiosaur today mounted in 3D in the Löwentor Museum exhibition. The biological specimens of the States collection are displayed at the castle Rosenstein since 1954, for the paleontological collection, the construction of a new exhibition building began in 1981 and was finished in 1985.
The principal exhibition area of Löwentor Museum consists of a single room, the room has a height of up to 11 meters. The Museum am Löwentor exhibition focuses mainly on fossils from its state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany. The state is rich in fossils, including several famous classical localities, especially well exposed are terrestrial and marine Triassic, marine Jurassic and terrestrial Cenozoic sediments. Furthermore, exquisite Jurassic ammonites and other invertebrates are shown in large numbers, the Cenozoic is represented by invertebrates and mainly vertebrates from various German localities, including a pleistocene elephant and a copy of a mammuth mummy. Also on exhibit is the skull of the man of Steinheim. The museum houses a collection of plant and animal fossils in amber. List of museums in Germany List of natural history museums Official website Part of this article was translated from the German Wikipedia article, version
Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh is a prehistoric archaeological site in Upper Galilee, Israel. It is situated 0.8 km from the Nahal Amud outlet and it was found to house a fossil today known as the Galilee skull and Galilee Man. Discovered in 1925, the skull was the first ancient fossilised hominin found in Western Asia, together with the remains found at Es Skhul and the Wadi el-Mughara Caves, this find was classified in 1939 by Arthur Keith and Theodore D. McCown as Palaeoanthropus palestinensis. Today its taxonomy is that of Homo heidelbergensis, zuttiyeh cave is at the opening of a limestone ravine where Nahal Amud turns eastward,250 meters above a smaller cave known as Mugharet el-Emireh. The cave was excavated in 1925-1926 by Francis Turville-Petre and it was the first paleontological excavation in the region. Turville-Petre discovered a skull, referred to as the Galilee skull and it was originally attributed to a Mousterian level and is now thought to be from an earlier Acheulo-Yabrudian complex.
Later studies showed that the face was flat, with no evidence of Neanderthal-like facial prognathism. The frontal bone and part of the face were found in the Mugharan level. Similarities with Zhoukoudian remains suggest a possible ancestral relationship, the Galilee skull, along with many of Turville-Petres findings, is housed in the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem. A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum, archaeology of Israel List of human evolution fossils Qesem Cave Skhul and Qafzeh hominids Lahr, Marta Mirazón. The evolution of human diversity, a study of cranial variation. Delson, Tattersall, Van Couvering, John A. Encyclopedia of human evolution, what does it mean to be human. On the Animal Remains Obtained from the Mugharet-el-Zuttiyeh in 1925 &1926 at Google Books
Tautavel Man, is a proposed subspecies of the hominid Homo erectus, the 450, 000-year-old fossil remains of whom were discovered in the Arago Cave in Tautavel, France. Excavations began in 1964, with the first notable discovery occurring in 1969, the first person to find objects at the location did so during 1828. These were animal bones considered antediluvian by Marcel de Serres, a professional geologist at the University of Montpellier, the Proto-Mousterian Industry tools found by Jean Abélanet during 1963, initiated the beginning of the Lumley led excavations of 1964. The skeletal remains of two individual hominids have been found in the cave, an older than 40. Recovered stone tools originate from within a 5 kilometres radius of the cave, all fossils recovered from Arago were found by Henry and Marie-Antoinette de Lumley and are now located at the Institute for Human Palaeontology in Paris. Arago II is a complete mandible with six teeth from a 40–55 years old female. Arago XXI is a cranial fragment featuring the most complete pre-Neanderthal face accompanied by a frontal.
Arago XLVII is a right parietal bone, the sutures of which fits perfectly with Arago XXI, the cranial cavity had a volume of 1,150 cubic centimetres.65 metres. Through the thousands of years from the time that Arago XXI died, changes occurred to the structure of the known as taphonomic transformations. These had caused parts of the bone to become slightly bent, compared to H. erectus in North Africa and China, H. erectus tautavelensis is closer to early H. Arago XXI is a deformed cranial fragment dated to approximately 450,000 years. The skull was found by H. Lumley and M. A. Lumley in the Arago Cave located at Tautavel France, the hominid was twenty years old as indicated by the state of the fronto-pariental suture, and the gender is thought to be male. The people of the cave ate elk, fallow deer, musk ox, Hemitragus bonali, argali and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis. Occupied from 600,000 to 400,000 B. P. the cave is of the earliest known from the middle Pleistocene to archaeology of the Pyrenees and chopper tools found within the cave were of the Tayacian Industry.
The current cave dimensions are smaller than those from the time when the hominid inhabited the cave, list of human evolution fossils Blumenfeld, Jodi. La Caune de lArago, France
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous rock formations and sedimentary layers is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, such a preserved specimen is called a fossil if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years. The observation that fossils were associated with certain rock strata led early geologists to recognize a geological timescale in the 19th century. The development of dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed geologists to determine the numerical or absolute age of the various strata. Like extant organisms, fossils vary in size from microscopic, even single bacterial cells one micrometer in diameter, to gigantic, such as dinosaurs, Fossils may consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces.
These types of fossil are called trace fossils, as opposed to body fossils, past life leaves some markers that cannot be seen but can be detected in the form of biochemical signals, these are known as chemofossils or biosignatures. The process of fossilization varies according to type and external conditions. Permineralization is a process of fossilization that occurs when an organism is buried, the empty spaces within an organism become filled with mineral-rich groundwater. Minerals precipitate from the groundwater, occupying the empty spaces and this process can occur in very small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can produce very detailed fossils, for permineralization to occur, the organism must become covered by sediment soon after death or soon after the initial decay process. The degree to which the remains are decayed when covered determines the details of the fossil, some fossils consist only of skeletal remains or teeth, other fossils contain traces of skin, feathers or even soft tissues.
This is a form of diagenesis, in some cases the original remains of the organism completely dissolve or are otherwise destroyed. The remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold, if this hole is filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An endocast or internal mold is formed when sediments or minerals fill the cavity of an organism. This is a form of cast and mold formation. If the chemistry is right, the organism can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, if this happens rapidly before significant decay to the organic tissue, very fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved. Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization, replacement occurs when the shell, bone or other tissue is replaced with another mineral
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
The genus is between 2 and 3 million years old, taken to emerge with the appearance of Homo habilis. It is derived from the genus Australopithecus, which itself had previously split from the lineage of Pan, Homo is the only genus assigned to the subtribe Hominina which, with the subtribes Australopithecina and Panina, comprise the tribe Hominini. All species of the genus Homo plus those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from Pan are called hominins, Homo erectus appeared about two million years ago in East Africa and, in several early migrations, it spread throughout Africa and Eurasia. It was likely the first hominin to live in a hunter-gatherer society, the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens or anatomically modern humans emerged about 200,000 years ago in East Africa. DNA analysis provides evidence of interbreeding between archaic and modern humans. See Hominidae for an overview of taxonomy, the Latin noun homō means human being or man in the generic sense of human being, mankind.
The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus, names for other species of the genus were introduced beginning in the second half of the 19th century. Even today, the genus Homo has not been properly defined, since the early human fossil record began to slowly emerge from the earth, the boundaries and definitions of the genus Homo have been poorly defined and constantly in flux. Because there was no reason to think it would ever have any additional members, the discovery of Neanderthal brought the first addition. The genus Homo was given its name to suggest that its member species can be classified as human. Many such names are now dubbed as synonyms with Homo, including Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus, Africanthropus, Atlanthropus, classifying the genus Homo into species and subspecies is subject to incomplete information and remains poorly done. Some recently extinct species in the genus Homo are only recently discovered, john Edward Gray was an early advocate of classifying taxa by designating tribes and families.
Several species, including Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus africanus and these species have morphological features that align them with Homo, but there is no consensus as to which gave rise to Homo. The advent of Homo was traditionally taken to coincide with the first use of stone tools, the emergence of Homo coincides roughly with the onset of Quaternary glaciation, the beginning of the current ice age. A fossil mandible fragment dated to 2.8 million years ago which may represent a stage between Australopithecus and Homo was discovered in 2015 in Afar, Ethiopia. Some authors would push the development of Homo past 3 Mya, the most salient physiological development between the earlier australopithecine species and Homo is the increase in cranial capacity, from about 450 cm3 in A. garhi to 600 cm3 in H. habilis. Within the genus Homo, cranial capacity again doubled from H. habilis through Homo ergaster or H. erectus to Homo heidelbergensis by 0.6 million years ago, the cranial capacity of H. heidelbergensis overlaps with the range found in modern humans.
Homo erectus has often been assumed to have developed anagenetically from Homo habilis from about 2 million years ago