Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
In taxonomy, Homo sapiens is the only extant human species. The name was introduced in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus. Extinct species of the genus Homo include Homo erectus, extant during 1.9 to 0.4 million years ago, a number of other species. The age of speciation of H. sapiens out of ancestral H. erectus is estimated to have been 350,000 years ago. Sustained archaic admixture is known to have taken place both in Africa and in Eurasia, between about 100,000 and 30,000 years ago; the term anatomically modern humans is used to distinguish H. sapiens having an anatomy consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from varieties of extinct archaic humans. This is useful for times and regions where anatomically modern and archaic humans co-existed, for example, in Paleolithic Europe; the binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Linnaeus, 1758. The Latin noun homō means "human being", while the participle sapiēns means "discerning, sensible"; the species was thought to have emerged from a predecessor within the genus Homo around 300,000 to 200,000 years ago.
A problem with the morphological classification of "anatomically modern" was that it would not have included certain extant populations. For this reason, a lineage-based definition of H. sapiens has been suggested, in which H. sapiens would by definition refer to the modern human lineage following the split from the Neanderthal lineage. Such a cladistic definition would extend the age of H. sapiens to over 500,000 years. Extant human populations have been divided into subspecies, but since around the 1980s all extant groups have tended to be subsumed into a single species, H. sapiens, avoiding division into subspecies altogether. Some sources show Neanderthals as a subspecies; the discovered specimens of the H. rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies, although it remains more common to treat these last two as separate species within the genus Homo rather than as subspecies within H. sapiens. The subspecies name H. sapiens sapiens is sometimes used informally instead of "modern humans" or "anatomically modern humans".
It has no formal authority associated with it. By the early 2000s, it had become common to use H. s. sapiens for the ancestral population of all contemporary humans, as such it is equivalent to the binomial H. sapiens in the more restrictive sense. The speciation of H. sapiens out of archaic human varieties derived from H. erectus is estimated as having taken place over 350,000 years ago, as the Khoisan split from other populations is dated between 260,000 and 350,000 years ago. An alternative suggestion defines H. sapiens cladistically as including the lineage of modern humans since the split from the lineage of Neanderthals 500,000 to 800,000 years ago. The time of divergence between archaic H. sapiens and ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans caused by a genetic bottleneck of the latter was dated at 744,000 years ago, combined with repeated early admixture events and Denisovans diverging from Neanderthals 300 generations after their split from H. sapiens, as calculated by Rogers et al..
The derivation of a comparatively homogeneous single species of H. sapiens from more diverse varieties of archaic humans was debated in terms of two competing models during the 1980s: "recent African origin" postulated the emergence of H. sapiens from a single source population in Africa, which expanded and led to the extinction of all other human varieties, while the "multiregional evolution" model postulated the survival of regional forms of archaic humans converging into the modern human varieties by the mechanism of clinal variation, via genetic drift, gene flow and selection throughout the Pleistocene. Since the 2000s, the availability of data from archaeogenetics and population genetics has led to the emergence of a much more detailed picture, intermediate between the two competing scenarios outlined above: The recent Out-of-Africa expansion accounts for the predominant part of modern human ancestry, while there were significant admixture events with regional archaic humans. Since the 1970s, the Omo remains, dated to some 195,000 years ago, have been taken as the conventional cut-off point for the emergence of "anatomically modern humans".
Since the 2000s, the discovery of older remains with comparable characteristics, the discovery of ongoing hybridization between "modern" and "archaic" populations after the time of the Omo remains, have opened up a renewed debate on the "age of H. sapiens", in journalistic publications cast into terms of "H. sapiens may be older than thought". H. s. idaltu, dated to 160,000 years ago, has been postulated as an extinct subspecies of H. sapiens in 2003. H. Neanderthalensis, which became extinct about 40,000 years ago, has been classified as a subspecies, H. s. neanderthalensis. H. heidelbergensis, dated 600,000 to 300,000 years ago, has long been thought to be a candidate for the last common ancestor of the Neanderthal and modern human lineages. However, genetic evidence from the Sima de los Huesos fossils published in 2016 seems to suggest that H. heidelbergensis in its entirety should be included in the Neanderthal lineage, as "pre-Neanderthal" or "early Neanderthal", while the divergence time between the Neanderthal and
The Mauer 1 mandible is the oldest known specimen of the genus Homo in Germany. It was found in 1907 around 10 km south-east of Heidelberg; the Mauer 1 mandible is the type specimen of the species Homo heidelbergensis. Some European researchers have classified the find as Homo erectus heidelbergensis, regarding it as a subspecies of Homo erectus. In 2010 the mandible's age was for the first time determined to be 609,000 ± 40,000 years. Specialist literature had referred to an age of either 600,000 or 500,000 years on the basis of less accurate dating methods. On October 21, 1907, Daniel Hartmann, a worker at a sand mine in the Grafenrain open field system of the Mauer community unearthed a mandible at a depth of 24.63 m, which he recognized as of human origin. He was aware of the likelihood of finds, as for 20 years the Heidelberg scholar Otto Schoetensack had asked that the workers at the sand mine be encouraged to look out for fossils, after the well-preserved skull of a straight-tusked elephant had come to light there in 1887.
Schoetensack had the workers taught the characteristics of human bones based on recent examples on his regular visits to the sand mine in search for "traces of mankind". As it was dug out, the mandible was flung in the air and only discovered after it had broken into two parts. A piece of the left side of the mandible was never found. A thick cemented crust of coarse sand stuck on and around the canines and molars—a characteristic of many of the Mauer fossils; the cementing had been caused by carbonation of calcium. A chunk of limestone Muschelkalk, 6 cm long and about 4 cm wide was stuck to the sand crust on top of the bicuspids and the two frontal molars on the left side of the mandible; the contractor at the sand mine reported the discovery to Schoetensack, who examined and documented the site and the fossil. He presented the results of his studies in autumn the following year in a monograph titled: "The lower jaw of Homo heidelbergensis from the sands of Mauer near Heidelberg". On November 19, 1907 Schoetensack stated in a legal document that mine contractor Josef Rösch had given the specimen to the Heidelberg University as a gift.
The mandible remains in the University's Geological-Palaeontological Institute to this day as "the most valuable object in the natural history collections of the University of Heidelberg". Further finds from the Mauer sand mine are the Hornstein artefacts, unearthed in 1924 by Karl Friedrich Hormuth, which scholars interpreted as tools of Homo heidelbergensis. In 1933 Wilhelm Freudenberg discovered a frontal bone fragment, associated with Homo heidelbergensis; the anatomical analysis of the lower jaw of Mauer in its 1908 original species description by Otto Schoetensack was based on the expertise of Breslau professor Hermann Klaatsch, only hinted at in a brief acknowledgement in the preface. In his original species description Schoetensack wrote that the "nature of our object" reveals itself "at first sight" since "a certain disproportion between the jaw and the teeth" is obvious: "The teeth are too small for the bone; the available space would allow for a far greater flexibility of development."
And further, on the find: "It shows a combination of features, found neither on a recent nor on a fossilized human mandible. The scholar should not be blamed if he would only reluctantly accept it as human: Entirely missing is the one feature, regarded as human, namely an outer projection of the chin portion, yet this deficiency is found to be combined with strange dimensions of the mandibular body; the actual proof that we are dealing with human remains here only lies within the nature of the dentition. The preserved teeth bear the stamp human as evidence: The canines show no trace of a stronger expression in relation to the other groups of teeth, they suggest a moderate and harmonious co-evolution, as it is the case in recent humans."The characteristics of the lower jaw are therefore the lack of a chin on the one hand and on the other it is the considerable size of the lower jaw bone, on which, behind the wisdom tooth a fourth premolar would have had space to develop. Since the third molar is present and its dentin exposed - although only in a few places - the age of death is estimated to be about 20 to 30 years.
Schoetensack concluded a relationship to modern man from the similarity of the dentition and put the lower jaw in the genus Homo - a view, still being held unanimously by today's palaeo-anthropologists. He derived the authority to define a new species with the type-epithet heidelbergensis from the fact that the lower jaw - in contrast to modern humans - is missing its chin. With the subtitle of his original description - "A contribution to the paleontology of the human species" - Schoetensack explicitly takes a clear position on the part of Darwinism "in the great debate on the origin of man, that humans have evolved from the animal kingdom and are not the product of a singular act of creation."As to the lower jaw of Mauer's precise position in the ancestral chain of modern man Schoetensack expressed only cautious statements. Reluctantly he wrote in his study that "it seems possible that Homo heidelbergensis belongs in the ancestral series of the European man" and - after meticulous and detailed comparison with other European fossils he stated vague: "We must therefore denote the mandible of Homo heidelbergensis as pre-neandertaloid."
The classification of the lower jaw of Mauer in the time before the Neanderthals proved to be accurate. Schoetensack - like many of his colleagues around the beginning of th
Homo rhodesiensis is the species name proposed by Arthur Smith Woodward to classify Kabwe 1, a Middle Stone Age fossil recovered from a cave at Broken Hill, or Kabwe, Northern Rhodesia. H. Rhodesiensis is now considered a synonym of Homo heidelbergensis, or an African subspecies of Homo heidelbergensis sensu lato, understood as a polymorphic species dispersed throughout Africa and Eurasia with a range spanning the Middle Pleistocene. Other designations such as Homo sapiens arcaicus and Homo sapiens rhodesiensis have been proposed. White et al. suggested Rhodesian Man as ancestral to Homo sapiens idaltu. The derivation of Homo sapiens from Homo rhodesiensis has been proposed, but is obscured by a fossil gap during 400–260 kya. A number of morphologically-comparable fossil remains came to light in East Africa and North Africa during the 20th century. Kabwe 1 called the Broken Hill skull, or "Rhodesian Man", was assigned by Arthur Smith Woodward in 1921 as the type specimen for Homo rhodesiensis.
The cranium was discovered in Mutwe Wa Nsofu Area in a lead and zinc mine in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia on June 17, 1921 by Tom Zwiglaar, a Swiss miner. In addition to the cranium, an upper jaw from another individual, a sacrum, a tibia, two femur fragments were found. Bodo cranium: The 600,000 year old fossil was found in 1976 by members of an expedition led by Jon Kalb at Bodo D'ar in the Awash River valley of Ethiopia. Although the skull is most similar to those of Kabwe, Woodward's nomenclature was discontinued and its discoverers attributed it to H. heidelbergensis. It has features. Ndutu cranium, "the hominid from Lake Ndutu" in northern Tanzania, around 400,000 years old. In 1976 R. J. Clarke classified it as Homo erectus and it has been viewed as such since, although points of similarity to H. sapiens have been recognized. After comparative studies with similar finds in Africa allocation to an African subspecies of H. sapiens seems most appropriate. An indirect cranial capacity estimate suggests 1100 ml.
Its supratoral sulcus morphology and the presence of protuberance as suggested by Philip Rightmire "give the Nudutu occiput an appearance, unlike that of Homo erectus", but Stinger pointed out that a thickened iliac pillar is typical for Homo erectus. In a 1989 publication Clarke concludes: "It is assigned to archaic Homo sapiens on the basis of its expanded parietal and occipital regions of the brain"; the Saldanha cranium, found in 1953 in South Africa was subject to at least three taxonomic revisions from 1955 to 1996. Homo heidelbergensis List of fossil sites List of Arthur Smith. "A New Cave Man from Rhodesia, South Africa". Nature. 108: 371–372. Doi:10.1038/108371a0. Singer Robert R. and J. Wymer. "Archaeological Investigation at the Saldanha Skull Site in South Africa". The South African Archaeological Bulletin; the South African Archaeological Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 91. 23: 63–73. Doi:10.2307/3888485. JSTOR 3888485. Murrill, Rupert I.. "A comparison of the Rhodesian and Petralona upper jaws in relation to other Pleistocene hominids".
Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie. 66: 176–187.. Murrill, Rupert Ivan. Ed. Charles C. Thomas, ed. Petralona Man. A Descriptive and Comparative Study, with New Information on Rhodesian Man. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas. ISBN 0-398-04550-X. Rightmire, G. Philip. "The Lake Ndutu cranium and early Homo sapiens in Africa". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 61: 245–254. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330610214. PMID 6410925.. Asfaw, Berhane. "A new hominid parietal from Bodo, middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 61: 367–371. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330610311. PMID 6412559.. Media related to Homo rhodesiensis at Wikimedia Commons "Kabwe 1"; the Smithsonian Institution's Human Origin Program. Retrieved 2 November 2010. Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
The State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, abbreviated SMNS, is one of the two state of Baden-Württemberg's natural history museums. Together with the State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe it is one of the most important repositories for state-owned natural history collections. Exhibitions are shown in two buildings, both situated in the Rosenstein park in Stuttgart: the Löwentor Museum houses the paleontology and geology exhibitions, while the Museum Rosenstein in Rosenstein Palace focuses on biology and natural history; every year, the SMNS is visited by about 110,000 people. Prior to World War II, the natural history collection of Baden-Württemberg was located at the Neckarstraße in downtown Stuttgart. A part of the exhibits were destroyed during the war, when the original building was destroyed by fire after Allied bombing. Luckily, most of the exhibits survived the war; some specimens were recovered form the rubble of the destroyed old museum building, including a spectacular plesiosaur today mounted in 3D in the Löwentor Museum exhibition.
The biological specimens of the State's collection are displayed at the castle Rosenstein since 1954. For the paleontological collection, the construction of a new exhibition building began in 1981 and was finished in 1985; the principal exhibition area of Löwentor Museum consists of a single room, made up of three floors and over 3500 square meters of exhibition area. The room has a height of up to 11 meters; the Museum am Löwentor exhibition focuses on fossils from its home state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany, other localities in Germany. The state is rich in fossils, including several famous classical localities. Well exposed are terrestrial and marine Triassic, marine Jurassic and terrestrial Cenozoic sediments. Therefore, the museum exhibits the early prosauropod dinosaur Plateosaurus and other terrestrial animals from the Lower and Upper Triassic, a wide range of marine fossils invertebrates, from the Muschelkalk, a plethora of ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, as well as sharks from the Posidonia Shale and other Lower Jurassic formations.
Furthermore, exquisite Jurassic ammonites and other invertebrates are shown in large numbers. The Cenozoic is represented by invertebrates and vertebrates from various German localities, including a pleistocene elephant and a copy of a mammuth mummy. On exhibit is the skull of the prehistoric man of Steinheim; the museum houses a spectacular collection of plant and animal fossils in amber. List of museums in Germany List of natural history museums Official website Part of this article was translated from the German Wikipedia article, version
Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh is a prehistoric archaeological site in Upper Galilee, Israel. It is situated 800 m from the Nahal Amud outlet 30 m above the wadi bed, it was found to house a fossil today known as the "Galilee skull" and "Galilee Man". Discovered in 1925, the skull was the first fossilised archaic human found in Western Asia. Together with the remains found at Es Skhul and the Wadi el-Mughara Caves, this find was classified in 1939 by Arthur Keith and Theodore D. McCown as Palaeoanthropus palestinensis. Today its taxonomy is that of Homo heidelbergensis. Zuttiyeh cave is at the opening of a limestone ravine where Nahal Amud turns eastward, 250 m above a smaller cave known as Mugharet el-Emireh; the cave was excavated from 1925 to 1926 by Francis Turville-Petre. It was the first paleontological excavation in the region. Turville-Petre discovered a skull, referred to as the Galilee Skull, described as the second Neanderthal-like specimen, it was attributed to a Mousterian stratum and is now thought to be from an earlier Acheulo-Yabrudian complex.
Studies showed that the face was flat, with no evidence of Neanderthal-like facial prognathism. The frontal bone and part of the upper face were found in the Mugharan level, which leads to an estimate of the age of the fossil to range from 200 to 500 kya. Similarities with Zhoukoudian remains suggest a possible ancestral relationship; the Galilee skull, along with many of Turville-Petre's findings, is housed in the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem. A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum. Archaeology of Israel List of human evolution fossils Qesem Cave Skhul and Qafzeh hominids Lahr, Marta Mirazón; the evolution of modern human diversity: a study of cranial variation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47393-4. Delson, Eric. Encyclopedia of human evolution and prehistory. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-203-00942-8. What does it mean to be human? On the Animal Remains Obtained from the Mugharet-el-Zuttiyeh in 1925 & 1926 at Google Books
Tautavel Man is a proposed subspecies of Homo erectus, the type specimen being 450,000-year-old fossil remains discovered in the Arago Cave in Tautavel, France. Excavations began in 1964, with the first notable discovery occurring in 1969; the first person to find objects at the location did so during 1828. These were animal bones considered antediluvian by Marcel de Serres, a professional geologist at the University of Montpellier; the Proto-Mousterian Industry tools found by Jean Abélanet during 1963, initiated the beginning of the Lumley led excavations of 1964. The skeletal remains of two individual hominins have been found in the cave: a female older than 40, a male aged no more than 20. Recovered stone tools originate from within a 5 kilometres radius of the cave, while animal bones suggest the inhabitants could travel up to 33 kilometres for food. All fossils recovered from Arago were found by Henry and Marie-Antoinette de Lumley and are now located at the Institute for Human Palaeontology in Paris.
Arago II is a nearly complete mandible with six teeth from a 40–55 years old female. Arago XXI is a deformed cranial fragment featuring the most complete pre-Neanderthal face accompanied by a frontal and a sphenoid bone. Arago XLVII is a right parietal bone, the sutures of which fits with Arago XXI; the two latter have an estimated developmental age of twenty, while a uranium series dating produced a fossil age of c.400,000 years The male skull has a flat and receding forehead with well-developed supraorbital ridges and a large face with rectangular eye sockets. The cranial cavity had a volume of 1,150 cubic centimetres; the rest of the skeleton has been reconstructed from 75 fossil remains and casts from fossils found at other sites. Through the thousands of years from the time that Arago XXI died, changes occurred to the structure of the bone known as "taphonomic transformations", modifying the shape of skull; these had caused parts of the bone to become bent, including the front of the skull to lose symmetry.
Three-dimensional imaging using computers allowed a morphometric analysis of the skull and this was used to compare with skull dimensions of Homo sapiens sapiens and to obtain a computer generated image of the hominins face. Compared to H. erectus in North Africa and China, H. erectus tautavelensis is closer to early H. sapiens and thus form a morphologically distinct group together with other European Middle Pleistocene hominins found in Steinheim and Pontnewydd, because they show some of the characteristics of Neanderthals. The oldest indirect evidence of hominins in Europe are date to 1 to 2 million years ago and while Arago is younger, the stalagmite floor under the cave deposits has been ambiguously dated to 700,000 years old by electron spin resonance but to 300,000 years old by thermoluminescence. No signs of fire, charcoal, burned stone, or clay is documented in the cave which seems to suggest the art of fire is a recent discovery, though traces at a 1 to 4 million years old erectus site in East Africa indicate the opposite.
Arago XXI is a deformed cranial fragment dated to 450,000 years. The skull was found by H. Lumley and M. A. Lumley in the Arago Cave located at Tautavel France; the hominin was twenty years old as indicated by the state of the fronto-pariental suture, the gender is thought to be male. Archaeologists were uncertain of the age of the hominin, although finding the morphology comparable to the Petralona skull, accepted as a Neanderthal of the Upper Pleistocene variate, paleoanthropologists have classified the skull instead as Heidelberg; the people of the cave ate elk, fallow deer, musk ox, Hemitragus bonali, argali and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis. Bones of Cervus elaphus acoronatus and Cervus elaphoids, two species of deer, Canis etruscus, Ursus deningeri, were the most found animal remains in reducing order of number of findings by percentage in the interglacial stage, in the glacial stage the most were Equus mosbachensis, Ovis ammon antiqua, additionally remains of Hemitragus bosali. Occupied from 600,000 to 400,000 B.
P. the cave is of the earliest known from the middle Pleistocene to archaeology of the Pyrenees. Scraper and chopper tools found within the cave were of the Tayacian Industry; the current cave dimensions are smaller than those from the time when the hominin inhabited the cave, the current measurements being 30 metres long and between 10 and 15 metres wide. During 2007 the Institut de Paléontologie de Humaine and the Centre Européen Recherche de Pre-historique de Tautavel, both having charge of the site, contacted the ENSG in order to construct a three dimensional model of the cave. List of human evolution fossils Blumenfeld, Jodi. "La Caune de l'Arago, France". Retrieved 1 January 2012. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication site - provides navigation through the information obtained by the Arago cave excavations Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History