click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stellar rotation

Stellar rotation is the angular motion of a star about its axis. The rate of rotation can be measured from the spectrum of the star, or by timing the movements of active features on the surface; the rotation of a star produces an equatorial bulge due to centrifugal force. As stars are not solid bodies, they can undergo differential rotation, thus the equator of the star can rotate at a different angular velocity than the higher latitudes. These differences in the rate of rotation within a star may have a significant role in the generation of a stellar magnetic field; the magnetic field of a star interacts with the stellar wind. As the wind moves away from the star its rate of angular velocity slows; the magnetic field of the star interacts with the wind, which applies a drag to the stellar rotation. As a result, angular momentum is transferred from the star to the wind, over time this slows the star's rate of rotation. Unless a star is being observed from the direction of its pole, sections of the surface have some amount of movement toward or away from the observer.

The component of movement, in the direction of the observer is called the radial velocity. For the portion of the surface with a radial velocity component toward the observer, the radiation is shifted to a higher frequency because of Doppler shift; the region that has a component moving away from the observer is shifted to a lower frequency. When the absorption lines of a star are observed, this shift at each end of the spectrum causes the line to broaden. However, this broadening must be separated from other effects that can increase the line width; the component of the radial velocity observed through line broadening depends on the inclination of the star's pole to the line of sight. The derived value is given as v e ⋅ sin ⁡ i, where ve is the rotational velocity at the equator and i is the inclination. However, i is not always known, so the result gives a minimum value for the star's rotational velocity; that is, if i is not a right angle the actual velocity is greater than v e ⋅ sin ⁡ i. This is sometimes referred to as the projected rotational velocity.

In fast rotating stars polarimetry offers a method of recovering the actual velocity rather than just the rotational velocity. For giant stars, the atmospheric microturbulence can result in line broadening, much larger than effects of rotational drowning out the signal. However, an alternate approach can be employed; these occur when a massive object passes in front of the more distant star and functions like a lens magnifying the image. The more detailed information gathered by this means allows the effects of microturbulence to be distinguished from rotation. If a star displays magnetic surface activity such as starspots these features can be tracked to estimate the rotation rate. However, such features can form at locations other than equator and can migrate across latitudes over the course of their life span, so differential rotation of a star can produce varying measurements. Stellar magnetic activity is associated with rapid rotation, so this technique can be used for measurement of such stars.

Observation of starspots has shown that these features can vary the rotation rate of a star, as the magnetic fields modify the flow of gases in the star. Gravity tends to contract celestial bodies into a perfect sphere, the shape where all the mass is as close to the center of gravity as possible, but a rotating star is not spherical in shape, it has an equatorial bulge. As a rotating proto-stellar disk contracts to form a star its shape becomes more and more spherical, but the contraction doesn't proceed all the way to a perfect sphere. At the poles all of the gravity acts to increase the contraction, but at the equator the effective gravity is diminished by the centrifugal force; the final shape of the star after star formation is an equilibrium shape, in the sense that the effective gravity in the equatorial region cannot pull the star to a more spherical shape. The rotation gives rise to gravity darkening at the equator, as described by the von Zeipel theorem. An extreme example of an equatorial bulge is found on the star Regulus A.

The equator of this star has a measured rotational velocity of 317 ± 3 km/s. This corresponds to a rotation period of 15.9 hours, 86% of the velocity at which the star would break apart. The equatorial radius of this star is 32% larger than polar radius. Other rotating stars include Alpha Arae, Pleione and Achernar; the break-up velocity of a star is an expression, used to describe the case where the centrifugal force at the equator is equal to the gravitational force. For a star to be stable the rotational velocity must be below this value. Surface differential rotation is observed on stars such as the Sun when the angular velocity varies with latitude; the angular velocity decreases with increasing latitude. However the reverse has been observed, such as on the star designated HD 31993; the first such star, other than the Sun, to have its differential rotation mapped in detail is AB Doradus. The underlying mechanism that causes differential rotation is turbulent convection inside a star. Convective motion carries energy toward the surface through the mass movement of plasma.

This mass of plasma carries a portion of the angular velocity of the star. When turbulence occurs through shear and rotation, the angular momentum can become redistributed to different latitudes thro

Paul Balog

Paul from the kindred Balog was the bishop of Pécs in the Kingdom of Hungary between 1293 and 1306. He achieved a doctorate in law. Paul returned to Hungary with a library worthing 1,000 marks, but his books were annihilated in the course of a civil war in 1276, his superiors, including King Ladislaus IV of Hungary sent him to Rome in order to represent their interests at the Holy See. Although he administered the vacant see of Pécs from 1287, he was only consecrated bishop in 1293, he supported King Andrew III of Hungary, but after the king's death he joined Prince Charles of Naples, the claimant supported by Pope Benedict VIII to the Hungarian throne. Paul was born in a family, his two uncles and Benedict were employed in the retinue of Maria Laskarina, wife of Béla IV of Hungary. His namesake uncle seems to have paved the way for Paul to the royal court, it was his uncle who introduced Paul to the cathedral chapter of his see by appointing him archdeacon of Somogy County. The income of this prebend enabled Paul to finance his studies in the University of Bologna from 1269 to 1273.

He was styled legum doctor, suggesting that he did not restricted his studies to canon law, but got a degree in Roman law. Although Paul only returned to Hungary a year after his uncle's death, he was appointed the provost of the cathedral chapter of Veszprém in 1275 at the latest. However, Veszprém was taken and pillaged by the troops of Palatine Peter Csák, enemy of Bishop Peter Kőszegi of Veszprém in 1276. According to Paul's account, his own damages amounted to around 4,000 marks, including the loss of his books. In short time Paul received a prebend in the cathedral chapter of Esztergom. However, at that time the canons of Esztergom were divided among the partisans of Peter Kőszegi and his opponent, Nicholas Kán, thus both prelates were elected archbishop. Peter Kőszegi sent Paul to Rome in order to receive papal support for his case, but the pope declared the see of Esztergom vacant and ordered a new election in June 1278. A royal charter of 1286 reveals that King Ladislaus IV sent Paul several times to Rome.

In addition, Paul served Elizabeth of Sicily, wife of Ladislaus IV, as her chancellor at least from 1281. Lodomer, archbishop of Esztergom promoted Paul to the provostship of the cathedral chapter of his see in 1287, entrusted him with the administration of the vacant bishopric of Pécs. Although he governed the diocese from Esztergom, the cathedral chapter of Pécs started again issuing official documents after a break of nearly 20 years. Paul was consecrated bishop of Pécs in the first half of 1293, he soon assisted Tomasina Morosini, mother of King Andrew III in taking Dunaszekcső, a fortress held by the king's enemy, the former Palatine. The queen mother employed Bishop Paul as her chancellor from 1295 at the latest. Paul was present in Vienna at the engagement of King Andrew III's daughter, Elizabeth, to Wenceslaus, the heir apparent to the crown of Bohemia in 1298, which proves that he remained faithful to King Andrew III in that chaotic period. Pécs was taken and pillaged around 1300 by Heyze, the brother of the monarch's one-time opponent, Mizse.

Bishop Paul joined the party of Charles, the Neapolitan claimant to the throne of Hungary against the Czech Wenceslaus after the death of King Andrew III in 1301. His choice was in line with the policy adopted by the Holy See in the conflict for the Holy Crown of Hungary. Paul participated at the synod of the Hungarian prelates convoked by the papal legate, Cardinal Nicholas Boccasini. Additionally, he advised the papal legate on legal issues concerning customary law in the Kingdom of Hungary, he took part in the unsuccessful siege of Buda in September 1302 by Charles of Naples. Paul seems to have been the bishop of Pécs who set up the bishop's chapel consisting of the clerics directly serving him, he appointed the provost of Pécs to the head of this new diocesan body, suggesting that he maintained a good relationship with the cathedral chapter at his see. He organized for the first time a procession in Pécs against tempest and thunderbolt on the day following the Feast of Corpus Christi. Bishop Paul was last mentioned in August 1304, but he died in the first half of 1305 according to the records on his successor's election

Arthur Max

Arthur Max is an American production designer. He has been nominated for three Academy Awards: once each for his Production Design work on Gladiator, American Gangster, The Martian. In addition to his Oscar nominations, Max won several other honors for his production design on the film, including the BAFTA, the National Board of Review prize and the Broadcast Film Critics honor, he collected two "Excellence in Production Design" Awards from the Art Directors Guild, the first for Gladiator and the second for The Martian. He was nominated for Black Hawk Down, Robin Hood, American Gangster and Panic Room. After The Martian, Max worked on All the Money in the World marking Max's twelfth project for filmmaker Scott, a list of achievements which includes Exodus: Gods and Kings, The Counselor, Kingdom of Heaven, Robin Hood, Black Hawk Down, Body of Lies, his first job as a Production Designer was Fincher's 1995 thriller and his latest is Lyrebird based on a true story of art forgery, set in Holland just after World War II.

The native New Yorker began his career as a stage lighting designer in the music industry following graduation from New York University in the late 1960s. Those assignments included work at Bill Graham's famous music venue The Fillmore East in New York's East Village, the historic Woodstock Festival of 1969 where he operated a spotlight for Chip Monck, a rock lighting and stage design company during the Woodstock festival in 1969. During the following decade, he designed concert lighting and festival stages for many rock and jazz artists, he was Pink Floyd's lighting designer during the bands' tours in the US and around the world in the early-1970s. After studying architecture in England, Max went on to do several architectural design projects in London including an award-winning lighting design for the stage of St John's Concert Hall, a former 18th Century church in the centre of Smith Square, London, he entered the British film industry as an assistant to several English production designers.

First for Stuart Craig on Hugh Hudson's "Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes" and "Cal" for Ashetton Gorton on Hudson's "Revolution" the following year. He commenced his own production design career in TV commercials over a period of ten years from 1985 to 1995, which led to his ongoing associations with directors Scott and Fincher. Arthur Max on IMDb Arthur Max papers, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

2005–06 Blackburn Rovers F.C. season

During the 2005–06 season, Blackburn Rovers F. C. competed in the FA Premier League. After relegation struggles during the two previous season, Mark Hughes marked his first full season in club management by taking Blackburn to sixth place - four points off Champions League qualification - and reaching his second successive cup semi-final, in the League Cup, only to be knocked out by the eventual cup winners again, Hughes' old club Manchester United. Blackburn had been in mid-table for much of the season before gathering momentum to put real pressure on Arsenal and Tottenham Hotspur in the race for the crucial fourth place finishing in a UEFA Cup place. Rovers' good form was in part down to the good form of Welsh striker Craig Bellamy, a summer signing from Newcastle United, who scored 13 goals in the league. However, Bellamy would exercise an option to enable him to move for £6 million to a Champions League club, signing for FA Cup winners Liverpool; as his replacement Hughes signed South African striker Benni McCarthy, who had helped fire Porto to the Champions League title two years earlier.

Blackburn Rovers' score comes first Squad at end of seasonNote: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Considering starts in all competitions Considering a 4-4-2 formationGK: #1, Brad Friedel, 46 RB: #2, Lucas Neill, 42 CB: #3, Zurab Khizanishvili, 30 CB: #6, Ryan Nelsen, 36 LB: #33, Michael Gray, 37 RM: #29, David Bentley, 29 CM: #8, Robbie Savage, 42 CM: #14, Steven Reid, 34 LM: #12, Morten Gamst Pedersen, 40 CF: #10, Paul Dickov, 21 CF: #11, Craig Bellamy, 26 Craig Bellamy 13 Morten Gamst Pedersen 9 Shefki Kuqi 7 Paul Dickov 5 Steven Reid 4

Holes in My Shoes

Holes In My Shoes is an award-winning documentary feature film. It chronicles the life of Jack Beers, covering 94 years of his life from 1910 to 2004. Jack Beers was known as "New York City's Strongest Boy". Beers became "jack of all trades" - a strongman, a self-taught structural engineer, built Radio City Music Hall, indirectly shortened WW2 through an invention of his, put the spire on the Empire State Building, trained show boxers, acted in over 200 films, he grew up in extreme poverty in the Lower East Side of New York City, born in his parents cold water apartment on East 6th Street. His parents were Jewish immigrants from Austria, he played in Tompkins Square Park. Beers and his siblings took many jobs as kids to support the starving family, they had potato soup every day. They gathered fallen coal from the coal truck to keep the house warm, he had 3 brothers - Manny, Julius and Hy, one sister, Lilian. Beers trained from a young boy in Tompkins Square Park. While working for a weight training company, he met one of Jack Dempsey.

He studied under Warren Lincoln Travis. At 17 he was performing shows in clubs and theaters, most famously at The Lambs Club near Times Square, performing to film stars of the time, he was on the cover of New York City newspapers and was labelled as "New York City's Strongest Boy". After a fight in a pool hall over an antisemitic remark where his hand was broken, Beers decided to go into the ironwork trade at Fasslers Ironworks in the Lower East Side, near his house, his boss was the Buildings Commissioner of New York City at Sam Fassler. Beers worked on many NYC's most famous buildings, notably the erection of Rockefeller Center and Radio City Music Hall, where he erected the famous marquee and stairs inside. Beers taught himself to walk, he went on to become a self-taught structural engineer, became so accomplished that he was asked to be one of the general foreman on the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He worked for Webster. In 1950 Beers was responsible for erecting the famous radio tower spire on top of The Empire State Building, for General Sarnoff and RCA.

In the 1950s, because he couldn't have children with his wife, he put all his energy into training boxers and showed them at the Westminster Dog Shows throughout the 50s. In the 1960s Beers continued in structural engineering work, participating in the erection of Lincoln Center. Over his career he worked on NYU, City Hall, The Museum of Modern Art, every Con Edison building, Macy's, George Washington Bridge, The World's Fair, many more. In the 1960s Beers decided to audition for a role in George Segal's film Loving, he got the role, acted on the film for 12 days, proceeded to have minor roles in over 200 films. His biggest role was in a NYU film school short called "Rosey & Jonesy", directed by David Wachs, broadcast on PBS's American Playhouse; as Beers entered his 80s and 90s, he became a less active, but continued to drive and cook for himself, ride a stationary bike up to 3 miles per day, do his own taxes and iron his clothes, mow his 5 acres of lawn with a tractor, cut down trees. The film "Holes In My Shoes" was made when he was 94.

He made a music video of "When You're Smiling" when he was 97. Jack Beers died just before his 99th birthday of natural causes. Mayor Bloomberg has recognised him and he has had a day named after him in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. "Holes In My Shoes", which aired on PBS WNET 13. 100,000 viewers tuned in December 2009. Starring Jack Beers, New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg, Katherine Oliver, Arthur Hiller, with film clips of Woody Allen and Meryl Streep. Shot in New York City, Greenwich and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Directed by David Wachs, winner of 20 international film and TV awards. Winner of 4 Best Documentary Feature Film awards. Aired on PBS WNET 13 prime time from 2010 to 2009. Distributed on DVD and Online in USA/Canada by KinoLorber. Distributed for TV worldwide by Sky Vision from the UK. PBS WNET - aired prime time numerous times - 2009–2011 In-flight entertainment - British Airways, United Airlines, Thai Airways, Cathay Pacific - 2012 Winner of Best Feature Documentary - Connecticut Film Festival Winner of Best Feature Documentary - Coney Island Film Festival Winner of Best Feature Documentary - Secret City Film Festival, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Cinequest Film Festival Avignon/New York Film Festival Declaration of Independence Film Festival Greenwich Time Article on Jack Beers and film New York Times review and film trailer DigiNews film review Official website Official trailer Holes in My Shoes on IMDb Company website - LRG Media - http://www.lrgmedia.net Company website - A Film For Life - http://www.afilmforlife.com

Maiduguri

Maiduguri is the capital and the largest city of Borno State in north-eastern Nigeria. The city sits along the seasonal Ngadda River which disappears into the Firki swamps in the areas around Lake Chad. Maiduguri was founded in 1907 as a military outpost by the British and has since grown with a population exceeding a million by 2007; the region was home to the Kanem-Bornu Empire for centuries. Maiduguri consists of two cities: Yerwa to the West and Old Maiduguri to the east. Yerwa was founded in 1907 by Abubakar Garbai of Borno as the capital of the Bornu Kingdom; the location had before that been a small village known as Kalwa. This involved the transfer of the capital of the Kanuri people from Kukawa. Old Maiduguri was selected by the British as their military headquarters in 1908 replacing Mafoni. In that same year it became the location for the British resident commissioner over British Bornu. In 1957 Yerwa became the designated name for the urban center while Maiduguri was applied as the name of the surrounding rural area.

In 1964 the railway was extended here which lead to its rise as a major commercial center in the region. The city was once known as a "hub of Islamic scholarship in West Africa that... tolerance and hospitality like its welcoming neem trees."Maiduguri is one of the sixteen LGAs that constitute the Borno Emirate, a traditional state located in Borno State, Nigeria. Since the mid-1960s, Maiduguri has witnessed outbreaks of large inter-religious riots. Members of religious sects led intercommunal violence in 1982 and 2001. On 18 February 2006, riots related to the Muhammad cartoons published by the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten left at least 15 people dead, resulted in the destruction of 12 churches. Soldiers and police quelled the riots, the government temporarily imposed a curfew. In 2002, a Muslim cleric named Mohammed Yusuf founded the Islamist group Boko Haram in Maiduguri, establishing a mosque and an Islamic school that attracted children from poor Muslim families from both Nigeria and neighboring countries.

In July 2009, Maiduguri was the scene of major religious violence throughout Northeast Nigeria committed by Boko Haram, which left over 700 people dead. On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Northeast Nigeria, including Borno State, due to the militant activity of Boko Haram; the entire city was under overnight curfew, trucks have been prevented from entering the city. Twelve areas of the city that are known to be strongholds of Boko Haram are under permanent curfew. On 18 June 2013, Boko Haram militants attacked a school. On 10 January 2015, a bomb attack was executed at the Monday Market in Maiduguri; the city is considered to be at the heart of the Boko Haram insurgency. In the early hours of 25 January, Boko Haram launched a major assault on the city. On 26 January, CNN reported that the attack on Maiduguri by "hundreds of gunmen" had been repelled, but the nearby town of Monguno was captured by Boko Haram; the Nigerian Army claimed to have repelled another attack on Maiduguri on 31 January 2015.

On 17 February 2015, Monguno subsequently fell to the Nigerian military in a coordinated air and ground assault. On 7 March 2015, five suicide bomb blasts left 54 143 wounded. On 30 May 2015, Boko Haram launched another attack on the city. In March/April 2018 Boko Haram released another attack; the Giwa barracks and detention centre in Maiduguri has been subject to multiple attacks by Boko Haram. In 2014, reports suggested that 600 people were killed in an attack, though most were detainees killed by soldiers, it was attacked in January/February 2015, bombed in March 2015, attacked again in May 2015. In May 2016, Amnesty International released a report on the Giwa barracks detention centre, calling it a "place of death." The report alleges the facilities house about 1,200 people and that many of these were detained arbitrarily. It further claims that 149 detainees had died in the first half including 11 children. In 2019, Ammesty International and Concerned Nigerians called for investigation into alleged abuse of women and children in the facility.

Tramadol addiction has become a concern in the Maduguri region, as Boko Haram fighters and local residents turn to the drug to cope with physical pain, personal loss, the emotional consequences of violence. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot semi-arid; the highest record temperature was 47 °C on 28 May 1983, while the lowest record temperature was 5 °C on 26 December 1979. Tree planting was a priority of the city's colonial administration, large trees along major roads give protection from intense sun. Maiduguri is estimated to have a population of 1,907,600, as of 2007, it grew in size by 15.1 square kilometers between 2002-2012. Its residents are Muslim including Kanuri, Shuwa, Bura and Fulani ethnic groups. There is a considerable Christian population and people from Southern states such as the Igbo and Yoruba. Miduguri had 22 internally displaced persons camps in 2019, including Shagari camp with 48 households, Cherubim & Seraphim camp with 65 households.

The NYC in Maiduguri housed 4,800 displaced people in 2016. Goni Kachallari had 340 families in 2016. Languages spoken in the camps include Fulani, Gamargu, Hausa and Shuwa Arabic. About a third of survey respondents had comprehension of a simple English audio sample; the city lies at the end of a railway line connec