St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
St. Stephen's Cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal Schönborn, OP; the current Romanesque and Gothic form of the cathedral, seen today in the Stephansplatz, was initiated by Duke Rudolf IV and stands on the ruins of two earlier churches, the first a parish church consecrated in 1147. The most important religious building in Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral has borne witness to many important events in Habsburg and Austrian history and has, with its multi-coloured tile roof, become one of the city's most recognizable symbols. By the middle of the 12th century, Vienna had become an important centre of German civilization, the four existing churches, including only one parish church, no longer met the town's religious needs. In 1137, Bishop of Passau Reginmar and Margrave Leopold IV signed the Treaty of Mautern, which referred to Vienna as a civitas for the first time and transferred St. Peter's Church to the Diocese of Passau.
Under the treaty, Margrave Leopold IV received from the bishop extended stretches of land beyond the city walls, with the notable exception of the territory allocated for the new parish church, which would become St. Stephen's Cathedral. Although believed built in an open field outside the city walls, the new parish church was in actuality built on an ancient cemetery dating to Ancient Roman times; this discovery suggests that an older religious building on this site predated the St. Rupert's Church, considered the oldest church in Vienna Founded in 1137 following the Treaty of Mautern, the constructed Romanesque church was solemnly dedicated in 1147 to Saint Stephen in the presence of Conrad III of Germany, Bishop Otto of Freising, other German nobles who were about to embark on the Second Crusade. Although the first structure was completed in 1160, major reconstruction and expansion lasted until 1511, repair and restoration projects continue to the present day. From 1230 to 1245, the initial Romanesque structure was extended westward.
In 1258, however, a great fire destroyed much of the original building, a larger replacement structure Romanesque in style and reusing the two towers, was constructed over the ruins of the old church and consecrated 23 April 1263. The anniversary of this second consecration is commemorated each year by a rare ringing of the Pummerin bell for three minutes in the evening. In 1304, King Albert I ordered a Gothic three-nave choir to be constructed east of the church, wide enough to meet the tips of the old transepts. Under his son Duke Albert II, work continued on the Albertine choir, consecrated in 1340 on the 77th anniversary of the previous consecration; the middle nave is dedicated to St. Stephen and All Saints, while the north and south nave, are dedicated to St. Mary and the Apostles respectively. Duke Rudolf IV, the Founder, Albert II's son, expanded the choir again to increase the religious clout of Vienna. On 7 April 1359, Rudolf IV laid the cornerstone for a westward Gothic extension of the Albertine choir in the vicinity of the present south tower.
This expansion would encapsulate the entirety of the old church, in 1430, the edifice of the old church was removed from within as work progressed on the new cathedral. The south tower was completed in 1433, vaulting of the nave took place from 1446 to 1474; the foundation for a north tower was laid in 1450, construction began under master Lorenz Spenning, but its construction was abandoned when major work on the cathedral ceased in 1511. In 1365, just six years after beginning the Gothic extension of the Albertine choir, Rudolf IV disregarded St. Stephen's status as a mere parish church and presumptuously established a chapter of canons befitting a large cathedral; this move was only the first step in fulfilling Vienna's long-held desire to obtain its own diocese. Despite long-standing resistance by the Bishops of Passau, who did not wish to lose control of the area, the Diocese of Vienna was canonically established 18 January 1469, with St. Stephen's Cathedral as its mother church. In 1722 during the reign of Karl VI, Pope Innocent XIII elevated.
During World War II, the cathedral was saved from intentional destruction at the hands of retreating German forces when Captain Gerhard Klinkicht disregarded orders from the city commandant, Josef Dietrich, to "fire a hundred shells and leave it in just debris and ashes." On 12 April 1945, civilian looters lit fires in nearby shops. The winds carried the fire to the cathedral where it damaged the roof, causing it to collapse. Protective brick shells built around the pulpit, Frederick III's tomb, other treasures, minimized damage to the most valuable artworks. However, the Rollinger choir stalls, carved in 1487, could not be saved. Rebuilding began with a limited reopening 12 December 1948 and a full reopening 23 April 1952; the church was dedicated to St. Stephen the patron of the bishop's cathedral in Passau, so was oriented toward the sunrise on his feast day of 26 December, as the position stood in the year that construction began. Built of limestone, the cathedral is 107 metres long, 40 metres wide, 136 metres tall at its highest point.
Over the centuries and other for
The Vienna U-Bahn, where U-Bahn is an abbreviation of the German term Untergrundbahn, is one of the two rapid transit systems for Vienna, Austria. The second system is the Vienna S-Bahn. With the October 2013 opening of the 4.2 kilometers, three-station extension of the U2 line, the five-line U-Bahn network consists of 78.5 kilometers of route, serving 98 stations. It is the backbone of one of the best performing public transport systems worldwide according to UITP in June 2009. More than 1.3 million passengers rode the Vienna U-Bahn every day in 2009, 567.6 million passengers used the U-Bahn in 2011, which declined to 428.8 million passengers in 2013. The network is rolling stock renewal. Since 1969, 200 million euros have been invested annually in the extension of the Vienna U-Bahn; the modern U-Bahn opened on 25 February 1978, but two of the lines extended and designated as U-Bahn date back to the Stadtbahn system, which opened in 1898. Parts of the U2 and U6 lines began. Only the U1 and U3 were built wholly as new subway lines.
Lines are designated by a number and the prefix "U" and identified on station signage and related literature by a colour. There are five lines. Since the late 1960s there have been numerous suggestions of routings for a line U5, but all these projects had been shelved until the construction of a new U5 was announced in early 2014. Stations are named after streets, public spaces or districts, in some special cases after prominent buildings at or near the station, although the policy of the Wiener Linien states that they prefer not to name stations after buildings. Ticketing for the network is integrated under the Wiener Linien umbrella brand with all means of public transport in Vienna, including trams and buses. Local tickets are valid on S-Bahn suburban rail services and other train services but those are operated by the state railway operator, ÖBB. Tickets are not valid on bus services operated by Vienna Airport Lines and the City Airport Train express train. Planning for an underground railway can be traced back to the 1840s.
Since there have been numerous plans and concessions to build such a project, making Vienna the city with the most subway planning. The concession request of the engineer Heinrich Sichrowsky dates from 1844 with the idea of an atmospheric railway based on the system of Medhurst and Clegg; the trains would have been advanced by means of air pumps stationarily stationary steam engines in a pneumatic manner. Sichrowskys route should lead from the Lobkowitzplatz below the Vienna Glacis on to the Wien River to Hütteldorf. Although such trains had been built in London and Paris, found in Vienna no investors for its stock company, so this idea was rejected; the connecting railway project of Julius Pollak was conceived as an atmospheric system. Sichrowsky's request was the starting point for a series of plans that, were not approved and could not be implemented. For example, in 1858 the city planner Ludwig Zettl proposed to make an overburden of the former moat instead of filling it, to set up a railroad tram in this enclosed ditch, which would bypass the city.
This would have created a connection between the central station and the market halls, while at the same time the gas-lit tunnels were to serve as warehouses for food. By 1873, at least 25 planning for a municipal railway traffic came on, only the Verbindungsbahn, which appeared in the much larger overall plan by Carl Ritter von Ghega in his project for Vienna's urban expansion of 1858, was implemented as part of the mainline railway line. Incidentally, Ghega had worked out a belt railway project along the line wall in 1845; the first planning for a subway in deep-seated tunnels by Emil Winkler dates back to 1873, in which it is remarkable that the planning proposals were based on the first systematic traffic census in Vienna. Another wave of public transport projects developed in the sign of the completion of the ring road; the conception of the British engineers James Bunton and Joseph Fogerty convinced, since this was approved in 1881. The route should lead in each case as elevated train, laid in the tunnel underground and in the open incision.
In 1883, the project of an "electric secondary railway" of the company Siemens & Halske provided a small profile rail with three lines. The construction failed due to the concern of the city council, the inner city business life could be affected since the project for the first time included a tunneling of the city center; the first system to be constructed was a four-line Stadtbahn railway network using steam trains. Ground was broken in 1892, the system was opened in stages between 11 May 1898 and 6 August 1901. At Hütteldorf, the Stadtbahn connected to railway service to the west, at Heiligenstadt, to railway service on the Franz Josef Line, which ran eastwards within the Austro-Hungarian Empire to Eger; some of the Jugendstil stations for this system designed by Otto Wagner are still in use. However, the Stadtbahn proved less successful than the tramway. Starting in 1910, plans were considered for an underground system, but were interrupted by the First World War, which necessitated closing the Stadtbahn to civilian use.
After the war, the economic situation of a smaller and poorer country ruled out continuing with the plan. However, starting on
Stock im Eisen
The Stock im Eisen is the midsection of a tree-trunk from the Middle Ages, a so-called nail-tree, into which hundreds of nails have been pounded for good luck over centuries. It is located in Vienna, Austria, in Stock-im-Eisen-Platz, now part of Stephansplatz, at the corner of the Graben and Kärntner Straße and is now behind glass on a corner of the Palais Equitable; the trunk section is held in place by five iron bands. The tree was a forked spruce which started to grow around 1400 and was felled in 1440, as was revealed by examination in 1975. There was regrowth in the middle of the trunk after blows from an axe; the first nails were inserted. The first written mention of it dates to 1533; the Palais Equitable, built on the site in 1891, incorporates the Stock im Eisen in a niche. It stands on a base made of Czech hornblende granite. Wrought iron vines were added, the building has Zum Stock-im-Eisen carved above the door and a bronze sculpture group of locksmith apprentices and the tree trunk, by Rudolf Weyr, in the tympanum.
In addition, there are a pair of representations of the legend by the same artist on the doors. In the 18th century, a custom developed that travelling smiths and apprentices would hammer a nail into the tree trunk; the reason for doing so before is unknown. "Nail trees" are well known in Southeastern Europe and are found in many cities in Hungary and other countries of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. The custom persisted until the late 19th century, inspired the "men of iron" statues that were used for propaganda and fund-raising in Germany and Austria in World War I the tree set up in Freiburg; the most explanation for the medieval nails is the ancient custom of hammering nails into crosses and rocks for protection or in gratitude for healing, as a votive offering, similar to throwing coins into a wishing well or a pond. In the Middle Ages, nails were a valuable commodity; the original mythico-religious and legal significance of the Stock im Eisen was effaced in centuries by an emphasis on crafts.
Leopold Schmidt suggested that the tree was used as a surveying point defining the "mythic centre" of the city. Many legends surround the Stock im Eisen dating to the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1703 it was said to be the last remaining tree from the ancient forest. One legend recounts. Another tells that a locksmith's apprentice who stole a valuable nail from his master, or wanted to marry his master's daughter, learnt from the Devil how to make an unopenable lock with which to enclose it, in one version an identical nail to hammer in beside the stolen one. However, the details of the legends betray their lack of truth; the padlock which guides to Vienna refer to as "unopenable" is only for show, cannot be opened because the insides of the lock are no longer there and so it will not accept a key. In 1533 it is referred to as Stock der im Eisen liegt, "staff that lies in irons". In addition, the well known legend recounts that a thief hammered a stolen nail into the tree as he was fleeing through the forest.
Admittedly, the tree was outside the city walls in 1440, but the legend only appeared in the 17th century, when the area was urban and the Stock im Eisen mounted on the side of a house, hence is pure invention. The legends of the Devil and the Stock im Eisen are the subject of an 1880 ballet by Pasquale Borri, to music by Franz Doppler. A modern legend holds that the Stock im Eisen is a replica and that the original – or at least parts of it – is exhibited in the Vienna Museum; this is not true. A commentary about this trunk was given in 1856 by Theodore Nielsen, a Danish kleinsmith journeyman in his memoirs. "Outside Stefan church was a place called "Stock im Eisen" and a boutique in, a large portrait of a Danish King Frederick VI. The park gets its name from a large tree trunk that stands in one corner with an iron fence around it; the trunk is covered with iron nails so tight from the root up that one could not get room for a needle between. It is a peculiar sight and this is the legend: Once upon a time there was a castle nearby with a gatelock, so intricate that another kleinsmith could not take it apart or unlock it.
In the honor of the lock and in his memory every journeyman kleinsmith who found work in Vienna had to hammer a nail into the trunk. It had been there for many a year and was still worth seeing being protected as it is by local pride." Alfred Burgerstein. Der'Stock im Eisen' der Stadt Wien. Vienna, 1893. Leopold Schmidt. "Der'Stock im Eisen' als mythischer Stadtmittelpunkt Wiens". Jahrbuch des Vereines für Geschichte der Stadt Wien 10, pp. 75–81. Poem of the Stock im Eisen
Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its lakes; the main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Bavarian group. Carinthian Slovene dialects, which predominated in the southern part of the region up to the first half of the 20th century, are now spoken by a small minority. Carinthia's main industries are tourism, engineering and agriculture; the multinational corporations Philips and Siemens have large operations there. The etymology of the name "Carinthia", similar to Carnia or Carniola, has not been conclusively established; the Ravenna Cosmography referred to a Slavic "Carantani" tribe as the eastern neighbours of the Bavarians. In his History of the Lombards, the 8th century chronicler Paul the Deacon mentions "Slavs in Carnuntum, erroneously called Carantanum" for the year 663. A possible etymology of the name "Carantani" is that it may have been formed from a toponymic base carant- which derives from pre-Indo-European root *karra meaning "rock", or that it is of Celtic origin and derived from *karantos meaning "friend, ally".
The Slovene name *korǫtanъ may have been adopted from the Latin *carantanum. The toponym Carinthia is claimed to be etymologically related, deriving from pre-Slavic *carantia; the state stretches 70 km in north-south direction. With 9,536 km2 it is the fifth largest Austrian state by area. Most of the larger Carinthian towns and lakes are situated within the Klagenfurt Basin in the southeast, an inner Alpine sedimentary basin covering about one fifth of the area; these Lower Carinthian lands differ from the mountainous Upper Carinthian region in the northwest, stretching up to the Alpine crest. The Carinthian lands are confined by mountain ranges: the Carnic Alps and the Karawanks form the border to the Italy and Slovenia; the High Tauern mountain range with Mt Grossglockner, 3,797 m, separates it from the state of Salzburg in the northwest. To the northeast and east beyond the Pack Saddle mountain pass is the state of Styria; the main river of Carinthia is the Drava, it makes up a continuous valley with East Tyrol, Tyrol to the west.
Tributaries are the Gurk, the Glan, the Lavant, the Gail rivers. Carinthia's lakes including Wörther See, Millstätter See, Lake Ossiach, Lake Faak are a major tourist attraction; the capital city is Klagenfurt. The next important town is Villach, both linked economically. Other major towns include Althofen, Bad Sankt Leonhard im Lavanttal, Feldkirchen, Friesach, Gmünd, Radenthein, Sankt Andrä, Sankt Veit an der Glan, Spittal an der Drau, Straßburg, Völkermarkt, Wolfsberg. While some of these Slovene place names are official designations, the majority are Slovene colloquial usage. Carinthia has a humid continental climate, with hot and moderately wet summers and long harsh winters. In recent decades, winters have been exceptionally arid; the summer precipitation maxima takes the form of heavy rain and thunderstorms in the mountainous regions. The main Alpine ridge in the north is a meteorological divide with pronounced windward and leeward sides where foehn occurs regularly. Due to the diversified terrain, numerous distinct microclimates exist.
The average amount of sunshine hours is the highest of all states in Austria. In autumn and winter, temperature inversion dominates the climate, characterized by air stillness, a dense fog covering the frosty valleys and trapping pollution to form smog, while mild sunny weather is recorded higher up in the foothills and mountains; the settlement history of Carinthia dates back to the Paleolithic era. Archaeological findings of stone artifacts in a stalactite cave near Griffen are older than 30,000 years. Remains of a prehistoric stilt house settlement were discovered at Lake Keutschach, today part of the Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps World Heritage Site. Skeleton finds from about 2000 BC denote a permanent population, intensive arable farming as well as trading with salt and Mediterranean products was common during the periods of the Urnfield and Hallstatt culture. Hallstatt grave fields were discovered near Dellach, Rosegg and on the Gracarca mountain southeast of Lake Klopein.
About 300 BC, several Illyrian and Celtic tribes joined together in the Kingdom of Noricum, centered on the capital Noreia located in the Zollfeld basin near the Roman city of Virunum. Known for the production of salt and iron, the Kingdom maintained intensive trade relations with Etruscan peoples and over the centuries extended the borders of its realm up to the Danube in the north; the Roman Empire incorporated Noricum in 15 BC. Beside the administrative seat of Virunum, the cities of Teurnia and Iuenna arose as centres of Roman culture; the Noricum province remained strategically important as a mining area for iron and lead and as an agricultural region. In the reign of the Emperor Diocletian
A town square is an open public space found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, political rallies, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, clothing stores. At their center is a fountain, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city. In Mainland China, People's Square is a common designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities, established as part of urban modernization within the last few decades; these squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings. The best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means "Place", is a common term for central squares in German-speaking countries. These have been focal points of public life in cities from the Middle Ages to today. Squares located opposite a Palace or Castle are named Schlossplatz. Prominent Plätze include the Alexanderplatz, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Heldenplatz in Vienna, the Königsplatz in Munich. A piazza is a city square in Italy, along the Dalmatian coast and in surrounding regions. San Marco in Venice may be the worlds best known; the term is equivalent to the Spanish plaza. In Ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city; when the Earl of Bedford developed Covent Garden – the first private-venture public square built in London – his architect Inigo Jones surrounded it with arcades, in the Italian fashion. Talk about the piazza was connected in Londoners' minds not with the square as a whole, but with the arcades. A piazza is found at the meeting of two or more streets.
Most Italian cities have several piazzas with streets radiating from the center. Shops and other small businesses are found on piazzas. Many metro stations and bus stops are found on piazzas. In Britain, piazza now refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting in front of a significant building or shops. King's Cross station in London is to have a piazza as part of its redevelopment; the piazza will replace the existing 1970s concourse and allow the original 1850s façade to be seen again. There is a good example of a piazza in Scotswood at Newcastle College. In the United States, in the early 19th century, a piazza by further extension became a fanciful name for a colonnaded porch. Piazza was used by some in the Boston area, to refer to a verandah or front porch of a house or apartment. A central square just off Gibraltar's Main Street, between the Parliament Building and the City Hall named John Mackintosh Square is colloquially referred to as The Piazza. A large open square common in villages and cities of Indonesia is known as alun-alun.
It is a Javanese term which in modern-day Indonesia refers to the two large open squares of kraton compounds. It is located adjacent a mosque or a palace, it is a place for court celebrations and general non-court entertainments. In traditional Persian architecture, town squares are known as meydan. A maydan is considered as one of the essential features in urban planning and they are adjacent to bazaars, large mosques and other public buildings. Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Azadi Square in Tehran are examples of classic and modern squares. Squares are called "markt" because of the usage of the square as a market place; every town in Belgium and the southern part of the Netherlands has a "Grote Markt" or "Grand Place" in French. The "Grote Markt" is the place where the town hall is situated and therefore the centre of the town; the same naming can be found in surrounding regions as for example Cologne has several central squares named "-markt" or "Markt". In Russia, central square is a common term for an open area in the heart of the town.
In a number of cities this square does not have an individual name, i.e. named so: Tsentráĺnaya Plóshchad́, e.g. Central Square. Throughout Spain, Spanish America, the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, the audiencia or law court; the plaza remains a center of community life, only equaled by the market-place. This open space at the center of the cities is from the Mediterranean where public spaces always had important role for public life; the origin of the word Plaza is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". The Plaza is the heir to the Roman "Forum", this is the heir of the Greek. Most viceregal cities in Spanish America and the Philippines were planned around a square "plaza de armas", where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church.
In the United Kingdom, in London and Edinburgh, a "square" has a wider meaning. There are public squares of the type desc
The Palais Equitable is a mansion in Stock-im-Eisen-Platz in the Innere Stadt of Vienna, Austria, built in the 19th century for The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States and that incorporates the Stock im Eisen on one corner. The building is on the site of five small medieval buildings that were demolished in 1856–86 in order to expand Kärntner Straße, it was designed by Andreas Streit and constructed in 1887–91. It is one of the few mansions in Vienna never to have been an aristocratic residence; the Palais Equitable has a richly detailed façade featuring American eagles. The Stock im Eisen, enclosed in glass, is in a niche on the Kärntner Straße corner of the building, bronze reliefs by Rudolf Weyr on the main doors depict its history; the remainder of the ornamentation is by Viktor Oskar Johann Schindler. The interior is extremely sumptuous: marble from Hallein and granite from Saxony were used for the dramatic stairway and the vestibule, the glass-covered interior courtyard is clad in tile and maiolica.
A painting on the ceiling of the lobby and the stucco ornamentation on the second floor are by Julius Victor Berger. Wilhelm Beck & Söhne, providers of uniforms to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had its shop in the building, the United States consulate was located there; the Palais Equitable was damaged in World War II but was restored in 1949. The entrance area was renovated by Rüdiger Lainer in 1997. Today the building houses offices of various companies and organizations including the Austrian division of Sal. Oppenheim, a retail outlet for Aurgarten Porcelain. Eve Marie Young. Art and Enterprise: The 19th Century Administrative Buildings of a U. S. Life Insurance Company: With Particular Consideration of the Vienna, building known as "zum Stock in Eisen". Dissertation, University of Bonn, 1991 Palais Equitable at Nicolas Janberg's Structurae Palais Equitable at Planet Vienna 360° panorama of Stephansplatz at Panoramic Earth
The Innere Stadt is the 1st municipal District of Vienna located in the center of the Austrian capital. The Innere Stadt is the Old Town of Vienna; until the city boundaries were expanded in 1850, the Innere Stadt was congruent with the city of Vienna. Traditionally it was divided into four quarters, which were designated after important town gates: Stubenviertel, Kärntner Viertel, Schottenviertel; the Ringstraße circles the Innere Stadt along the route of the former city walls. The first district is, with a workforce of 100,745, the largest employment locale in Vienna; this is due to tourism, as well as the presence of many corporate headquarters due to the district's central location. Innere Stadt is the central district of Vienna, it borders on Leopoldstadt in the northeast, on Landstraße in the east, on Wieden and Mariahilf in the south, on Neubau and Josefstadt in the west, on Alsergrund in the north. The district border, starting at Urania, follows Wienfluss, Lothringerstraße, Gedreidemarkt, Museumstraße, Auerspergstraße, Landesgerichtsstraße, Universitätsstraße, Maria-Theresien-Straße and the Donaukanal.
Before 1850, Innere Stadt was physically equivalent with the city of Vienna. See History of Vienna for details about the history of Vindobona and Vienna, as well as historical significance after 1850. Albertina Burgtheater Graben Hofburg Imperial Palace Kapuzinergruft Kärntner Straße Lutheran City Church Museum of Art History Museum of Natural History Maria am Gestade Church Palais Ephrussi Pestsäule Peterskirche Rathaus, Vienna Ruprechtskirche Schottenstift Stadtpark, Vienna Stephansdom Vienna State Opera Virgilkapelle Parliament Building Palace of Justice Main Building of the University of Vienna Volksgarten Population has been declining since its peak of 73,000 in 1880, until it hit the lowest recorded value of 17,000 in 2001. Although population has been increasing since Innere Stadt continues to remain the least populated district in Vienna. In 2001, 28.1% of the district's population was over 60 years of age, above the city average of 22.2%. The percentage of people under 15 years of age was 9.8%.
The female population of 53.3% was above city average. At 15.5%, the percentage of foreign residents in Innere Stadt was 2% under city average for the year 2001. 2.8% of the population had EU Citizenship, 2.7% were citizens of Serbia and Montenegro, 2.2% were German citizens. In total, 25.6% of the population were born in a foreign country. 79% of residents listed German as their language of choice. 4.0% spoke Serbian, 1.8% Hungarian, 1.4% Croatian. 14.3% spoke other languages. Roman catholics made up 51.3% of the Innere Stadt population in 2001, followed by 6.6% Protestants, 5.1% Orthodox Christians, 3.3% Jews. 22.7% were listed as non-confessional. The Bezirksvorsteher has been a member of the conservative ÖVP party since 1946. Former Bezirksvorsteher Ursula Stenzel has spoken out against holding events in the inner city, citing concerns regarding noise pollution, her comments have drawn criticism from other parties the social democratic SPÖ. The first district's coat of arms is a white cross on a red background.
It is the coat of arms for the City of Vienna and the State of Vienna. The current coat of arms dates back to around 1270, when it first appeared on the minted "Wiener Pfennige" coins, it may have been based on the flag of the King of the Romans' forces during the Middle Ages, as the combat flag of Rudolph I of Germany featured a similar design. "Wien - 1. Bezirk - Innere Stadt", Wien.gv.at, 2008, webpage: Wien.gv.at-innerestadt. Grabovszki, Ernst: Innere Stadt, Wien, 1. Bezirk. Verlag Sutton, Erfurt 2002, ISBN 3-89702-467-5 Media related to Innere Stadt at Wikimedia Commons History of Innere Stadt at the City of Vienna homepage. UNESCO rationale for inclusion of Vienna inner district into world cultural heritage list. General information about Innere Stadt from the Green party. Historical core of Vienna