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Stephen Cole Kleene

Stephen Cole Kleene was an American mathematician. One of the students of Alonzo Church, along with Rózsa Péter, Alan Turing, Emil Post, others, is best known as a founder of the branch of mathematical logic known as recursion theory, which subsequently helped to provide the foundations of theoretical computer science. Kleene's work grounds the study of computable functions. A number of mathematical concepts are named after him: Kleene hierarchy, Kleene algebra, the Kleene star, Kleene's recursion theorem and the Kleene fixed-point theorem, he invented regular expressions in 1951 to describe McCulloch-Pitts neural networks, made significant contributions to the foundations of mathematical intuitionism. Kleene was awarded the BA degree from Amherst College in 1930, he was awarded the Ph. D. in mathematics from Princeton University in 1934. His thesis, entitled A Theory of Positive Integers in Formal Logic, was supervised by Alonzo Church. In the 1930s, he did important work on Church's lambda calculus.

In 1935, he joined the mathematics department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he spent nearly all of his career. After two years as an instructor, he was appointed assistant professor in 1937. While a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, 1939–40, he laid the foundation for recursion theory, an area that would be his lifelong research interest. In 1941, he returned to Amherst College, where he spent one year as an associate professor of mathematics. During World War II, Kleene was a lieutenant commander in the United States Navy, he was an instructor of navigation at the U. S. Naval Reserve's Midshipmen's School in New York, a project director at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C. In 1946, Kleene returned to Wisconsin, becoming a full professor in 1948 and the Cyrus C. MacDuffee professor of mathematics in 1964, he was chair of the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, 1962–63, Dean of the College of Letters and Science from 1969 to 1974.

The latter appointment he took on despite the considerable student unrest of the day, stemming from the Vietnam War. He retired from the University of Wisconsin in 1979. In 1999 the mathematics library at the University of Wisconsin was renamed in his honor. Kleene's teaching at Wisconsin resulted in three texts in mathematical logic and Kleene and Vesley; the first two are cited and still in print. Kleene wrote alternative proofs to the Gödel's incompleteness theorems that enhanced their canonical status and made them easier to teach and understand. Kleene and Vesley is the classic American introduction to intuitionist logic and mathematics.... Recursive function theory is of central importance in computer science. Kleene is responsible for many of the fundamental results in the area, including the Kleene normal form theorem, the Kleene recursive theorem, the development of the arithmetical and hyper-arithmetical hierarchies in the 1940s and 1950s, the Kleene-Post theory ofdegrees of unsolvability, higher-type recursion theory.

Which he began in the late 1950s and returned to in the late 1970s.... Beginning in the late 1940s, Kleene worked in a second area, Brouwer's intuitionism. Using tools from recursion theory, he introduced recursive realizability, an important technique for interpreting intuitionistic statements. In the summer of 1951 at the Rand Corporation, he produced a major breakthrough in a third area when he gave an important characterization of events accepted by a finite automaton. Kleene served as president of the Association for Symbolic Logic, 1956–58, of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, 1961. In 1990, he was awarded the National Medal of Science; the importance of Kleene's work led to the saying that "Kleeneness is next to Gödelness."Kleene and his wife Nancy Elliott had four children. He had a lifelong devotion to the family farm in Maine. An avid mountain climber, he had a strong interest in nature and the environment, was active in many conservation causes. 1936. "General recursive functions of Math.

Ann. 112, 727–742. 1952. Introduction to Metamathematics. New York: Van Nostrand.. 1951. S. C. Kleene. "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". U. S. Air Force Project Rand Research Memorandum; the RAND Corporation. 1956. S. C. Kleene. Shannon, Claude. Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata. Automata Studies. OCLC 564148.1965. The Foundations of Intuitionistic Mathematics. North-Holland.1967. Mathematical Logic. John Wiley. Dover reprint, 2002. ISBN 0-486-42533-9. 1981. "Origins of Recursive Function Theory" in Annals of the History of Computing 3, No. 1. At each conference of the Symposium on Logic in Computer Science the Kleene award, in honour of S. C. Kleene, is given for the best student paper. List of pioneers in computer science This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later. O'Connor, John J.. Stephen Cole Kleene at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Biographical memoir – by Saunders Mac Lane Kleene bibliography "The Princeton Mathematics Community in the 1930s - STEPHEN C.

KLEENE and J. BARKLEY ROSSER". Archived from the original on 10 March 2005. - Interview with Kleene and John Barkley Rosser about their experiences at Princeton Stephen Cole Kleene at DBLP Bibliography Server

Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease or epidemic pleurodynia or epidemic myalgia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie B virus or other viruses. It is named after the Danish island of Bornholm where an outbreak was one of the first to be described. Symptoms may include fever and headache, but the distinguishing characteristic of this disease is attacks of severe pain in the lower chest on one side; the slightest movement of the rib cage causes a sharp increase of pain, which makes it difficult to breathe, an attack is therefore quite a frightening experience, although it passes off before any actual harm occurs. The attacks are unpredictable and strike "out of the blue" with a feeling like an iron grip around the rib cage; the colloquial names for the disease, such as'The Devil's grip' reflect this symptom. Inoculation of throat washings taken from people with this disease into the brains of newborn mice revealed that enteroviruses in the Coxsackie B virus group were to be the cause of pleurodynia, those findings were supported by subsequent studies of IgM antibody responses measured in serum from people with pleurodynia.

Other viruses in the enterovirus family, including echovirus and Coxsackie A virus, are infrequently associated with pleurodynia. As is typical with this virus family, it is shed in large amounts in the feces of infected persons; the disease can be spread by sharing drink containers, has been contracted by laboratory personnel working with the virus. The illness lasts about a week and is fatal. Treatment includes the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or the application of heat to the affected muscles. Relapses during the weeks following the initial episode are a characteristic feature of this disease. Coxsackie B virus is spread by contact and epidemics occur during warm weather in temperate regions and at any time in the tropics. In 1872, Daae-Finsen reported an epidemic of "acute muscular rheumatism" occurring in the community Bamble, giving rise to the name "Bamble disease". Subsequent reports, published only in Norwegian, referred to the disease by this name. In 1933, Ejnar Sylvest gave a doctoral thesis describing a Danish outbreak of this disease on Bornholm Island entitled, "Bornholm disease-myalgia epidemica", this name has persisted.

It is known as Bamble disease, the devil's grip, devil's grippe, epidemic myalgia, epidemic pleurodynia, epidemic transient diaphragmatic spasm or The Grasp of the Phantom. Bornholm Disease on patient.co.uk

Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me

"Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me" was the second single from The Pipettes' debut album We Are the Pipettes. It was released on 27 March 2006 and available on CD, double 7" vinyl and digital download on Memphis Industries; the single garnered substantial airplay. "Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me" "Dirty Mind" "Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me" "Your Guitars Are Wasted on Me" "Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me" "Judy" Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me is an extended play, released on June 2007 in the United States distributed under the Cherrytree Records, an imprint of Interscope Records. "Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me" "I Love You" "Really That Bad" "Guess Who Ran Off with the Milkman?"Video: "Your Kisses Are Wasted on Me"

Cabinet of Ivica Račan I

The Seventh Government of the Republic of Croatia was the first of two Croatian Government cabinets led by Prime Minister Ivica Račan. It was appointed on 27 January 2000 by a decree of the Acting President of the Republic and Speaker of Parliament, Vlatko Pavletić; the cabinet was confirmed by a parliamentary vote of confidence in the Chamber of Representatives on 2 February 2000, with 122 of 151 Members of Parliament voting for, 1 against and 1 abstaining. Its term ended on 30 July 2002, when it was reconstructed and replaced by Cabinet of Ivica Račan II; the cabinet was formed following the 2000 parliamentary elections, in which the centre-right party Croatian Democratic Union was defeated by a broad coalition of several centre-left parties. This marked an end to HDZ's dominance in Croatian politics since the first multi-party election in 1990. However, the period under Prime Minister Račan was marred with constant disagreements among coalition members, which led to some parties leaving the ruling coalition.

This paved the way for HDZ's return to power in the 2003 parliamentary elections. Parties included in the original coalition and their quotas: Social Democratic Party – 11 seats in cabinet Croatian Social Liberal Party – 7 seats in cabinet Croatian People's Party – 1 seat in cabinet Croatian Peasant Party – 3 seats in cabinet Istrian Democratic Assembly – 1 seat in cabinet Liberal Party – member of ruling coalition but without representation in cabinetThis was the last cabinet to hold office under a powerful semi-presidential system, as constitutional changes implemented by the new center-left government shifted considerable political power and authority away from the President of the Republic towards the prime minister and his government cabinet as a whole. However, the new parliamentary system retains the direct election of the President by universal suffrage and can therefore be considered to be an incomplete one. Party breakdown of cabinet ministers: Official website of the Croatian Government Chronology of Croatian cabinets at Hidra.hr

Manuel Jiménez Ramírez

Manuel Jiménez Ramírez was a Mexican carver and painter credited as the originator of the Oaxacan version of “alebrijes,” animal creatures carved in wood and painted in strong contrasting colors with intricate designs. He was a philosophical person, who believed he was the reincarnation of an artist, he began making animal figures of clay when he was a child but changed to wood carving creating human figures, nativity scenes and more as well as the alebrijes. He work can be found in public and private collections in various parts of the world in the United States. Jiménez Ramírez was born in Oaxaca, 10m southeast of the city of Oaxaca, he began making animal figures from clay when he was eight switched to wood. He was a charismatic person, dedicated to philosophical studies and believed he was the reincarnation of an artist, he was nicknamed a number of neighbors considered him a nahual. He was considered a kind of “curandero” and led Holy Week activities for the town. During his life he engaged in other activities, depending on his whim, such as cutting sugar cane in Veracruz and Oaxaca, basket making and more.

He died at the age of 86 in his hometown. Jiménez Ramírez is credited with creating the Oaxacan version of “alebrijes.” The original craft was created and promoted by the Linares family in Mexico City, making fantastic creatures of “cartonería” and painting them in bright colors. However, the Oaxaca version is made of wood, with figures closer to nahuals than the creatures of various animal parts of Mexico City; however both kinds are painting with detailed designs. Jiménez Ramírez often added hair and beards made of ixtle, another indication of their nahual origins; the artisan never taught his techniques outside his own family but in the early 1980s others began to imitate these figures. This attracted a tourism trade to the area. While best known for his alebrijes, Jiménez Ramírez’s carving repertoire includes various other kind of pieces including human figures, religious objects and masks animal masks, he made altarpieces, nativity scenes and scenes of everyday life with great detail with a sense of fantasy and artistic liberty.

Jiménez Ramírez worked in copalillo, palo de Aguila and cedar, with the first two collected locally. The latter he bought from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, he selected pieces of wood large, with an image of what he wanted to carve, in order to take advantage of the wood’s size and shape. Initial working was with a machete; some delicate parts such as ears and tails were added to the main body. He painted the pieces with commercial enamel paints; the artisan’s work can be found in public and private collections around the world in museums in the United States. He was named a “grand master” of Mexican folk art by the Fomento Cultural Banamex, his son, Angélico and Isaías continue in their father’s footsteps, working to guard a tradition of designs they consider their own. Angélico has been working as a carver and painter for over forty years and Isaías for over fifteen. Both have their own workshops and are assisted by the wives and children

Serbian Tricolour Hound

The Serbian Tricolour Hound is a breed of dog of the hound type. Called the Yugoslavian Tricolour Hound, the name was changed for clarity after the breakup of SFR Yugoslavia in 1991; the breed was first exhibited at shows in 1950. At one time it was considered a variation of the Serbian Hound, but was recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale as a separate breed in 1961; the Serbian Tricolour Hound is a medium-large scenthound, bred as a running hound It is used on feral pigs or wild boar and other large game as well as hare and fox. The Serbian Tricolour Hound is one of a group of scenthounds that has existed in the Balkans for a long time. For many years, the breed was regarded as a variety of other Serbian scenthounds, but in 1946 this was refuted and the breed was granted independent status from other scenthounds and a standard was drawn up; the Fédération Cynologique Internationale recognized the breed in 1961. Under the name Yugoslavian Tricolour Hound. Today, the Serbian Tricolour Hound is still popular in its native country of Serbia, although it is hardly seen beyond its borders.

Country of origin: Serbia Height: Males: 45–55 cm/18–22 in. The undercoat is quite well developed. Hair is longer over the back of the thighs and the underside of the tail. Colour: The base coat is deep red or fox red with a black mantle or saddle; the back can go up as far the head. The white star on the head and the blaze, which stretches down the muzzle, form a complete or partial collar under and around the neck. Markings: A white mark on the chest may extend as far as the tip of the breastbone, reaching the belly and inside of the legs; the end of the tail can be white. Lifespan: Average 12 years. A medium-sized dog with a rounded skull and a muzzle, shorter than the skull; the nose is well black. The almond-shaped eyes are preferable as dark as possible; the ears are set high and medium in length, carried in a pendulous style, hanging close to the cheeks. The neck is strong and arched; the rectangular body has well-muscled, strong back. The forequarters are strong, well muscled and parallel with muscular and solid shoulders.

The hindquarters are strong and parallel with strong and powerful thighs. The Serbian Tricolour Hound is a loving and devoted breed, loyal to its owner, its kind and dependable nature has helped it to become popular both in the home and the field where its tenacity in the hunt is admired. Friendliness: Reserved with strangers Children: Good if raised from puppyhood Trainability: Can be difficult to train Independence: Moderate Dominance: Can be dominant if allowed to be Decorum: May chase other pets Combativeness: Can be good if sufficiently socialised Noise: Average Hunting dog Hound Scenthound Group Scent hound Serbian Hound