Peter Stephen Paul Brook, CH, CBE is an English theatre and film director who has been based in France since the early 1970s. He has won multiple Tony and Emmy Awards, a Laurence Olivier Award, the Praemium Imperiale, and he has been called our greatest living theatre director. With the Royal Shakespeare Company, Brook directed the first English language production of Marat/Sade in 1964 and it transferred to Broadway in 1965 and won the Tony Award for Best Play, and Brook was named Best Director. Brook was born in the Turnham Green area of Chiswick, the family home was at 27 Fairfax Road, Turnham Green. His elder brother was the psychiatrist and psychotherapist Alexis Brook and his first cousin was Valentin Pluchek, chief director of the Moscow Satire Theatre. Brook was educated at Westminster School, Greshams School, and Magdalen College and he directed Dr Faustus, his first production, in 1943 at the Torch Theatre in London, followed at the Chanticleer Theatre in 1945 with a revival of The Infernal Machine.
In 1947, he went to Stratford-upon-Avon as assistant director on Romeo and Juliet, from 1947 to 1950, he was Director of Productions at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. His work there included a highly controversial staging of Strauss Salome with sets by Salvador Dalí, a proliferation of stage and screen work as producer and director followed. Dark of the Moon by Howard Richardson, at the Ambassadors Theatre and it has been based in Paris at the Bouffes du Nord theatre since 1974. In 2008 he made the decision to resign as director of Bouffes du Nord, handing over to Olivier Mantei. Brook has been influenced by the work of Antonin Artaud and his ideas for his Theatre of Cruelty, the result was a showing of works in progress made up of improvisations and sketches, one of which was the premier of Artauds The Spurt of Blood. – Lee Jamieson, Antonin Artaud, From Theory to Practice, Greenwich Exchange,2007 His greatest influence, Brook described her as the most galvanising director in mid-20th century Britain.
Brooks work is inspired by the theories of experimental theatre of Jerzy Grotowski, Bertolt Brecht, Chris Covics and Vsevolod Meyerhold. Gurdjieff, Edward Gordon Craig, and Matila Ghyka, Brook first encountered Wakhévitch in London when he saw the production of Jean Cocteaus ballet Le Jeune Homme et la Mort which Wakhévitch designed. Brook declared, he was convinced that this was the designer for whom I had been waiting, many postcololonial scholars have challenged the claim to universalism, accusing the play of orientalism. In 2015 Brook returned to the world of Mahabharata with a new Young Vic production, Battlefield in collaboration with Jean-Claude Carrière, in 2005 Brook directed Tierno Bokar, based on the life of the Malian sufi of the same name. The play was adapted for the stage by Marie-Hélène Estienne from a book by Amadou Hampate Ba, the book and play detail Bokars life and message of religious tolerance. Columbia University produced 44 related events and workshops that were attended by over 3,200 people throughout the run of Tierno Bokar, panel discussions focused on topics of religious tolerance and Muslim tradition in West Africa
Henry William Harry Vardon was a professional golfer from the Bailiwick of Jersey. He was a member of the fabled Great Triumvirate of the sport in his day, along with John Henry Taylor, Vardon won The Open Championship a record six times and won the 1900 U. S. Open. Harry and his brother Tom Vardon, younger by two years and interested in golf, were very close and their golf development was held back by poor family circumstances, and their father was not supportive of his sons golf interest. Tom actually made the move from Jersey to England first, to pursue a golf career, Harry followed Tom to England in the spring of 1890, taking a job as greenkeeper at age 20, at Studley Royal Golf Club, Yorks. A year he became professional at Bury Golf Club and in 1896 the club professional at Ganton Golf Club. Harry was the player of the two brothers. By his early 20s, Harry developed a demanding practice program and he was the first professional golfer to play in knickerbockers – discarding the proper dress of an Englishman in an uncomfortable shirt and tie with a buttoned jacket.
Within a few years he became golfs first superstar since the days of Young Tom Morris, in 1896, Vardon won the first of his record six Open Championships. These rivalries enormously increased the publics interest in golf, in 1898 Harry Vardon won his second Open Championship at Prestwick, beating Willie Park, Jnr by a single stroke. Park missed a putt on the 18th green to take the match to a play off. Willie Park, Jnr was not adverse to offering such challenges, some years earlier he had met and defeated Ben Sayers at Musselburgh and North Berwick, and in 1897 Park defeated J. H. Taylor over two venues, for £100 per side. Eventually Willie Park, Jnr conceded to play his home leg at North Berwick instead of Musselburgh, Golf Week magazine acted as both promoter and stakeholder, and the match took place in July 1899, by which time Vardon had won his third Open Championship. The British press billed the encounter as the greatest golf competition of all time, such was the interest, that 10,000 Scottish fans attended the match at North Berwick, and that on a day when the Prince of Wales was making a State visit to nearby Edinburgh.
Special trains were laid on to ferry fans from Edinburgh and other nearby towns, the first 36 holes at North Berwick ended with Vardon holding a two-hole lead, the format being match play. The second leg took place two weeks at Ganton, and Vardon completed the rout, winning 11 up with ten holes to play, collecting the £200 prize, during his career, Harry Vardon made three visits to North America,1900,1913 and 1920. During all three trips he competed in the U. S. Open finishing 1st, 2nd and tie 2nd and he became golfs first international celebrity in 1900 when he toured the United States and Canada. John Henry Taylor, the 1900 Open Champion and member of the Great Triumvirate, Vardon played in more than 90 matches and capped it off with a victory in the U. S. Open, where Taylor was second. Vardon was the runner-up at his next U. S. Open in 1913 and he toured North America with Ted Ray that year, as he did once more in 1920
Sir Tom Stoppard OM CBE FRSL is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter, knighted in 1997. He co-wrote the screenplays for Brazil, The Russia House, and Shakespeare in Love, themes of human rights and political freedom pervade his work along with exploration of linguistics and philosophy. Stoppard has been a key playwright of the National Theatre and is one of the most internationally performed dramatists of his generation, in 2008 The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 11 in their list of the 100 most powerful people in British culture. Born in Czechoslovakia, Stoppard left as a refugee, fleeing imminent Nazi occupation. He settled with his family in Britain after the war, in 1946, after being educated at schools in Nottingham and Yorkshire, Stoppard became a journalist, a drama critic and then, in 1960, a playwright. He has been married three times, to Josie Ingle, Miriam Stoppard, and Sabrina Guinness, Stoppard was born Tomáš Straussler, in Zlín, a shoe town, in the Moravia region of Czechoslovakia.
He was the son of Martha Becková and Eugen Straussler, a doctor with the Bata shoe company, both of his parents were non-observant Jews, part of a long-established community. Just before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the patron, Jan Antonín Baťa, helped re-post his Jewish employees, mostly physicians. On 15 March 1939, the day that the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, before the Japanese occupation of Singapore, the two sons and their mother were sent on to Australia. Stoppards father remained in Singapore as a British army volunteer, knowing that, as a doctor and his father died when Stoppard was four years old. From there, in 1941, when Tomas was five, the three were evacuated to Darjeeling in India, the boys attended Mount Hermon School, an American multi-racial school, where Tomas became Tom and his brother Petr became Peter. In 1945, his mother Martha married British army major Kenneth Stoppard, setting up Stoppards desire as a child to become an honorary Englishman. I fairly often find Im with people who forget I dont quite belong in the world were in, he says.
I find I put a foot wrong – it could be pronunciation, a bit of English history – and suddenly Im there naked, as someone with a pass. This is reflected in his characters, he notes, who are constantly being addressed by the name, with jokes. Stoppard attended the Dolphin School in Nottinghamshire, and completed his education at Pocklington School in East Riding, which he hated. Stoppard left school at seventeen and began work as a journalist for the Western Daily Press in Bristol, never receiving a university education, having taken against the idea. Years he came to not going to university, but at the time he loved his work as a journalist
The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1610–11, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare wrote alone. It is set on an island, where the sorcerer Prospero, rightful Duke of Milan, plots to restore his daughter Miranda to her rightful place using illusion. He conjures up a storm, the eponymous tempest, to lure his usurping brother Antonio, his machinations bring about the revelation of Antonios lowly nature, the redemption of the King, and the marriage of Miranda to Alonsos son, Ferdinand. In addition, one of Gonzalos speeches is derived from Montaignes essay Of the Canibales, the masque in Act 4 may have been a addition, possibly in honour of the wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Frederick V in 1613. The play was first published in the First Folio of 1623, the story draws heavily on the tradition of the romance, and it was influenced by tragicomedy, the courtly masque and perhaps the commedia dellarte. It differs from Shakespeares other plays in its observation of a stricter, H.
Gonzalo, Alonsos counselor, had secretly supplied their boat with some food, fresh water, rich garments, linens and necessaries, and volumes that Prospero prizes. Prospero maintains Ariels loyalty by promising to release the airy spirit from servitude. Sycorax had been exiled from Algiers to the island for wreaking havoc with her magic, Sycorax son, Caliban, a deformed monster and the only non-spiritual inhabitant before the arrival of Prospero, was initially adopted and raised by him. He taught Prospero how to survive on the island, while Prospero and Miranda taught Caliban religion, in slavery, Caliban has come to view Prospero as a usurper and has grown to resent him and his daughter. Prospero and Miranda in turn view Caliban with disappointment, Prospero only performs one act of magic himself directly on stage, he disarms Ferdinand, causing his nerves to become in their infancy again. The rest of his magic is through controlling spirits, which is how magicians of the time were believed to operate, having divined that his brother Antonio is on a nearby ship, has raised a tempest that causes the passengers to believe they are shipwrecked and marooned.
Also on the ship are Antonios friend and fellow conspirator, King Alonso of Naples, Alonsos brother and son and Alonsos trusted counselor, all these passengers are returning from the wedding of Alonsos daughter Claribel and the King of Tunis. Prospero contrives to separate the shipwreck survivors into several groups by his spells, three plots alternate through the play. In one, Caliban falls in with Stephano and Trinculo, two drunkards, believing Stephano to be a god who bears celestial liquor. They attempt to raise a coup against Prospero, which ultimately fails, in the third subplot and Sebastian conspire to kill Alonso and Gonzalo so that Sebastian can become King. Ariel thwarts them, at Prosperos command, Ariel appears to the three men of sin as a harpy, reprimanding them for their betrayal of Prospero. Prospero, who has witnessed this, leaves to visit Ferdinand, the three guilty nobles run off, distracted and in a frenzy, and Gonzalo and the attendant lords chase after to prevent them from doing what this ecstasy may now provoke them to.
Prospero explains that he tested Ferdinand, and betroths a willing Miranda to him and he asks Ariel to bring some other spirits and create a masque to entertain the young couple
Leonard Sidney Woolf was an English political theorist, author and civil servant, and husband of author Virginia Woolf. Woolf was born in London, the third of ten children of Solomon Rees Sidney Woolf, a barrister and Queens Counsel, after his father died in 1892 Woolf was sent to board at Arlington House School near Brighton, Sussex. From 1894 to 1899 he attended St Pauls School, and in 1899 he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge. Other members included Lytton Strachey, John Maynard Keynes, GE Moore, thoby Stephen, Virginia Stephens brother, was friendly with the Apostles, though not a member himself. Woolf was awarded his BA in 1902, but stayed for another year to study for the Civil Service examinations, Woolf returned to England in May 1911 for a years leave. Instead, however, he resigned in early 1912 and that year married Virginia Stephen. Together Leonard and Virginia Woolf became influential in the Bloomsbury Group, in December 1917 Woolf became one of the co-founders of the 1917 Club, which met in Gerrard Street, Soho.
After marriage, Woolf turned his hand to writing and in 1913 published his first novel, The Village in the Jungle, a series of books followed at roughly two-yearly intervals. On the introduction of conscription in 1916, during the First World War, Woolf was rejected for service on medical grounds. He joined the Labour Party and the Fabian Society, and became a contributor to the New Statesman. In 1916 he wrote International Government, proposing an international agency to enforce world peace, as his wifes mental health worsened, Woolf devoted much of his time to caring for her. In 1917 the Woolfs bought a small hand-operated printing press and with it they founded the Hogarth Press and their first project was a pamphlet, hand-printed and bound by themselves. Within ten years the Press had become a publishing house, issuing Virginias novels, Leonards tracts and, among other works. Woolf continued as the director of the Press until his death. His wife suffered from bouts of mental illness throughout her life.
Later Leonard fell in love with a married artist, Trekkie Parsons, in 1919 Woolf became editor of the International Review. He edited the section of the Contemporary Review from 1920 to 1922. In 1960 Woolf revisited Sri Lanka and was surprised at the warmth of the welcome he received, Woolf accepted an honorary doctorate from the then-new University of Sussex in 1964 and in 1965 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at a ceremony in New York City. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre, several discretionary non-competitive awards are given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award. The awards are named after Antoinette Tony Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, the rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wings Tony Awards, which applies for that season only. It forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is someone who has won all four awards, the Tony Awards are considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Award in the United Kingdom and the Molière Award of France. From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, in 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre.
From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, and 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall, the 70th Tony Awards were held on June 12,2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards will be held on June 11,2017, as of 2014, there are 24 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years, some examples, the category Best Book of a Musical was originally called Best Author. The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards, for two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer and Best Costume Designer. It went to a category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a category was for directors of plays. A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the ceremony in 2009. The award is for an individual who has made a contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian.
The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season, the categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014-2015 season. Performance categories Show and technical categories Special awards Retired awards The award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946. As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, At Jacob Wilks suggestion, proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting, at the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, in the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a communist state. The February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, capital of Russia, in the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, the February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes, when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions campaigned for stopping the conflict.
The Bolsheviks turned workers militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control, the Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside, establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. To end Russia’s participation in the First World War, the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918, soon after, civil war erupted among the Reds, the Whites, the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922, the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor to the February Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered a line of protests, a council of workers called the St. Petersburg Soviet was created in all this chaos, and the beginning of a communist political protest had begun.
World War I prompted a Russian outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and it was another major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against their royal opponents. However, the problems were merely administrative, and not industrial as Germany was producing great amounts of munitions whilst constantly fighting on two major battlefronts, the war developed a weariness in the city, owing to a lack of food in response to the disruption of agriculture. Food scarcity had become a problem in Russia, but the cause of this did not lie in any failure of the harvests. As a result, they tended to hoard their grain and to revert to subsistence farming, thus the cities were constantly short of food. At the same time rising prices led to demands for wages in the factories. The outcome of all this, was a criticism of the government rather than any war-weariness. The original fever of excitement, which had caused the name of St. Heavy losses during the war strengthened thoughts that Tsar Nicholas II was unfit to rule, the Liberals were now better placed to voice their complaints, since they were participating more fully through a variety of voluntary organizations
Stannis Baratheon is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones. First mentioned in 1996s A Game of Thrones, Stannis is the son of Steffon Baratheon from the kingdom of Westeros. He subsequently appeared in Martins A Clash of Kings and A Storm of Swords, Stannis Baratheon is the younger brother of King Robert and older brother of Renly. He is portrayed as a brooding and humorless man with a harsh but fair sense of justice and he is regarded as a skilled but overcautious military commander. Stannis was born as the second of Steffon Baratheon and Cassana Estermonts three sons, and in his youth he was overshadowed by his older brother Robert. When Stannis was fourteen he witnessed his parents death in a shipwreck off the coast of House Baratheons castle Storms End, during Roberts Rebellion, Stannis holds Storms End in Roberts absence, but is besieged by Mace Tyrell and Paxter Redwyne for the best part of the year.
Stannis garrison only avoids starvation thanks to the smuggler Davos Seaworth, Stannis is subsequently sent to Dragonstone to capture the island, but arrives to find that Aerys II Targaryens children Viserys and Daenerys had fled. Several years later, Stannis is married to Lady Selyse Florent and Selyse have a daughter together, who nearly dies in infancy after contracting greyscale and is left disfigured. Stannis, who is named Roberts Master of Ships, destroys the Iron Fleet at Fair Isle during the Greyjoy Rebellion, Stannis comes to suspect that Roberts children with Cersei Lannister are not actually his, and reveals his suspicions to Roberts Hand of the King Lord Jon Arryn. The two discover several of Roberts bastard children in Kings Landing, and begin to gather proof, Stannis Baratheon is not a point of view character in the novels, so his actions are witnessed and interpreted through the eyes of other people, predominantly Davos Seaworth and Jon Snow. When Robert travels to Winterfell to name Eddard as his new Hand, Stannis flees to Dragonstone with his forces, Eddard continues Stannis and Jons investigations and discovers that Cerseis children are the products of her incestuous affair with her brother Jaime Lannister.
When Robert dies Eddard names Stannis as the heir, despite the ascension of Roberts presumed heir Joffrey Baratheon. Stannis comes under the influence of the red priestess Melisandre, who believes that Stannis is the reincarnation of Azor Ahai, Stannis tries to negotiate with Renly, offering him the chance to become his heir, which Renly rejects, planning to have Stannis killed the next day. Stannis assaults Kings Landing by sea, but many of his men are killed when Tyrion Lannister detonates wildfire in the River Blackwater, Stannis forces still nearly claim victory, but Lannister and Tyrell reinforcements arrive in time to drive Stannis men away from Kings Landing. However Rolland Storm, the Bastard of Nightsong, commands his forces well enough that Stannis is enough to escape, Stannis retreats to Dragonstone with what is left of his army. He imprisons his Hand Lord Alester Florent, one of his wifes uncles, Stannis wishes to hear Davos view, though Axell threatens Davos if he doesnt agree with Axells plan.
Davos tells Stannis the plan is evil, as the people of Claw Isle are weakly-defended due to so many of their men dying in his service. For this honest counsel Stannis names Davos as his new Hand, giving him the titles Lord of the Rainwood, Melisandre tells Stannis to burn Edric Storm, Roberts bastard from the tryst with Delena, as a sacrifice to raise dragons from Dragonstone
Uncle Vanya is a play by the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. It was first published in 1897 and received its Moscow première in 1899 in a production by the Moscow Art Theatre, the play portrays the visit of an elderly professor and his glamorous, much younger second wife, Yelena, to the rural estate that supports their urban lifestyle. Sonya, the daughter by his first wife, who has worked with Vanya to keep the estate going. Uncle Vanya is unique among Chekhovs major plays because it is essentially a reworking of his own play published a decade earlier. Rayfield cites recent scholarship suggesting Chekhov revised The Wood Demon during his trip to the island of Sakhalin, a prison colony in Eastern Russia, in 1891. Aleksandr Vladimirovich Serebryakov, a university professor, who has lived for years in the city on the earnings of his late first wifes rural estate. Helena Andreyevna Serebryakov, Professor Serebryakovs young and beautiful second wife, sofia Alexandrovna Serebryakov, Professor Serebryakovs daughter from his first marriage.
She is of an age, but is considered plain. Maria Vasilyevna Voynitsky, the widow of a councilor and mother of Vanya. Ivan Petrovich Voynitsky, Marias son and Sonyas uncle, the character of the play. Mikhail Lvovich Astrov, a middle aged country doctor, ilya Ilych Telegin, an impoverished landowner, who now lives on the estate as a dependent of the family. A Workman A garden in Serebryakovs country estate and Marina discuss how old Astrov has grown, and how he feels bored with his life as a country doctor. Vanya enters, and complains about how all order has been disrupted since the professor and his wife, Yelena, as they’re talking, Yelena and Telegin return from a walk. Out of the professors earshot, Vanya calls him an old dried mackerel, criticizing him for his pomposity. Vanya’s mother, Maria Vasilyevna, who idolizes Serebryakov, objects to her son’s derogatory comments, Vanya praises the professor’s wife, for her beauty, arguing that faithfulness to an old man like Serebryakov is an immoral waste of vitality.
Astrov is forced to depart to attend a patient, but not before delivering a speech on the preservation of the forests, act I closes with Vanya declaring his love for an exasperated Yelena. The dining room, several days later, before going to bed, Serebryakov complains of being in pain and of old age. Astrov arrives, having sent for by Sonya, but the professor refuses to see him
T. S. Eliot
Thomas Stearns Eliot OM was a British essayist, playwright and social critic, and one of the twentieth centurys major poets. He moved from his native United States to England in 1914 at the age of 25, working and he eventually became a British subject in 1927 at the age of 39, renouncing his American citizenship. Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock and it was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, Ash Wednesday, and Four Quartets. He was known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral and he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry. The Eliots were a Boston family with roots in Old and New England, Thomas Eliots paternal grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, had moved to St. Louis, Missouri to establish a Unitarian Christian church there. Eliot was the last of six surviving children, his parents were both 44 years old when he was born, Eliot was born at 2635 Locust St.
property owned by his grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot. His four sisters were between 11 and 19 years older, his brother was eight years older, known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Stearns. Eliots childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors, firstly, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia, he could not participate in physical activities. As he was isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the boy immediately became obsessed with books and was absorbed in tales depicting savages. In his memoir of Eliot, his friend Robert Sencourt comments that the young Eliot would often curl up in the window-seat behind an enormous book, setting the drug of dreams against the pain of living. Secondly, Eliot credited his hometown with fuelling his literary vision, I feel that there is something in having passed ones childhood beside the big river, which is incommunicable to those people who have not.
I consider myself fortunate to have been here, rather than in Boston, or New York. From 1898 to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek, French and he began to write poetry when he was fourteen under the influence of Edward Fitzgeralds Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam. He said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them and his first published poem, A Fable For Feasters, was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy Record in February 1905. Also published there in April 1905 was his oldest surviving poem in manuscript and he published three short stories in 1905, Birds of Prey, A Tale of a Whale and The Man Who Was King. The last mentioned story significantly reflects his exploration of Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 Worlds Fair of St. Louis, such a link with primitive people importantly antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard