Stephen Foster

Stephen Collins Foster, known as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known for his parlor and minstrel music. He wrote more than 200 songs, including "Oh! Susanna", "Hard Times Come Again No More", "Camptown Races", "Old Folks at Home", "My Old Kentucky Home", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", "Old Black Joe", "Beautiful Dreamer", many of his compositions remain popular today, he has been identified as "the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century" and may be the most recognizable American composer in other countries. His compositions are sometimes referred to as "childhood songs" because they have been included in the music curriculum of early education. Most of his handwritten music manuscripts are lost, but editions issued by publishers of his day feature in various collections. There are many biographies on Foster. In addition, Foster wrote little biographical information himself, his brother Morrison Foster destroyed much of the information that he judged to reflect negatively upon the family.

Foster was born on July 4, 1826, to William Barclay Foster and Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster, with three older sisters and six older brothers. His father was of Ulster Scots descent, he attended private academies in Allegheny and Towanda, Pennsylvania and received an education in English grammar, the classics, Latin and mathematics. The family lived in a northern city but they did not support the abolition of slavery. Foster taught himself to play the clarinet, guitar and piano, he did not have formal instruction in composition but he was helped by Henry Kleber, a German-born music dealer in Pittsburgh. In 1839, his brother William was serving his apprenticeship as an engineer at Towanda and thought that Stephen would benefit from being under his supervision; the site of the Camptown Races is 15 miles from Towanda. His education included a brief period at Jefferson College in Washington, now Washington & Jefferson College, his tuition was paid. He did not return. In 1846, Foster moved to Cincinnati and became a bookkeeper with his brother Dunning's steamship company.

He wrote his first successful songs in 1848–1849, among them "Oh! Susanna", which became an anthem of the California Gold Rush. In 1849, he published Foster's Ethiopian Melodies, which included the successful song "Nelly Was a Lady" as made famous by the Christy Minstrels. A plaque marks the site of his residence in Cincinnati, where the Guilford School building is now located, he returned to Pennsylvania and signed a contract with the Christy Minstrels. It was during this period that he wrote most of his best-known songs: "Camptown Races", "Nelly Bly", "Ring de Banjo", "Old Folks at Home", "My Old Kentucky Home", "Old Dog Tray", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", written for his wife Jane Denny McDowell. Many of Foster's songs were of the blackface minstrel show tradition popular at the time, he sought to "build up taste...among refined people by making words suitable to their taste, instead of the trashy and offensive words which belong to some songs of that order". In the 1850s, he associated with a Pittsburgh-area abolitionist leader named Charles Shiras, wrote an abolitionist play himself.

Many of his songs had Southern themes, yet Foster never lived in the South and visited it only once, during his 1852 honeymoon. Foster's last four years were spent in New York City. There is little information on this period of his life, although family correspondence has been preserved. Foster became ill with a fever in January 1864. Weakened, he fell in his hotel in the Bowery, his writing partner George Cooper found him still alive but lying in a pool of blood. Foster died in Bellevue Hospital three days at the age of 37. Other biographers describe different accounts of his death; when Foster died, his leather wallet contained a scrap of paper that said, "Dear friends and gentle hearts", along with 38 cents in Civil War scrip and three pennies. The note is said to have inspired Bob Hilliard's lyric for "Dear Hearts and Gentle People". Foster was buried in the Allegheny Cemetery in Pittsburgh. After his death, Morrison Foster became his "literary executor"; as such, he answered requests for copies of manuscripts and biographical information.

One of the best-loved of his works was "Beautiful Dreamer", published shortly after his death. Foster grew up in a section of the city where many European immigrants had settled and was accustomed to hearing the music of the Italian, Scots-Irish, German residents, he composed his first song when he was 14 and entitled it the "Tioga Waltz". The first song that he had published was "Open thy Lattice Love", he wrote songs in support of drinking, such as "My Wife Is a Most Knowing Woman", "Mr. and Mrs. Brown", "When the Bowl Goes Round", while composing temperance songs such as "Comrades Fill No Glass for Me" or "The Wife". Foster authored many church hymns, although the inclusion of his hymns in hymnals ended by 1910; some of the hymns are "Seek and ye shall find", "All around is bright and fair, While we work for Jesus", "Blame not those who weep and sigh". Several rare Civil War-era hymns by Foster were performed by The Old Stoughton Musical Society Chorus, including "The Pure, The Bright, The Beautiful", "Over The River", "Give Us This Day", "What Shall The Harvest Be?".

Foster sent his handwritten scores directly to his publishers


Samchuly, is a leading bicycle company and is the largest bicycle manufacturer and retailer in Korea. Headquartered in Seoul, South Korea, Samchuly operates a manufacturing facility in Uiwang, with a production capacity of 300,000 bicycles per year; the Company's offerings consist of folding bikes, women's bikes, children's bikes, racing bikes, mountain bikes and special bikes under brand names such as Andre Kim, Cello, KENIA, HOUND, NEXT and Lespo. Samchuly employs 190 employees, while having over 3000 individual retail stores in all areas throughout South Korea. Samchuly bicycles are sold in countries such as the United States, in various countries in Europe. Samchuly bicycles have been used in international competition's such as the 1988 Olympics and the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Samchuly is known to have top Korean celebrities represent the brand as spokespeople such as Son Ji Chang, Seo Taiji, Fin. K. L, Han Hyo-joo; the CEO is Kim Seok Grandson of Kim Chul-Ho, Founder of Kia Motors. Kim Chul-Ho, founder of Kia Motors, founded Samchuly Bicycle in December 1944.

As the first company to produce bicycles in Korea, this was in effect, the beginning of the bicycle industry in Korea. By January 1945, Samchuly was producing many components of the bicycle, including the chain, crank and other parts in its own factory. In April 1952, during the Korean war, Samchuly started manufacturing complete bicycles for the first time; this was 85 years. Samchuly was the first to sell a complete bicycle in Korea; as the Korean economy struggled to grow, Samchuly decided to export bicycles to the United States and shipped their first set of bicycles in 1965. President Park Chung-Hee visited Samchuly's factory at Siheung and encouraged Samchuly to help Korea industrialize in the 1970s. Exports to the United States grew rapidly in the 1970s, with annual exports averaging 100,000 bicycles. By the 1980s, annual exports averaged 300,000 bicycles. In 1985, Korea established a designated manufacturing complex at Daegu to build bicycles and component parts; this complex planned to establish a manufacturing capacity of 3 million bicycles- one million for domestic consumption and two million for exports.

With the support of the government, in 1987, Samchuly was able to manufacture 1 million bicycles from its factory at Yangsan. The following year, the year of the Seoul Olympics, Samchuly exported over 2 million bicycles to the United States alone. In 1991, Samchuly began producing the popular Lespo models; the firm received ISO 9001 certification in 1995. By 2008, the Korean government started to promote environmentally green policies. A plan to build over 5,200 km of new bicycle paths and roads was released; as well, the Four Major Rivers Project was announced and as a result, plans to build bicycle paths connecting the Han River in Seoul. In response to government supported policies, Samchuly reviewed the possibility of manufacturing higher end bicycles in Korea. In July 2009, Samchuly broke ground for its Uiwang factory, built for the purpose of manufacturing high-end bicycles such as Cello Sports, a subsidiary brand of Samchuly; the production capacity of the Uiwang factory is 300,000 bicycles.

The Uiwang factory's competitive advantage is not in its component parts, but rather in its capacity to tailor make bicycles to order. This factory has the capacity to tailor make bicycles to the specific physical requirements of the customer and customizing bicycles depending on various needs; the corporate logo’s contemporary shape and image in red represents development and stability within the company. With Samchuly’s traditional symbol of “3000”, it reflects Samchuly’s purported long-term management strategy aimed at being the front-runner in leisure sports in the year 2000. Lespo is the leading brand of Samchuly that carries bicycles for women, mountain bikes, bicycles for professional cyclists as well. Appalanchia is a brand of some of fixed gear bikes; the Next brand is a brand with mass distribution, it carries standard bicycles such as entry level bicycles and bicycles for women. The Hound brand targets younger individuals. List of South Korean companies List of bicycle manufacturers Economy of South Korea Samchuly Homepage Samchuly Homepage GoBizZ Korea article KOTEF Wopeclub Samchuly Blog

EgyptAir Flight 864

EgyptAir Flight 864 was a flight from Rome Fiumicino Airport to Tokyo International Airport, via Cairo and Bangkok. On 25 December 1976, the Boeing 707 on the route crashed into an industrial complex in Bangkok. All 52 people on board were killed, plus 19 on the ground in the crash; the aircraft was a Boeing 707-366C with the that had its maiden flight on 25 August 1973. The aircraft was registered as SU-AXA and was delivered to EgyptAir, entered service on 20 September the same year; the aircraft was powered by Whitney JT3D-7 turbofan engines. Flight 864 was a scheduled international passenger flight from Rome to Tokyo with stopovers in Cairo and Bangkok. With 9 crew members and 44 passengers on board, flight 864 approached Bangkok. At 20:30 GMT, the crew contacted the approach controller and reported about the distance of 33 nautical miles from the airport’s radio beacon. At this time, conditions were reported as calm, with cloudiness from 2/8 to 4/8 at the lower border of 300 meters, air temperature of 25 °C at a dew point of 24°C, visibility of 4000 meters, an airfield pressure of 1007 mB.

Having received the radar vector to the “BK” DPRM, the crew began their approach to runway 21L. The crew reported their observations; the controller cleared the flight to land, the crew acknowledged the transmission. At about 03:45, the aircraft crashed into a weaving mill building in an industrial area of the city, located 2 kilometers northeast of the end of runway 21L; the aircraft exploded on impact, all 52 people on board were killed. The weaving mill was destroyed, with 19 people killed on the ground; the total number of victims was 71 people. At that time, the crash was the deadliest aviation disaster. Pilot error was determined to be the cause of the crash. EgyptAir claimed that the Bangkok control tower had provided inadequate weather information to the crew of Flight 864; the crew had reduced the aircraft's vertical speed and did not monitor its height properly