This Is England '90
This Is England'90 is a 2015 British TV drama miniseries written by Shane Meadows and Jack Thorne and produced by Warp Films. A spin-off from the 2006 film This Is England, it is a sequel to the series This Is England'86 and This Is England'88; this Is England'90 was due in late 2012, but in July 2012, Meadows announced that the production had been put on hold in order for him to complete his documentary about reunited Manchester rock band The Stone Roses, the actors were still waiting for confirmation as to when filming would start. In March 2014, Meadows confirmed that shooting would start in the year although he had not yet finished the script, he confirmed that this will be the final series of the saga. In October 2014, Channel 4 announced that filming had begun in Sheffield and the series would be made up of four episodes due to air in 2015. On 31 July 2015, the first trailer for the series was released on the Channel 4 channel; the series premiered on 13 September 2015. This Is England'90 looks at the 1990 FIFA World Cup.
It features Shaun, Trev and Gadget who are involved in the rave scene. Combo is released from prison after serving his sentence for the manslaughter of Mick in This Is England'86. Flip and Higgy from the moped gang in This Is England'86 are more prominently featured in the cast in this series. Similar to the film and the two previous series,'90 featured a montage of the era at the beginning of the first episode, featuring the resignation of Margaret Thatcher in November 1990, set to the 1988 song "There She Goes" by The La's; the music of The Stone Roses was featured prominently. Each episode is set against a different season of the year, starting with Spring, having significant time pass between each episode. Much of the filming took place in Sheffield in the Gleadless area, with the Park Hill flats serving as the location for Harvey and Gadget's flat. Milky, Woody and the gang are all reunited in the classic era of 1990s rave culture, Following on from the events of 1988, Woody and Lol are back together and have a little baby, Jimmy.
Lol has a job as a dinnerlady at the local school with Chrissie and Trev, while Woody stays at home with the kids. Gadget, Kelly and Shaun are all following the Madchester rave scene, smoking cannabis in bongs and taking whatever drugs they have provided by Harvey who appears to have become a low-level dealer on the estate. After a conversation with Cynthia about the events of'88, Shaun goes to find Smell who dumped him in'88 for cheating on her with Fay after the Christmas production at college; when he managed to find her ending a day at her new college course, Shaun tells Smell he has missed her and invites her to a Manchester-themed discothèque at the town hall but Smell is reluctant to go tells him she has met someone else, which hits him hard, prompting his crying. Meanwhile and Lol have gone round to Woody's parents' house where there is a certain surprise for Woody, after seeing that his ex – Jennifer – is staying over, after a row with her parents. A certain blast from the past bursts out of the cupboard...
Mr Squires, Woody's old boss. He offers Woody a partnership but Woody gets upset and angry because he doesn't want to end up like his dad and an argument erupts. Shaun is seen round at Harvey and Gadget's flat taking bong hits. Shaun tells the lads what happened when he saw Smell and Harvey jokes about it, impersonating Smell and cheering up Shaun. Afterwards Woody and the gang are all round at Lol's mums talking about the disco Kelly and Trev persuade Lol to attend so the girls get ready and head off. Shaun and Gadget are heading into the disco when Shaun starts suffering with dizziness and nausea, a reaction to the bong hits he took, but Harvey gives him some speed to perk him up for the night; the girls meet the lads in the disco and "Fools Gold" starts to play and everybody gets pumped up and raves. After the disco a Goth-like lad called Harrison goes over to Shaun to tell him that he is Smell's boyfriend, he is sorry Smell can't make it, but Shaun, feeling disrespected in front of his mates, over-reacts and a skirmish occurs.
After things have calmed down everyone goes home and we see Woody asleep and Lol getting ready to go to bed. Shaun, Gadget and Trev all pack into a small car, venturing into the countryside in search of a rave. On the way they meet Flip and Higgy, whose car has broken down, so all seven squeeze into one car. After a long day trying to find their intended venue, they give up and begin to camp out in the woods for the night. In the distance, they assume it's the rave they've been trying to find. Walking down into a field they stumble upon a commune of new-age travellers and spontaneously join their party. Shaun finds comfort with an attractive older lady, whilst Kelly high on alcohol and Ecstasy, is encouraged to smoke drugs before indulging in sex with three men in a trailer. After waking, whilst watching the sunrise, a tearful Kelly confides in Gadget "I'm a fucking slag Gadget... I just do what I fucking want, that's the fucking problem". Lol and Milky stay at home, spending the afternoon having a barbecue in their front garden.
When the phone rings in the evening, Lol takes the call in another room. She tells Woody that it wasn't her mother, but it was Combo, about to be released from prison and needs a place to stay. Lol and Woody invite everyone round to their house for Sunday dinner. After the meal, they inform everyone that it wasn't Combo who killed Lol. Lol tells her sister Kelly that Mick rape
This Is England '86
This Is England'86 is a 2010 British drama miniseries written by Shane Meadows and Jack Thorne, a spin-off from the 2006 film This Is England. Set three years it focuses on the mod revival scene rather than the skinhead subculture, with the gang variously adopting an eclectic mix of clothing styles. Like the film version Thomas Turgoose stars as Shaun, with central roles played by Joe Gilgun as Woody, now a scooter-riding mod, although girlfriend Lol and her friend Trev stay loyal to their roots and still wear the skinhead garb. Lol's sister Kelly has gone new wave/punk, while other gang members adopt psychobilly, early chav and mohican influences; the story takes place during the 1986 FIFA World Cup. As Shaun completes his last school exam, he realises, his now-estranged friends including Woody, Smell and Meggy, are still around the area, looking for love and employment. On 26 August 2009, Channel 4 promised that it would fund a four-part television drama, This Is England'86, to be written by Shane Meadows and Jack Thorne.
Meadows said:When I finished This Is England, I had a wealth of material and unused ideas that I felt keen to take further – audiences seemed to respond to the characters we created and out of my longstanding relationship with Film4 and Channel 4 the idea for a television serial developed. Not only did I want to take the story of the gang broader and deeper, I saw in the experiences of the young in 1986 many resonances to now – recession, lack of jobs, sense of the world at a turning point. Whereas the film told part of the story, the TV series will tell the rest. Meadows said that Combo would return, that the fate of Milky would be revealed, that a wedding between Woody and Lol would be called off, he said if the series succeeded, he would follow it with another series. He said that Woody has a factory job and was about to marry Lol, he said that scooters, including Vespas and Lambrettas, would be used in the series - reflecting the scooterboy subculture of the mid to late 1980s. Channel 4's terms for the series was.
This resulted in the removal of a few characters that were in the feature film: Kez and Pob were cut, while Pukey had to be cut as the actor had other commitments. Pukey's dialogue and story was given to the returning character Harvey, who had a bit-part in the film as a school-bully. A new bully, takes Harvey's place as Shaun's tormentor and leads a moped gang. Much of the series was filmed around the sprawling, down-at-heel Gleadless Valley area of Sheffield, with most of the drama centring on Ironside Road and the large, concrete-sided maisonettes are a prominent feature across either side of Blackstock Road, the estate's main artery; the estate of Lowedges is used, although it is portrayed as being part of the same area in the storyline. Many residents are of the opinion Gleadless Valley has not changed much in the 50 years since it was built, this influenced Meadows choice to film there. Other notable local venues for filming include Leighton Road, Gaunt Road, Blackstock Road Shopping Precinct and Norton Lane.
The school in which Shaun sits his history exam is Gladys Buxton school in Dronfield as nearby Gleadless Valley Comprehensive School was closed and demolished in the 1990s. Gladys Buxton School is disused, its mid-1980s design suited the time period. Students in years 10 and 11 of local secondary school Dronfield Henry Fanshawe School were used as extras, playing Shaun's classmates who are sitting the exam, that were shown within the first eight minutes of the first episode. Sheffield landmarks such as the Park Hill Flats and Neepsend Gasholder are seen; as in the film, the exact setting is unclear. The setting in the film was implied to be a coastal town in the English East Midlands. In the first episode and Lol ride on a Yorkshire Rider bus to their wedding from a bus stop in Gaunt Road, a bus company which operated in West Yorkshire in the 1980s; this now-preserved bus was supplied by Transport Yorkshire Preservation Group of Leeds. In the prologue, Combo and 13-year-old Shaun sit alone in Combo's blood-stained car, having just rushed Milky to the hospital.
Following a moment of silence, Shaun leaves. Going forward three years and Lol's wedding ends disastrously by Woody's reluctance to marry Lol, Meggy suffers a near-fatal heart attack in the toilets of the licensed private wedding venue. After Shaun sits his final exam in history, he gets hassled by Flip and his gang of moped-riding casuals. Flip orders Shaun to help him stage Flip defending his crush Gemma from a staged insult from Shaun. Gemma sees in his anger, assaults Shaun, leaving him bloodied, he is found by Lol's mother and taken to the same hospital as Meggy, where he reunites with Smell, but does not join the rest of the gang in Meggy's room. After urging from his mother, Shaun gets a job working in a video rentals shop owned by Mr. Sandhu, the Indian shopkeeper with whom Shaun had a feud in the first film but is now close friends with both Shaun and his mother. Woody and the gang welcome him back into their group. Meanwhile, Lol finds out that her father, has returned to the family home.
Line of Duty
Line of Duty is a British BBC police procedural television series created by Jed Mercurio. The first series premiered on 26 June 2012 and became BBC Two's best-performing drama series in ten years with a consolidated audience of 4.1 million viewers. The second series broadcast began on 12 February 2014; the third series broadcast began on 24 March 2016, the fourth on 26 March 2017 on BBC One. The fifth series was completed at the end of 2018 and broadcast began on BBC One on 31 March 2019; the BBC has ordered a sixth series. It is the most popular drama series broadcast on BBC Two in the multi-channel era and is a winner of the Royal Television Society Award and Broadcasting Press Guild Award for Best Drama Series. Line of Duty was included in a list of the Top 50 BBC Two shows of all-time and in a list of the 80 best BBC shows of all time, it was the highest-ranked current series in a list of the best cop shows of all time and third in a poll of the best British crime dramas of all time. The series is set within the fictional Central Police force and focuses on the activities of AC-12, an anti-corruption squad led by Superintendent Ted Hastings.
As the series progresses, it is revealed that the force contains a network of corrupt officers with links to organised crime. The first series of Line of Duty, broadcast from 26 June 2012 and consisting of five episodes, follows DC Kate Fleming, DS Steve Arnott and Superintendent Ted Hastings as they lead an investigation into the corrupt actions of DCI Tony Gates; the supporting characters include DS Matthew Cottan. The second series of Line of Duty – consisting of six episodes – premiered on 12 February 2014; the series follows DC Kate Fleming, DS Steve Arnott and Superintendent Ted Hastings as they lead an investigation into the corrupt actions of DI Lindsay Denton. The series' supporting characters include DI Matthew Cottan. Series two received better reviews than its predecessor, despite lower viewing figures, was ranked the best television drama of 2014 by The Observer; the third series of Line of Duty – consisting of six episodes – premiered on 24 March 2016. The series follows DC Kate Fleming, DS Steve Arnott and Superintendent Ted Hastings as they lead an investigation into the corrupt actions of Sergeant Danny Waldron.
The series' supporting characters include DC Nigel Morton, DI Matthew Cottan, DI Lindsay Denton. The storyline in this series is a direct continuation of the second series' plot; the fourth series of Line of Duty, consisting of six episodes, began broadcasting on 26 March 2017 on BBC One. The series follows DS Kate Fleming, DS Steve Arnott and Superintendent Ted Hastings as they investigate the actions of DCI Roseanne Huntley; the supporting characters include FC Tim Ifield, DC Jodie Taylor, DS Sam Railston. As with the previous two series, the storyline is linked thematically to that of series 1; the fifth series of Line of Duty, consisting of six episodes, began broadcasting on 31 March 2019 on BBC One. The series follows DS Steve Arnott and Superintendent Ted Hastings; the series' supporting characters include Lisa McQueen. In May 2017, the BBC commissioned a sixth series. Martin Compston as Detective Sergeant Steve ArnottArnott is a detective sergeant assigned to AC-12, the anti-corruption unit within Central Police.
He served as an anti-terrorism officer. He transferred after he refused to collude with his colleagues following the fatal shooting of an innocent man. Vicky McClure as Detective Inspector Kate FlemingFleming is an undercover specialist. A consummate professional, Fleming is willing to investigate officers inside and outside AC-12. A detective constable, she is promoted to detective sergeant at the end of the third series and to detective inspector following the fourth. Fleming is married with a son. Adrian Dunbar as Superintendent Ted HastingsHastings is the senior investigating officer of AC-12, he recruited Arnott and Cottan. It is revealed. Craig Parkinson as Detective Inspector Matthew "Dot" Cottan Attached to TO-20, DS Cottan is promoted to DI and transfers to AC-9 at the close of the first series. During the second series, he transfers to AC-12. Lennie James as Detective Chief Inspector Anthony "Tony" Gates As the head of the serious crime unit TO-20, Tony Gates is renowned for returning the best crime figures of any unit in Central Police.
It is this reputation, that leads AC-12 to his team. Suspected of corruption, Gates faces an internal affairs investigation that adds further complications to his troubled home-life. Keeley Hawes as Detective Inspector Lindsay Denton Denton organises a convoy to transport a protected witness, ambushed, resulting in the deaths of all the other police officers; as the only police survivor, Denton is charged with conspiracy to commit murder. She attempts to convince AC-12 of her innocence and regain her reputation, but receives a life sentence. In series 3, Denton is granted an appeal, is acquitted on the basis of an improper sexual relationship Arnott had with her while she was being investigated, she discovers crucial evidence pertaining to the Danny
John Christopher Depp II is an American actor and musician. He has been nominated for ten Golden Globe Awards, winning one for Best Actor for his performance of the title role in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street and has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Best Actor, among other accolades. Depp rose to prominence on the 1980s television series 21 Jump Street, he is regarded as one of the world's biggest film stars. He has gained praise from reviewers for his portrayals of screenwriter-director Ed Wood in Ed Wood, undercover FBI agent Joseph D. Pistone in Donnie Brasco, author J. M. Barrie in Finding Neverland, Boston gangster Whitey Bulger in Black Mass. Depp is the third highest-grossing actor worldwide, as films featuring Depp have grossed over US$3.7 billion at the United States box office and over US$10 billion worldwide. He has been listed in the 2012 Guinness World Records as the world's highest-paid actor, with earnings of US$75 million, his most commercially successful films are the Pirates of the Caribbean series, which grossed US$4.5 billion, the Fantastic Beasts film series, which grossed US$1.3 billion, Alice in Wonderland, which grossed US$1 billion and the Chocolate Factory, which grossed US$474 million, The Tourist, which grossed US$278 million.
Depp had a supporting role in Oliver Stone's 1986 Vietnam War film Platoon and played the title character in the 1990 romantic dark fantasy Edward Scissorhands. He found box office success in the adventure film Sleepy Hollow, the swashbuckler film series Pirates of the Caribbean, the fantasy films Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Alice in Wonderland, the animated comedy western Rango, most Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald. Depp has collaborated on nine films with director and friend Tim Burton. Depp was inducted as a Disney Legend in 2015, he has performed in numerous musical groups, including forming the rock supergroup Hollywood Vampires along with Alice Cooper and Joe Perry. Depp was born in Owensboro, the youngest of four children of Betty Sue Palmer, a waitress, John Christopher Depp, a civil engineer. Depp is of English ancestry, with some Dutch and French, he is descended from a French Huguenot immigrant and from colonial freedom fighter Elizabeth Key Grinstead, daughter of a British nobleman and an indentured African woman.
Depp moved during his childhood. He and his siblings lived in more than 20 different places settling in Miramar, Florida in 1970. Depp's parents divorced in 1978 when he was 15, his mother married Robert Palmer, whom Depp has called "an inspiration to me."With the gift of a guitar from his mother when he was 12, Depp began playing in various garage bands. A year after his parents' divorce, he dropped out of Miramar High School to become a rock musician, he attempted to go back to school two weeks but the principal told him to follow his dream of being a musician. He played with a band that enjoyed modest local success; the Kids set out together for Los Angeles in pursuit of a record deal, changing their name to Six Gun Method, but the group split up before signing a record deal. Depp subsequently collaborated with the band Rock City Angels and co-wrote their song "Mary", which appeared on Rock City Angels' debut Geffen Records album Young Man's Blues. On December 20, 1983, Depp married Lori Anne Allison, the sister of his band's bass player and singer.
During their marriage she worked as a makeup artist while he worked a variety of odd jobs, including a telemarketer for pens. His wife introduced him to actor Nicolas Cage. Depp and Allison divorced in 1985. Depp's first film role was in the horror film A Nightmare on Elm Street, in which he played the boyfriend of heroine Nancy Thompson and one of Freddy Krueger's victims. After a starring role in the comedy Private Resort, Depp was cast in the lead role of the skating drama Thrashin' by the film's director, but the decision was overridden by its producer. Instead, Depp appeared in a minor supporting role as a Vietnamese-speaking private in Oliver Stone's Vietnam War drama Platoon. Depp became a popular teen idol during the late 1980s, when he starred as a police officer who goes on an undercover operation in a high school in the Fox television series 21 Jump Street, which premiered in 1987, he accepted this role to work with actor Frederic Forrest. Despite his success, Depp felt that the series "forced into the role of product."
He subsequently decided to appear only in films. In 1990, Depp played the title character in Tim Burton's film Edward Scissorhands, in which he starred opposite Dianne Wiest and Winona Ryder; the film was a critical and commercial success that established him as a leading Hollywood actor and began his long association with Burton. Producer Scott Rudin has stated that "basically Johnny Depp is playing Tim Burton in all his movies". In his introduction to Burton on Burton, a book of interviews with the director, Depp called Burton "... a brother, a friend... and brave soul". Depp's first film release in 1990 was a musical comedy set in the 1950s. Although it was not a box office success upon its initial release, over the years it has gained cult classic status. Depp had no film releases in the following two years, with the exception of a brief cameo in Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare, the sixth install
Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Derbyshire to the north-west; the border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street. Leicestershire takes its name from the city of Leicester located at its centre and administered separately from the rest of the county; the ceremonial county has a total population of just over 1 million, more than half of which lives in'Greater Leicester'. Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland and Gartree; these became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred. In 1087, the first recorded use of the name was as Laegrecastrescir. Leicestershire's external boundaries have changed little since the Domesday Survey; the Measham-Donisthorpe exclave of Derbyshire has been exchanged for the Netherseal area, the urban expansion of Market Harborough has caused Little Bowden in Northamptonshire to be annexed.
In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the county borough status of Leicester city and the county status of neighbouring Rutland, converting both to administrative districts of Leicestershire. These actions were reversed on 1 April 1997, when Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities. Rutland became a distinct Ceremonial County once again, although it continues to be policed by Leicestershire Constabulary; the symbol of the county council, Leicestershire County Cricket Club and Leicester City FC, is the fox. Leicestershire is considered to be the birthplace of fox hunting. Hugo Meynell, who lived in Quorn, is known as the father of fox hunting. Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough have associations with fox hunting, as has neighbouring Rutland. Leicestershire and Herefordshire are the only three English counties lacking a registered flag. A design was proposed for Leicestershire in 2017 based on symbols associated with the county – a fox and a cinquefoil; the River Soar together with its tributaries and canalisations constitutes the principal river basin of the county, although the River Avon and River Welland through Harborough and along the county's southern boundaries are significant.
The Soar rises between Hinckley and Lutterworth, towards the south of the county near the Warwickshire border, flows northwards, bisecting the county along its north/south axis, through'Greater' Leicester and to the east of Loughborough where its course within the county comes to an end. It continues north marking the boundary with Nottinghamshire for some 10 kilometres before joining the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire meet; the geographical centre of England is in Leicestershire, near Fenny Drayton in the southwest of the county. In 2013, the Ordnance Survey calculated. A large part of the north-west of the county, around Coalville, forms part of the new National Forest area extending into Derbyshire and Staffordshire; the highest point of the county is Bardon Hill at 278 metres, a Marilyn. 150–200 metres and above in nearby Charnwood Forest and to the east of the county around Launde Abbey. The lowest point, at an altitude of about 20 metres, is located at the county's northernmost tip close to Bottesford where the River Devon flowing through the Vale of Belvoir leaves Leicestershire and enters Nottinghamshire.
This results in an altitude differential of around 257.5 metres and a mean altitude of 148.75 metres. The population of Leicestershire is 609,578 people; the county covers an area of 2,084 km2. Its largest population centre is the city of Leicester, followed by the town of Loughborough. Other large towns include Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Hinckley, Market Harborough, Melton Mowbray, Oadby and Lutterworth; some of the larger of villages are:Burbage Birstall, Broughton Astley, Castle Donington, Kibworth Beauchamp, Great Glen, Ibstock and Kegworth. One of the most expanding villages is Anstey, which has seen a large number of development schemes; the United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Leicester of 279,921, a 0.5% decrease from the 1991 census. 62,000 were aged under 16, 199,000 were aged 16–74, 19,000 aged 75 and over. 76.9% of Leicester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the City of Leicester stood at 289,700 making Leicester the most populous city in East Midlands.
The population density is 3,814/km2 and for every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Leicester, 38.5% had no academic qualifications higher than 28.9% in all of England. 23.0% of Leicester's residents were born outside of the United Kingdom, more than double than the English average of 9.2%. Engineering has long been an important part of the economy of Leicestershire. John Taylor Bellfounders co
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, 15 FA Community Shields. Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005. Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, the world's eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world.
Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester Everton. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies: the Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing; the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964, used since. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F. C. to play at Anfield. Named "Everton F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd", the club became Liverpool F. C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton.
The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906. Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, it won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950; the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years.
In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners' Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley's second season as manager, the club won another UEFA Cup double; the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley's nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups. Paisley was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan's first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium.
Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans Italians; the incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus; as a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter. Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup "Double" in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool's success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day.
After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium saf