300 is a 2006 American period action film based on the 1998 comic series of the same name by Frank Miller and Lynn Varley. Both are fictionalized retellings of the Battle of Thermopylae within the Persian Wars; the film was directed by Zack Snyder, while Miller served as executive consultant. It was filmed with a super-imposition chroma key technique, to help replicate the imagery of the original comic book; the plot revolves around King Leonidas, who leads 300 Spartans into battle against the Persian "God-King" Xerxes and his invading army of more than 300,000 soldiers. As the battle rages, Queen Gorgo attempts to rally support in Sparta for her husband; the story is framed by a voice-over narrative by the Spartan soldier Dilios. Through this narrative technique, various fantastical creatures are introduced, placing 300 within the genre of historical fantasy. 300 was released in both conventional and IMAX theaters in the United States on March 9, 2007, on DVD, Blu-ray Disc, HD DVD on July 31, 2007.
The film received mixed reviews from critics, which included praise for its original visuals and style but criticism for its depiction of the Persians, which some characterized as bigoted or Iranophobic. So, the film was a box office success, grossing over $450 million, the film's opening was the 24th-largest in box office history at the time. A sequel, titled Rise of an Empire, based on Miller's unpublished graphic novel prequel Xerxes, was released on March 7, 2014. In 479 BC, one year after the Battle of Thermopylae, Dilios, a hoplite in the Spartan Army, begins his story by depicting the life of Leonidas I from childhood to kingship via Spartan doctrine. Dilios's story continues and a Persian herald arrives at the gates of Sparta demanding "earth and water" as a token of submission to King Xerxes—the Spartans reply by throwing the envoy and his escort into a deep well. Leonidas visits the Ephors, proposing a strategy to drive back the numerically superior Persians through the Hot Gates.
His plan involves building a wall in order to funnel the Persians into a narrow pass between the rocks and the sea: negating the Persian advantage in numbers, giving Greeks heavy infantry the advantage over the vast waves of Persian light infantry. The Ephors consult the Oracle; as Leonidas angrily departs, an agent from Xerxes appears, rewarding the Ephors for their covert support. Although the Ephors have denied him permission to mobilize Sparta's army, Leonidas gathers three hundred of his best soldiers in the guise of his personal bodyguard, they are joined along the way by Arcadians. At Thermopylae, they construct the wall made up of stones and slain Persian scouts as mortar, angering a Persian emissary. Stelios, an elite Spartan soldier, orders the former to go back to the Persian lines and warn Xerxes, after cutting off his whipping arm. Meanwhile, Leonidas encounters Ephialtes, a deformed Spartan whose parents fled Sparta to spare him certain infanticide. Ephialtes asks to redeem his father's name by joining Leonidas' army, warning him of a secret path the Persians could use to outflank and surround the Spartans.
Though sympathetic, Leonidas rejects him since his deformity physically prevents him from holding his shield high enough compromising the phalanx formation, Ephialtes is enraged. The battle begins soon after the Spartans' refusal to lay down their weapons. Using the Hot Gates to their advantage, as well as their superior fighting skills, the Spartans repel wave after wave of the advancing Persian army. During a lull in the battle, Xerxes approaches Leonidas to persuade him to surrender, offering him wealth and power in exchange for his allegiance. Leonidas mocks Xerxes for the inferior quality of his fanatical warriors. In response, Xerxes sends in his elite guard, the Immortals that night; the Spartans nonetheless manage to defeat the Immortals with few losses, with slight help from the Arcadians. On the second day, Xerxes sends in new waves of armies from Asia and other Persian subject states, including war elephants, to crush the Spartans once and for all, but to no avail. Meanwhile, Ephialtes defects to Xerxes to whom he reveals the secret path in exchange for wealth, women, a Persian uniform.
The Arcadians retreat upon learning of Ephialtes' betrayal. Leonidas orders an injured but reluctant Dilios to return to Sparta and tell them of what has happened: a "tale of victory". In Sparta, Queen Gorgo tries to persuade the Spartan Council to send reinforcements to aid the 300. Theron, a corrupt politician, claims that he "owns" the Council and threatens the Queen, who reluctantly submits to his sexual demands in return for his help; when Theron disgraces her in front of the Council, Gorgo kills him out of rage, revealing within his robe a bag of Xerxes' gold. Marking his betrayal, the Council unanimously agrees to send reinforcements. On the third day, the Persians, led by Ephialtes, traverse the secret path. Xerxes' general again demands their surrender. Leonidas kneels in submission, allowing Stelios to leap over him and kill the general. A furious Xerxes orders his troops to attack. Leonidas throws his spear at Xerxes. Leonidas and the remaining Spartans fight to the last man until they succumb to an arrow barrage.
Dilios, now back at Sparta, concludes his tale before the Council. Inspired by Leonidas' sacrifice, Greeks mobilizes. One year the Persians face an army of 30,000 free Greeks led by a vanguard of 10,000 Spartans. After one final speech commemorating the 300, Di
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
James Dickinson "Dick" Irvin Jr. was a Canadian professional ice hockey player and coach. He played for professional teams in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association, the Western Canada Hockey League, the National Hockey League from 1916 to 1928, when he had to retire from repeated injuries. Irvin was one of the greatest players of his day, balancing a torrid slap shot and tough style with gentlemanly play. For his playing career, Irvin was named to the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1958. After playing, Irvin built a successful career as a coach in the NHL with the Chicago Black Hawks, Toronto Maple Leafs, Montreal Canadiens, he won one Stanley Cup as a coach with Toronto, three more with Montreal, finishing with over 600 wins as a coach. He served in the Canadian Army during World War I. Irvin was born in Hamilton, one of 10 children, six boys and four girls. Two of the boys died in infancy, the four girls all died of tuberculosis at an early age, his father James Dickinson Irvin Sr. was a butcher. The family moved to Manitoba when Dick Jr. was eight.
Dick played hockey from an early age, following in the footsteps of his oldest brother Alex. Their father would drive his sons and other boys to games by horse and sleigh, relying upon the horses' sense of direction in winter blizzards to return home safely; the family flooded the driveway of their home to create an ice rink which the Irvin sons would play on. Irvin set up a shooting area in the attic of the home, where he would shoot a puck at the doorknob of an old door mounted sideways against a wall. Irvin played junior and senior amateur hockey in Winnipeg, winning the Allan Cup in 1915 with the Winnipeg Monarchs, he first played senior hockey with the Winnipeg Strathconas at the early age of 12. Irvin was considered a top baseball player and he played on the Winnipeg Dominion Express team with his brothers Alex and George. Irvin was a competitive curler. Irvin began his professional career in 1916 with the Portland Rosebuds of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association and was the fourth leading scoring rookie tallying 35 goals.
Before the following season, the Canadian government instituted a draft in August 1917 and Irvin was inducted into the Canadian Army in November 1917. Irvin was taken on by The Fort Garry Horse regiment in April 1918 and arrived in England in May 1918, he was transferred to France in August 1918 and in October was transferred to a signals unit as a motorcycle rider. The war ended in November 1918 and Irvin arrived back in Halifax in May 1919. Irvin was reinstated as an amateur and he played three seasons with the Regina Victorias senior club, he returned to professional hockey in 1921 with the Regina Capitals of the Western Canada Hockey League. In 1926, at age 34, he entered the National Hockey League, signed by the newly formed Chicago Black Hawks. Irvin was made the team's first captain, had an impressive campaign, finishing second in the league in scoring. In their first season, the Black Hawks led all NHL teams in scoring, led by Irvin and Babe Dye. Irvin's second season turned to tragedy as he fractured his skull, which led to retirement after the 1928–29 season, during which he had added coaching duties.
The Hawks had finished with the worst record in the NHL in both of his last two seasons as a player. Irvin was hired as head coach of the Black Hawks in 1930, in his first season behind the bench led the team to 24 wins, 17 losses and 3 ties; the Black Hawks made it to the Stanley Cup Final but lost and the Black Hawks released him in September 1931. That November, the Toronto Maple Leafs were winless after five games and manager Conn Smythe convinced Irvin to coach the Leafs. In his first season coaching the Leafs, he achieved immediate success by winning the Stanley Cup. Irvin would lead the Leafs to the finals six more times, but could not deliver another Cup to Toronto. By the end of the 1939–40 season, which ended with yet another loss in the finals, Smythe believed that Irvin had taken the Leafs as far as he could and decided to replace him with former Leafs captain Hap Day, who had retired. Smythe knew that he would be away in the war and felt that Irvin would not be tough enough without Smythe to back him up.
Meanwhile, the Montreal Canadiens had just suffered a ten-win season, were looking for a new coach. Knowing that the Canadiens were in serious straits off the ice as well as on it, Smythe suggested that the Canadiens hire Irvin, solving both teams' issues. Soon afterwards, Tommy Gorman drove him to Montreal to become coach of the team. Irvin didn't take long to turn the Canadiens around, he had them back in the playoffs in his first season, in his fourth season took them all the way to the Stanley Cup—the first of six finals appearances and three Cups. Helped by star players Elmer Lach, Doug Harvey, goalie Bill Durnan and a young Maurice Richard, the Canadiens were just beginning to blossom as an NHL dynasty. Although Irvin found his greatest success in Montreal, he came under fire for encouraging "goon" tactics after Montreal fans rioted in protest of Richard's season-ending suspension for attacking a referee, he was well known for looking the other way when stick-swinging duels broke out in practices.
Although they made it to the Final, internal pressure forced Irvin to step down. He returned to the Black Hawks as head coach for the 1955–56 season, taking the reins of a moribund team that had only made the playoffs once in the past 10 years and finished last in the past two seasons. Irvin was unable to turn the team's fortunes around, the Black Hawks again ended the year in last place, despite
The Rocket (2005 film)
The Rocket is a French-Canadian biopic about the ice hockey player Maurice "The Rocket" Richard. It stars Roy Dupuis and was directed by Charles Binamé, it features appearances by National Hockey League players Mike Ricci, Sean Avery, Vincent Lecavalier, Philippe Sauvé, Stéphane Quintal, Ian Laperrière and Pascal Dupuis. The film depicts an era considered a cornerstone of the NHL's history, it shows the life of'The Rocket' beginning with his years as a teenager, his ascension to the Montreal Canadiens, up to the Richard Riot, showing a full spectrum of Richard's career. It ends the year before Richard brought Montréal to an unrivaled record of five Stanley Cup Championships in a row; the film begins as the Canadiens coach argues for continuing the hockey game though the Richard Riot is occurring. The film rolls to Maurice labouring as a teenager. Maurice plays hockey for a minor league and soon tries out for the Canadiens, he makes it on the team. Maurice scores several goals but is injured early in his first season.
People begin to call a waste of money. Maurice is asked to sit out, he and his wife receive a baby girl who weighs 9 pounds. Maurice goes to his coach and asks to exchange the number 15 for the number 9. Maurice breaks the record of 44 goals in one season. In a game with the New York Rangers, he encounters Bob Dill, a player sent out to attack Maurice to prevent him from beating the record. Maurice however, takes out Dill; as the movie proceeds, other players attempt to take out Maurice fights back. At one point Maurice is required to have stitches. Maurice receives the stitches but continues playing near the end of the game and scores the game-winning goal. On, a referee grabs Maurice and allows the other hockey player to hit him, he is given a penalty denying him from playing for the rest of the season and the play offs and the Richard Riot begins. Maurice will return next year; the movie shows a few goals from the real Maurice Richard. The film ends as Maurice walks out the stadium with a message that says "Maurice played for 5 more years" and "During which, he won 5 Stanley Cups in a row."
The dialogue and hockey scenes were produced to be as true to reality as possible. The events presented as facts and the dialogue have been researched to present the most factually accurate film possible. Many sources were consulted for facts within the movie, including family, the public, the media recording those events, various journalists reporting on the events of that time, Richard's barber, previous teams in the juvenile league; the film was shot in Quebec by Cinémaginaire for a budget of $8,000,000 and distributed by Alliance Atlantis and Odeon. Maurice Richard was first released in French throughout Québec in November 2005 throughout Canada with English subtitles in April 2006; the distribution rights were marketed at the Cannes Film Festival by Telefilm Canada, whose press release of 30 May 2006, reports that "Cinémaginaire producer Denise Robert inked deals for The Rocket with five Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Iceland and Denmark." It was released in the United States as The Rocket: The Legend of Rocket Richard and was distributed by Palm Pictures.
The film was nominated in 13 categories for the 27th Genie Awards in 2007, winning nine awards: Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role: Roy Dupuis Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role: Julie Le Breton Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role: Stephen McHattie Best Direction: Charles Binamé Best Art Direction/Production Design: Michel Proulx Best Cinematography: Pierre Gill Best Costume Design: Francesca Chamberland Best Editing: Michel Arcand Best Sound Editing: Claude Beaugrand, Olivier Calvert, Jérôme Décarie, Natalie Fleurant, Francine PoirierNominations: Best Motion Picture: Denise Robert, Daniel Louis Best Music – Original Score: Michel Cusson Best Overall Sound: Claude Hazanavicius, Claude Beaugrand, Luc Boudrias, Bernard Gariépy Strobl Best Original Screenplay: Ken Scott It was nominated for a Jutra Award in 14 categories, including Best Actor for Roy Dupuis. The film was screened in competition at Tokyo International Film Festival where Dupuis won the "Best Actor" prize.
Notes BibliographyCTV Staff. "'The Rocket' Captures Quebec's 1950s Climate". CTV Television Network. CTVglobemedia. Retrieved 2008-11-10. Floren, Erik. "Movie Reviews: The Story of Maurice Richard:'Rocket' a Soaring Tribute to NHL Icon". Edmonton Sun. Jam! Movies. Retrieved 2008-09-09. Harris, Bill. "The Rocket". Winnipeg Sun. Sun Media Corp.. Archived from the original on 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2008-11-10. Lebrun, Pierre. "NHLPlayers Bring Authenticity to The Rocket". London Free Press. Web. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2008-11-10. Pender, Tracy Nita. "Congorama C
Watchmen is a 2009 American neo-noir superhero film directed by Zack Snyder, based on the 1986–87 DC Comics limited series of the same name by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons. It stars an ensemble cast of Malin Åkerman, Billy Crudup, Matthew Goode, Carla Gugino, Jackie Earle Haley, Jeffrey Dean Morgan, Patrick Wilson. A dark satirical and dystopian take on the superhero genre, the film is set in an alternate history in the year 1985 at the height of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, as a group of retired American superheroes investigates the murder of one of their own before uncovering an elaborate and deadly conspiracy, while their moral limitations are challenged by the complex nature of the circumstances. From October 1987 until October 2005, a live-action film adaptation of the Watchmen series became stranded in development hell. During the 2000s, Gordon and Lloyd Levin collaborated with Universal Studios and Paramount Pictures to produce a script by David Hayter.
However, Fox sued Warner Bros. for copyright violation arising from Gordon's failure to pay a buy-out in 1991, which enabled him to develop the film at the other studios. Fox and Warner Bros. settled this before the film's release, with Fox receiving a portion of the gross. Principal photography began in Vancouver, September 2007; as with his previous film 300, Snyder modelled his storyboards on the comic, but chose not to shoot all of Watchmen using green screens and opted for real sets instead. Following its world premiere at Odeon Leicester Square on February 23, 2009, the film was released in both conventional and IMAX theaters on March 6, 2009, grossed $55 million on its opening weekend and over $185 million at the worldwide box office; the film polarized critics. A DVD based on elements of the Watchmen universe was released, including an animated adaptation of the comic Tales of the Black Freighter within the story starring Gerard Butler, the fictional biography Under the Hood, detailing the older generation of superheroes from the film's back-story.
A director's cut with 24 minutes of additional footage was released in July 2009. The "Ultimate Cut" edition incorporated the animated comic Tales of the Black Freighter into the narrative as it was in the original graphic novel, lengthening the runtime to 3 hours and 35 minutes, was released on November 3, 2009; the directors cut was received better than the theatrical release. Utilizing an alternative timeline and applying multiverse theory, the story exists in a nearly identical, but separate America, while mimicking both significant time periods. Starting in 1939, during the fading Interwar Period, a team of costumed crime fighters called the Minutemen formed in response to a rise in costumed gangs and criminals, their existence and influence affected world events: Doctor Manhattan's powers have helped the United States win the Vietnam War, given the West a strategic near-peer parity military advantage over the Soviet Union, which by 1985 threatens to escalate the Cold War into a committed thermonuclear war.
Additionally, the Comedian has suppressed evidence of the Watergate Scandal, allowing President Richard Nixon to stand for, be re-elected, serve multiple consecutive Presidential Terms. Owing to success in ending the War, dodging The Watergate Incident, overwhelming support sees a full Repeal of the 22nd Amendment. Growing anti-vigilante sentiment is sweeping the U. S. general public, coupled with a massive nationwide police strike, enables the passing of the Keene Act, deeming all "costumed adventuring" and "vigilantism" illegal. While many of the heroes retire, Dr. Manhattan and the Comedian operate as government-sanctioned agents, Rorschach continues to operate outside the law. While investigating the murder of government agent Edward Blake, Rorschach discovers that Blake was the Comedian, theorizes that someone may be attempting to eliminate former costumed heroes, he warns his retired comrades—Daniel Dreiberg, Dr. Manhattan, the latter's lover a former heroine Laurie Jupiter. Dr. Manhattan ignores Rorschach, Dreiberg is skeptical, but relays this information to vigilante-turned-billionaire Adrian Veidt, who dismisses it.
At a press conference, reporter Ted Koppel proposes that Dr. Manhattan has given several people close to him cancer, bringing in his ex-girlfriend to reveal that she has cancer. Outraged, the attendees surround and question Dr. Manhattan, who angrily exiles himself to Mars, giving the Soviets the confidence to invade Afghanistan. Rorschach's theory appears to be justified when Veidt narrowly avoids an assassination attempt, Rorschach finds himself framed for the murder of a former villain named Moloch; when Rorschach is arrested, his identity is revealed to be Walter Kovacs, he is se
Margaret Foster is an American actress who had roles in the TV miniseries version of The Scarlet Letter and the films Ticket to Heaven, The Osterman Weekend, They Live among many other projects. Foster was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, to David and Nancy Foster, grew up in Rowayton, Connecticut with four siblings: sisters Gray and Nina, brother Ian, she studied acting at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York. In 1968, Foster acted in a Cornell Summer Theater production of John Brown's Body. In 1968, she was in the off-Broadway production of The Empire Builders; when Loretta Swit was unable to reprise her film role of Detective Christine Cagney in the Cagney & Lacey series, Foster took on the role for the short first season, before she was replaced by Sharon Gless. Entertainment columnist Dick Kleiner wrote in August 1982 about Foster's being dropped from the show: "It isn't a pretty story, no matter who you talk to. Meg was so distraught that she still isn't talking, but she told friends that she felt as though she had been hit by a truck."
Kleiner's story implied. "Until that news spread," he wrote, "she was an in-demand actress."Foster worked throughout the 1970s, 80s and 90s. She guest-starred in numerous TV shows including two episodes of Hawaii Five-O, The Six Million Dollar Man season two episode "Straight on'till Morning", Three for the Road, the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine season four episode "The Muse". Other TV shows include Bonanza, The Twilight Zone, Here Come the Brides, Storefront Lawyers, Barnaby Jones, She Wrote, Miami Vice, The Cosby Show, Quantum Leap, ER, Xena: Warrior Princess, she was Hera in Hercules: The Legendary Journeys She appeared in a number of memorable movie roles throughout the 80s, including the villainous Evil-Lyn in the big screen version of Masters of the Universe and Holly in the John Carpenter film They Live alongside "Rowdy" Roddy Piper. She was nominated for a 1982 Genie Award for "Best Performance by a Foreign Actress" for the film Ticket to Heaven. Since the 1990s, Foster has acted in stage productions, including King Lear and Barabbas.
Foster's striking pale-blue eyes were dubbed "the eyes of 1979" by Mademoiselle magazine. In a newspaper interview that same year, she stated that her eyes, at least in her opinion, were not “so distinctive". However, on some occasions film and television producers did have Foster wear contact lenses to lessen what they viewed as the distractive effects of her eyes during screen performances. Foster is divorced from Canadian actor Stephen McHattie, she has Christopher. Meg Foster on IMDb Meg Foster at AllMovie Meg Foster at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Von Richthofen and Brown
Von Richthofen and Brown, alternatively titled The Red Baron, is a 1971 war film directed by Roger Corman and starring John Phillip Law and Don Stroud as Manfred von Richthofen and Roy Brown. Although names of real people are used, the story by Joyce Hooper Corrington and John William Corrington makes no claim to be accurate, in fact is fictional. Manfred von Richthofen, a German cavalry officer is newly assigned to an air squadron under the command of Oswald Boelcke. Across the lines, another pilot, a Canadian named Roy Brown, arrives at a British squadron under the command of Lanoe Hawker; the two pilots are different. Richthofen becomes outwardly energized by the war. Outraged by an order to camouflage his squadron's aircraft, he paints them in bright conspicuous colours, claiming that gentlemen should not hide from their enemies; the toll on both squadrons is highlighted when Richthofen is wounded during an aerial battle and Lanoe Hawker is killed. The war becomes personal for both when Brown and his squadron attack Richthofen's airfield, destroying their aircraft on the ground.
Revenge comes when Richthofen, with the help of a batch of new fighters from Anthony Fokker launches a counterattack on the British airfield. Back at their aerodrome, Richthofen rants at Göring for leaving the formation and strafing medical personnel, he calls Göring an assassin, who defends himself by saying: "I make war to win." and the ends justified the means if it meant a German victory. Richthofen tells him: "Get out of my sight!", threatening that if Göring does something similar again, he will go to the Kaiser to make sure Göring is executed. Richthofen's passion for the war fades, becoming dismayed and depressed that his squadron is losing so many pilots, he starts to realize that Germany might lose the war. Caught between his disgust for the war, the responsibility for his fighter wing, he refuses a job offer from the government deciding to help fight alongside his men, knowing it will lead to his death in combat. Brown proves uncooperative, he says. He has a rather defeatist attitude and says that they are all going to die before the war comes to an end.
On April 21, 1918, Richthofen and Brown engage in an aerial duel during which Richthofen receives a fatal wound. He is able to land his aircraft; the Allied pilots congratulate Brown on downing Richthofen. The pilot who will take over from Richthofen is Göring. Roger Corman had been interested in making a film about Manfred von Richthofen for a number of years, he felt that the Baron was the last true knight, an aristocratic warrior with a code of honor, wanted to show how the Baron's way of thinking was archaic compared to the wholesale slaughter of World War I. Another thing he wanted to do was to contrast the Baron with the man, credited with shooting him down, Canadian RAF pilot Roy Brown. In 1965 it was announced, he pitched the project to 20th Century Fox along with the St Valentine's Day Massacre. Years Corman signed a deal with United Artists who liked the idea of a film about the Red Baron but did not want the film to be too German, so Corman agreed to make it about Roy Brown and other characters from both areas of the battle front that could be added to the script.
Although the story of the two foes who meet in a fateful last flight, was a historical subject, Corman's intention was to treat the subject as an allegory of the modern war machine in conflict with antiquated old world notions of chivalry. Work on the film went ahead, with Corman able to work with a much larger budget than he enjoyed with his earlier features. Ex-RCAF pilot Lynn Garrison supplied the aircraft and facilities, coordinated the flying sequences; the collection included replica Pfalz D. IIIs, Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5s, Fokker D. VIIs, Fokker Dr. Is. A number of de Havilland DH.82A Tiger Moths and Stampe SV.4Cs had been converted to represent other aircraft, for a total of 12 aircraft available for aerial scenes. As with "The Blue Max," flying sequences were based at Weston Airport in Ireland. Richard Bach, author of Jonathan Livingstone Seagull, was one of the film's stunt pilots, wrote about some of his experiences at Weston during its production. For the aerial sequences, Corman used an Aérospatiale Alouette II helicopter, along with a Helio Courier, for the photography, supported by a number of specialized camera mounts Garrison developed for use on individual aircraft.
This allowed footage such as John Philip Law and Don Stroud "flying" the aircraft. Garrison trained Law and Stroud to the point where they could take off, land a Stampe, fly basic sequences themselves from the rear seat, filmed with a rear-facing camera. Stunt pilots such as Bach were used for the more complicated sequences. Corman used a filming schedule that included so-called "Blue Days, Grey Days and Don’t Give a Damn Days" so that the aircraft were used no matter what t