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Stephen Smale

Stephen Smale is an American mathematician, known for his research in topology, dynamical systems and mathematical economics. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1966 and spent more than three decades on the mathematics faculty of the University of California, Berkeley. Smale was born in Flint and entered the University of Michigan in 1948, he was a good student, placing into an honors calculus sequence taught by Bob Thrall and earning himself A's. However, his sophomore and junior years were marred with mediocre grades Bs, Cs and an F in nuclear physics. However, with some luck, Smale was accepted as a graduate student at the University of Michigan's mathematics department, yet again, Smale performed poorly in his first years. It was only when the department chair, threatened to kick Smale out that he began to work hard. Smale earned his Ph. D. in 1957, under Raoul Bott. Smale began his career as an instructor at the college at the University of Chicago. In 1958, he astounded the mathematical world with a proof of a sphere eversion.

He cemented his reputation with a proof of the Poincaré conjecture for all dimensions greater than or equal to 5, published in 1961. After having made great strides in topology, he turned to the study of dynamical systems, where he made significant advances as well, his first contribution is the Smale horseshoe that started significant research in dynamical systems. He outlined a research program carried out by many others. Smale is known for injecting Morse theory into mathematical economics, as well as recent explorations of various theories of computation. In 1998 he compiled a list of 18 problems in mathematics to be solved in the 21st century, known as Smale's problems; this list was compiled in the spirit of Hilbert's famous list of problems produced in 1900. In fact, Smale's list contains some of the original Hilbert problems, including the Riemann hypothesis and the second half of Hilbert's sixteenth problem, both of which are still unsolved. Other famous problems on his list include the Poincaré conjecture, the P = NP problem, the Navier–Stokes equations, all of which have been designated Millennium Prize Problems by the Clay Mathematics Institute.

Earlier in his career, Smale was involved in controversy over remarks he made regarding his work habits while proving the higher-dimensional Poincaré conjecture. He said that his best work had been done "on the beaches of Rio." This led to the withholding of his grant money from the NSF. He has been politically active in various movements in the past, such as the Free Speech movement and the movement against the Vietnam War. At one time he was subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities Committee. In 1960 Smale was appointed an associate professor of mathematics at the University of California, moving to a professorship at Columbia University the following year. In 1964 he returned to a professorship at UC Berkeley where he has spent the main part of his career, he retired from UC Berkeley in 1995 and took up a post as professor at the City University of Hong Kong. He amassed over the years one of the finest private mineral collections in existence. Many of Smale's mineral specimens can be seen in the book—The Smale Collection: Beauty in Natural Crystals.

Since 2002 Smale is a Professor at the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago. In 2007, Smale was awarded the Wolf Prize in mathematics. Smale, Stephen. "Generalized Poincaré's conjecture in dimensions greater than four". Annals of Mathematics. 74. Pp. 391–406. Doi:10.2307/1970239. JSTOR 1970239. MR 0137124. Smale, Stephen. "Differentiable dynamical systems". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 73. Pp. 747–817. Doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1967-11798-1. MR 0228014. F. Cucker & R Wong, The Collected Papers of Stephen Smale, ISBN 978-981-02-4307-4. L. Blum, F. Cucker, M. Shub and S. Smale and Real Computation, ISBN 0-387-98281-7. With Morris W. Hirsch: Differential Equations, Dynamical Systems, Linear Algebra, ISBN 978-0123495501 with Morris W. Hirsch and Robert L. Devaney: Differential Equations, Dynamical Systems, an Introduction to Chaos, ISBN 978-0123820105 Geometric mechanics Stephen Smale at the Mathematics Genealogy Project O'Connor, John J.. Weisstein, Eric W. "Smale's Problems". MathWorld. Robion Kirby, Stephen Smale: The Mathematician Who Broke the Dimension Barrier, a book review of a biography in the Notices of the AMS.

Personal websites at universitiesSteven Smale at the City University of Hong Kong Stephen Smale at the University of Chicago Steve Smale at the University of California, Berkeley

Scissors jump

The scissors is a style used in the athletics event of high jump. As it allows jumpers to land on their feet, it is the style most used by junior athletes where the landing surface is not deep or soft enough to meet full competition standards; the approach in the scissors is a straight line at 30 to 50 degrees to the bar, jumping over the lowest point of the bar, the centre. Speed is brisk to ensure horizontal travel over the bar, but not a full out sprint, as there is little chance to resolve forward motion into vertical motion at take-off. Horizontal acceleration should be complete by take-off, with the shoulders held high and the take-off leg flexing to launch the jumper into the air. At take-off the leg nearer the bar is swung into the air to clear the bar. At the same time the hips and body are driven into the air by the take-off leg; as the jumper crosses the bar, the trailing or take-off leg has to be swung up to clear the bar. If this occurs as the lead leg crosses and clears the bar, the lead leg can be driven downwards, helping to keep the athlete's centre of mass closer to the bar.

This up-down/up movement of the legs can best be described as a scissoring action. Once the take-off leg has left the ground the athlete should attempt to pull the upper body face down towards the knee to keep the centre of mass as close as possible to the bar. Care must be taken not to hit the head against the knee. Driving or swinging the arms into the air at take-off provides additional upwards momentum; the arms can be brought back to the sides during clearance, as a further measure to keep the centre of mass as close as possible to the bar. With these measures, it is clear that the bar remains below the centre of mass, so the scissors is far from an optimal clearance technique. Landing from the scissors is on the feet, but a landing area of soft matting or sand is desirable to reduce foot impact; until the invention of the eastern cut-off by Michael Sweeney in the 1890s, high jumpers used primitive variants of the basic scissors style. One of the most eminent of these early jumpers was Marshall Brooks of Oxford University, who achieved the first jump of 6 ft on 17 March 1876.

A few weeks he improved this mark to 6 ft 2​1⁄2 inches. This record stood until 1880; these jumpers ran straight at the bar in a style not unlike long-jumping with hips lifted. Indeed, Davin was holder of the world long jump record; the next world record in high jump was the first achieved with a true scissors style. In 1887 the high jump record was captured by a US athlete, William Byrd-Page of the University of Pennsylvania, first with a clearance of 6 ft 3​1⁄4 inches, 6 ft 4 inches. Thereafter, all world high jump records. Byrd-Page's record was first bettered by Michael Sweeney, inventor of the eastern cut-off mentioned above. Sweeney jumped 6 ft 5​5⁄8 inches in 1895, a record that stood until 1912. 1912 was the last time that the men's world record was held by a variant of the scissors style, however the women's world was held in the 1960s by the eastern cut-off jumper Iolanda Balas of Romania. The eastern cut-off was undoubtedly the most natural and successful variation of the scissors technique.

But a few jumpers achieved world-class performances with another variation, the so-called modified scissors. In the modified scissors, the upper body leans back after takeoff, leading to a layout on the back above the bar; this gives a efficient clearance, but it made for an uncomfortable landing in the early days, when the jumper fell into a sandpit. The first successful exponent of the modified scissors was Clinton Larson of Brigham University, in Provo, US champion in 1917. Larson is credited with an exhibition jump of 6 ft 8 inches, which exceeded the world record of the time, held by western roller Edward Beeson. More than 30 years the style was reinvented by Bob Barksdale of Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. Barksdale achieved an official clearance of 6 ft 9 inches in early 1956, when the world record stood at 6 ft 11​1⁄2 inches, his technique differed from Larson's in a small but significant way: his head preceded his hips in crossing the bar. In Larson's time there was a "no diving" rule.

When the rule was repealed, in the late 1930s, the main result was the development of "dive" variants of the western roll and straddle techniques. But it opened the possibility of a "back dive" scissors, Barksdale's technique was a first step in that direction. A full-blown "back dive scissors" is none other than the Fosbury flop, used universally today. In a nice recapitulation of high jump history, flop jumpers sometimes use the scissors when warming up. For a good example, see the video of Stefan Holm nonchalantly scissoring over 2.10m while still wearing his track suit, or Mutaz Barshim over 2.15m at training

SV Limburgia

Sport Vereniging Limburgia was a Dutch football/sports club from the city of Brunssum. Today it exists as BSV Limburgia SV Limburgia was founded on 9 May 1920 by the Limburgian coal mines, under the name Rhenania. In 1927 the club moved to Park Limburgia situated along the Venweg and was renamed Sportvereniging Staatsmijn Hendrik. On 14 July 1936, during a general assembly, the name was changed to Limburgia, their sports terrain consisted of four football fields. The stadium could fit 14.000 people. Between 1925 and 1939 Limburgia played in the second division. After the 1939–1940 they were promoted to the first division only to be relegated after one season. In the 1943 -- 1944 season they stayed there. In 1945–1946 Limburgia won the first division and were allowed to compete for the Dutch championship, they finished sixth and thus last. The 1949–50 season proved to be the most successful. After winning the regional first division, they were again allowed to compete in for the national championship.

The championship was to be decided between Blauw Wit. On the last match day Limburgia was leading by one point, thus a win would secure their first national championship, their final game was played on 24 June 1950 against Ajax in the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam. Limburgia won this game with 6–0 and thus secured the Dutch national championship; the final results of the 1949–50 season: After the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands, Limburgia's fame declined. In 1963 they relegated to the Tweede Divisie. In 1971 they were relegated to the amateurs and in 1998 Limburgia merged with RKBSV to form BSV Limburgia, they still play in the amateur leagues. Http://www.brunssum.nl/content.jsp?objectid=36592 https://archive.is/20050208163017/http://www.bsvlimburgia.nl/geschiedenis/historieLimburgia.html

Doin' My Thing

Doin' My Thing is the second studio album by American country music artist Luke Bryan. It was released on October 2009 by Capitol Nashville; the album includes the singles "Do I," which peaked at number 2 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, "Rain Is a Good Thing", Bryan's first number one hit on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, "Someone Else Calling You Baby." Included is a cover version of OneRepublic's "Apologize." The album has sold over a million copies in the United States by February 2016. This was Luke's first album to have a crossover-friendly country-pop sound, a departure from the neotraditional country sound of his first album. "Do I" is the first single from the album. Bryan co-wrote this song with Charles Kelley and Dave Haywood of the group Lady Antebellum, whose lead singer Hillary Scott sings background vocals on it. Included is a cover version of OneRepublic's "Apologize." Regarding the album's sound, Bryan told CMT, "We wanted to make a bigger-sounding record, something that moved a little down the road from the first record.

We wanted to show my growth vocally and lyrically." Country Weekly critic Chris Neal gave the album three-and-a-half stars out of five, saying that it showed a country music influence in the lyrics. Neal said that "Do I" showed "a knack for convincingly delivering hymns to thwarted love," and said that while the "Apologize" cover was "well-sung," it was not "meant to be country." Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic gave it three-and-a-half stars, saying that it was more relaxed than I'll Stay Me. Matt Bjorke described the album favorably in his review for Roughstock, where he wrote that "Bryan doesn't have to worry about a sophomore slump as he seems to have gotten better both musically and vocally on album number two." Michael Sudhalter of Country Standard Time gave a positive review, saying that Bryan's songwriting seemed stronger than on the first album. Mike Brignardellobass guitar Luke Bryan – lead vocals Joe Chemay – bass guitar J. T. Corenflos – electric guitar Paul Franklinpedal steel guitar Kenny Greenberg – electric guitar Rob Hajacos – fiddle Tony Harrell – organ, piano Kirk "Jelly Roll" Johnson – harmonica Mike Johnson – pedal steel guitar Paul Leimdrums, percussion B.

James Lowry – acoustic guitar Greg Morrow – drums, percussion Mike Rojas – organ, piano Hillary Scott – background vocals Joe Spivey – fiddle, mandolin Russell Terrell – background vocals John Willisbanjo, acoustic guitar

Inosinic acid

Inosinic acid or inosine monophosphate is a nucleoside monophosphate. Used as a flavor enhancer, it is obtained from chicken byproducts or other meat industry waste. Inosinic acid is important in metabolism, it is the ribonucleotide of hypoxanthine and the first nucleotide formed during the synthesis of purine. It is formed by the deamination of adenosine monophosphate by AMP deaminase, is hydrolysed to inosine. IMP is an intermediate ribonucleoside monophosphate in purine metabolism; the enzyme deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase, encoded by YJR069C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and containing ITPase and XTPase activities, hydrolyzes inosine triphosphate releasing pyrophosphate and IMP. Important derivatives of inosinic acid include purine nucleotides found in nucleic acids and adenosine triphosphate, used to store chemical energy in muscle and other tissues. In the food industry, inosinic acid and its salts such as disodium inosinate are used as flavor enhancers, it is known as E number reference E630.

The inosinate synthesis is complex, beginning with a 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. In the first step, an amino group given by glutamine is attached at carbon 1 of PRPP; the resulting molecule is 5-phosphoribosylamine, unstable, with a half-life of 30 seconds at physiologic pH. 5-Phosphoribosylamine gains an amino acid, becoming glycinamide ribonucleotide. N10-formyltetrahydrofolate transfers a formyl group to glycinamide ribonucleotide to form formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide. Using an ATP molecule, glutamine donates an ammonia molecule, added to the compound forming formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide. Another ATP molecule causes an intermolecular reaction; the next step of the pathway is adding bicarbonate to make carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide by using ATP. The imidazole’s carboxylate group phosphatises and adds aspartate; this six-step process links glycine, bicarbonate and aspartate to lead to an intermediate that contains all the required atoms to synthesize a purine ring. This intermediate removes fumarate, a second formyl group from tetrahydrofolic acid is added.

The compound gets cycled and forms inosinate after a sort of intermolecular reaction. Inosinate is the first intermediate in this synthesis pathway to have a whole purine ring. Enzymes taking part in IMP synthesis constitute a multienzyme complex in the cell. Evidence demonstrates that there are multifunctional enzymes, some of them catalyze non-sequential steps in the pathway. Within a few steps inosinate becomes AMP or GMP. Both compounds are RNA nucleotides. AMP differs from inosinate by the replacement of IMP's carbon-6 carbonyl with an amino group; the interconversion of AMP and IMP occurs as part of the purine nucleotide cycle. GMP is formed by the inosinate oxidation to xanthylate, afterwards adds an amino group on carbon 2. Hydrogen acceptor on inosinate oxidation is NAD+. Carbon 2 gains the amino group by spending an ATP molecule. While AMP synthesis requires GTP, GMP synthesis uses ATP; that difference offers an important regulation possibility. Inosinate and many other molecules inhibit the synthesis of 5-phosphorybosilamine from 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, disabling the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction: glutamine-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate-amidotransferase.

In other words, when levels of inosinate are high, glutamine-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate-amidotransferase is inhibited, and, as a consequence, inosinate levels decrease. As a result and guanylate are not produced, which means that RNA synthesis cannot be completed because of the lack of these two important RNA nucleotides. Inosinic acid can be converted into various salts including disodium inosinate, dipotassium inosinate, calcium inosinate; these three compounds are used as flavor enhancers for the basic taste umami with a comparatively high effectiveness. They are used in soups and seasonings for the intensification and balance of the flavor of meat. Berg, Jeremy M.. Nelson, David L.. H Freeman and Company.

Interurban Trail (King County)

The Interurban Trail South is a rail trail in King and Pierce counties, Washington. The interurban trail North is a bicycle route running from Downtown Seattle through Shoreline and to the Snohomish County, Washington line; the Interurban Trail South is a paved 14-mile recreational trail open for non-motorized use. It connects Tukwila to Pacific, the towns of Kent and Algona along the way. Additionally, the Cities of Edgewood and Milton have completed and opened paved segments of the Interurban trail that are not yet connected to the main segment from Tukwila to Pacific, the City of Fife has a short segment now under construction; when planned construction is completed to close the gaps in Pacific and Milton, the trail will extend from Tukwila to Fife. The trail occupies an abandoned Puget Sound Electric Railway corridor and connects to the Green River Trail. In addition to the main line of the Interurban trail between Tukwila and Fife the Interurban Trail will connect to the planned northerly extension of the Foothills Trail through Puyallup and Sumner.

When that connection is completed, a continuous trail will extend south through Pacific, across the county line into Sumner and Puyallup where it will connect with the existing Pierce County Foothills Trail to South Prairie and the planned extension of the Foothills trail to Buckley and Enumclaw. The Interurban Trail North begins as a signed bicycle route in downtown Seattle running through the Fremont neighborhood, through Phinney Ridge and Greenwood, to 110th and Fremont where it becomes a paved rail trail until 128th and Linden where it will become a cycletrack to the City of Shoreline Border. At the City of Shoreline the route becomes a wide non-motorized route for 3 miles until the Snohomish County line. Interurban Trail at KingCounty.gov King County Bicycling Guidemap - Southern Section