Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status. The NHS commissions most emergency services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other services, the public normally access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which gradually merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary contract for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England. The service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service was established in 1995 by parliamentary order, and serves the whole of Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust was established on 1 April 1998, there is a large market for private and voluntary ambulance services, with the sector being worth £800m to the UK economy in 2012. This places the voluntary providers in direct competition with private services, expenditure on private ambulances in England increased from £37m in 2011−12 to £67. 5m in 2013/4, rising in London from £796,000 to more than £8. 8m. In 2014−15, these 10 ambulance services spent £57.6 million on 333,329 callouts of private or voluntary services - an increase of 156% since 2010−11, in 2013, the CQC found 97% of private ambulance services to be providing good care. These private, registered services are represented by the Independent Ambulance Association, there are a number of unregistered services operating, who do not provide ambulance transport, but only provide response on an event site. These firms are not regulated, and are not subject to the checks as the registered providers, although they may operate similar vehicles.
There are a number of ambulance providers, sometimes known as Voluntary Aid Services or Voluntary Aid Societies, with the main ones being the British Red Cross. The history of the ambulance services pre-dates any government organised service. As they are in competition for work with the private ambulance providers. Voluntary organisations have provided cover for the public when unionised NHS ambulance trust staff have taken industrial action, there are a number of smaller voluntary ambulance organisations, fulfilling specific purposes, such as Hatzola who provide emergency medical services to the orthodox Jewish community in some cities. These have however run into difficulties due to use of vehicles not legally recognised as ambulances, all emergency medical services in the UK are subject to a range of legal and regulatory requirements, and in many cases are monitored for performance. This framework is largely statutory in nature, being mandated by government through a range of primary and secondary legislation and this requires all providers to register, to meet certain standards of quality, and to submit to inspection of those standards
East End of London
The East End of London, known simply as the East End, is an area of Central and East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, and north of the River Thames. The relevance of Strypes reference to the Tower was more than geographical, the East End was the major part of an area called the Tower Division, which owed military service to the Tower of London. Later, as the East End grew and the Tower Division contracted, the area was notorious for its deep poverty and associated social problems. This has led to the East End’s history of political activism. Another major theme of East End history has been that of migration, Irish weavers, Ashkenazi Jews and, in the 20th century, Bangladeshis. The East End lies east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, Aldgate Pump on the edge of the City is the symbolic start of the East End and, on the river, Tower Bridge is sometimes described in these terms. Beyond these references though, the East End has no official or popularly accepted boundaries, a common preference is to include the modern borough of Tower Hamlets, together with the former parish and borough of Shoreditch.
This version makes the East End conterminous with the Tower Division of Middlesex under the borders that area had in the 19th century when the East End completed the process of urbanisation, an alternative definition is based solely on the modern borough of Tower Hamlets. Parts of the old parish and borough of Hackney are sometimes included, while others include areas east of the Lea such as West Ham, East Ham, knew not the way to the East End. The East End began with the growth of London beyond the walls, along the Roman Roads leading from Bishopsgate and Aldgate. Building accelerated in the 16th century, and the area that would become known East End began to take shape. The relevance of Strypes reference to the Tower was more than geographical, the East End was the major part of an area called the Tower Division, which had its roots in the Bishop of Londons historic Manor of Stepney and owed military service to the Tower of London. Later, as the East End grew and the Tower Division contracted, for a very long time the East End was physically separated from the Londons western growth by the open spaces known as Moorfields.
Shoreditchs boundary with the parish of St Lukes ran through the Moorfields countryside becoming, on urbanisation and that line, with very slight modifications, has become the boundary of the modern London Boroughs of Hackney and Islington. From the beginning, the East End has always contained some of the poorest areas of London, the main reasons for this include the following, the medieval system of copyhold, which prevailed throughout the East End, into the 19th century. Essentially, there was little point in developing land that was held on short leases, the siting of noxious industries, such as tanning and fulling downwind outside the boundaries of the City, and therefore beyond complaints and official controls. Historically, the East End is arguably conterminous with the Manor of Stepney and this manor was held by the Bishop of London, in compensation for his duties in maintaining and garrisoning the Tower of London. Further ecclesiastic holdings came about from the need to enclose the marshes, Edward VI passed the land to the Wentworth family, and thence to their descendants, the Earls of Cleveland
Points of the compass
The points of the compass, specifically on the compass rose, mark divisions of a compass, such divisions may be referred to as winds or directions. A compass point allows reference to a heading in a general or colloquial fashion. A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points—north, south and these are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal directions—northeast between north and east, southeast and northwest —to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass, for most applications, the fractional points have been superseded by degrees measured clockwise from North. In ancient China 24 points of the compass were used, measuring fifteen degrees between points. The names of the compass directions follow the 32-point wind compass rose follow these rules, The cardinal directions are north, south, the ordinal directions are northeast, southeast and northwest, formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds.
The name is merely a combination of the cardinals it bisects, the eight principal winds are the cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour, the principal winds form the basic eight-wind compass rose. The eight half-winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds, the half-winds are north-northeast, east-northeast, east-southeast, south-southeast, south-southwest, west-southwest, west-northwest and north-northwest. Notice that the name is constructed simply by combining the names of the winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first. The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together yield a 16-wind compass rose, all of the above named points plus the sixteen quarter winds listed in the next paragraph define the 32 points of the wind compass rose. The sixteen quarter winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on a 16-wind compass rose.
The name of a quarter-wind is X by Y, where X is a principal wind, so northeast by east means one quarter from NE towards E, southwest by south means one quarter from SW towards S. The eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter winds together yield a 32-wind compass rose, in the mariners exercise of boxing the compass, all thirty-two points of the compass are named in clockwise order. The title of the Alfred Hitchcock 1959 movie, North by Northwest, is not a direction point on the 32-wind compass. The traditional compass rose of eight winds was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages. This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the winds on the compass rose found in mariner compasses. Tramutana, Grecho, Xaloc, Libezo, Mezzodi, Magistro, etc
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Ranulf Flambard was a medieval Norman Bishop of Durham and an influential government minister of King William Rufus of England. Ranulf was the son of a priest of Bayeux and his nickname Flambard means incendiary or torch-bearer and he started his career under King William I of England, probably in the compilation of the Domesday Book, as well as being the keeper of the kings seal. On the death of William I, Ranulf chose to serve the new king of England and he was given custody of a number of vacant ecclesiastical offices, administering at one point sixteen vacant bishoprics or abbeys. His many duties have led to him being considered the first Chief Justiciar of England, during Rufus reign, Ranulf supervised the construction of the first stone bridge in London and oversaw the construction of the kings hall at Westminster. In 1099 he was rewarded with the bishopric of Durham, on the death of Rufus in 1100, Ranulf was imprisoned in the Tower of London by Rufus successor Henry I of England. Ranulf was a convenient scapegoat for the extortions of Rufus reign.
He became the first prisoner to escape from the Tower and went into exile in Normandy with Rufus and Henrys older brother Robert Curthose, Ranulf became a leading advisor to Robert, and assisted in his unsuccessful invasion of England, an attempt to oust Henry from the throne. The brothers reconciled, but although Ranulf was restored to office he spent the few years in Normandy. Ranulf subsequently retired from life, with only occasional appearances in public. He remained active in affairs, attending councils and working to defend the rights of his see. Ranulf was a Norman and the son of Thurstin, a parish priest in the diocese of Bayeux, Ranulf was probably born about 1060, as he was close to 70 when he died in 1128. Originally he worked for Odo of Bayeux, but he entered the chancery of King William I. He stood out amongst the other clerks for his intelligence and his good looks and his nickname, means torch-bearer, incendiary or devouring flame, and may have been given to him for his high-spirited personality.
Orderic Vitalis, a chronicler, records that Robert fitzThurstin gave the nickname to Ranulf, because Robert resented the fact that Ranulf, though of low birth. Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury told the pope that the nickname came from Ranulfs cruelty, orderic went on to claim that Ranulf was educated from boyhood with base parasites among the hangers-on of the court. Ranulf acquired the reputation of a financier and administrator. He appears to have played an important part in the compilation of the Domesday survey, Domesday Book gives his profession as clerk, and records him holding land in a number of counties. Before the death of the old king he became chaplain to Maurice, Bishop of London, some sources call him almost illiterate, but this probably meant he was not formally educated in the liberal arts
Siege of Sidney Street
The Siege of Sidney Street of January 1911, known as the Battle of Stepney, was a gunfight in the East End of London between a combined police and army force and two Latvian revolutionaries. An investigation by the Metropolitan and City of London Police forces identified Gardsteins accomplices, the police were informed that the final two members of the gang were hiding at 100 Sidney Street in Stepney. The police evacuated local residents from the environs, and on the morning of 3 January a firefight broke out, armed with inferior weapons, the police sought assistance from the army. The siege lasted for six hours. Towards the end of the stand-off, the building caught fire, one of the agitators in the building was shot before the fire took control. While the London Fire Brigade were damping down the ruins—in which they found the two bodies—the building collapsed, killing a fireman, Superintendent Charles Pearson, the siege marked the first time the police had requested military assistance in London to deal with an armed stand-off.
It was the first siege in Britain to be caught on camera, some of the footage included images of the Home Secretary, Winston Churchill. His presence caused a row over the level of his operational involvement. At the subsequent trial in May 1911 of those arrested for the Houndsditch jewellery robbery, all but one of the accused were acquitted, the events were fictionalised in film—in The Man Who Knew Too Much and The Siege of Sidney Street —and novels. The murdered policemen and the fireman who died are commemorated with memorial plaques, in the 19th century Tsarist Russia was home to about five million Jews, the largest Jewish community at the time. Subjected to religious persecution and violent pogroms, many emigrated and between 1875 and 1914 around 120,000 arrived in the United Kingdom, the influx reached its peak in the late 1890s when large numbers of Jewish immigrants—mostly poor and semi-skilled or unskilled—settled in the East End of London. Some of the expatriates were revolutionaries, many of whom were unable to adapt to life in the politically less oppressive London, a leading article in The Times described the Whitechapel area as one that harbours some of the worst alien anarchists and criminals who seek our too hospitable shore.
And these are the men who use the pistol and the knife, one event, the Tottenham Outrage of January 1909, by two revolutionary Russians in London—Paul Helfeld and Jacob Lepidus—was an attempt to rob a payroll van, which left two dead and twenty injured. The event used an often employed by revolutionary groups in Russia. The influx of émigrés, and the rates of violent crime associated with it, led to popular concerns. The government passed the Aliens Act 1905 in an attempt to reduce immigration, the journalist Robert Winder, in his examination of immigration into Britain, opines that the Act gave official sanction to xenophobic reflexes which might. By 1910 Russian émigrés met regularly at the Anarchist Club in Jubilee Street, many of its members were not anarchists, and the club became a meeting and social venue for the Russian émigré diaspora, most of whom were Jewish. The small group of Latvians who became involved in the events at Houndsditch, members of the group were probably revolutionaries who had been radicalised by their experiences in Russia
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
In England royal demesne is the land held by the Crown, and ancient demesne is the legal term for the land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book. The word derives from Old French demeine, ultimately from Latin dominus, the word barton, which is an element found in many place-names, can refer to a demesne farm, it derives from Old English bere and ton. In this feudal system the demesne was all the land retained under his own management by a lord of the manor for his own use and it was not necessarily all contiguous to the manor house. A portion of the lands, called the lords waste, served as public roads and common pasture land for the lord. Most of the remainder of the land in the manor was sub-enfeoffed by the lord to others as sub-tenants, with the advent of the early modern period, demesne lands came to be cultivated by paid labourers. In times of inflation or debasement of coinage, the rent might come to represent a pittance, demesne lands that were leased out for a term of years remained demesne lands, though no longer in the occupation of the lord of the manor.
The king made grants of large parcels of land under various forms of feudal tenure from his demesne. The land not so enfeoffed, for example royal manors administered by royal stewards and royal hunting forests, thus remained within the royal demesne. During the reign of King George III, Parliament appropriated most of the demesne, in exchange for a fixed annual sum thenceforth payable to the monarch. The position of the estate of Windsor, still occupied by the monarch and never alienated since 1066. Since the demesne surrounded the principal seat of the lord, it came to be used of any proprietary territory. A Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases
Postcodes in the United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities.
Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district.
Every post office in the district was to display this information
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Baron Wentworth is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1529 for Thomas Wentworth, who was de jure sixth Baron le Despencer of the 1387 creation. The title was created by writ, which means that it descends according to the male-preference cognatic primogeniture, Thomas Wentworth was created first Baron in 1529. He was succeeded by his son, Thomas Wentworth, the second Baron represented Suffolk in the House of Commons and served as Deputy of Calais. His grandson, Thomas Wentworth, the fourth Baron, was created Earl of Cleveland in the Peerage of England in 1626 and he became a prominent Royalist commander in the Civil War. The earldom became extinct on Lord Clevelands death in 1667 and his son Thomas Wentworth was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in 1640 in his fathers junior title of Baron Wentworth. He was a noted Royalist commander in the Civil War, however, he predeceased his father by two years. Henrietta Maria Wentworth, daughter of the fifth Baron, succeeded as the sixth holder upon her grandfathers death, the 6th Baroness died aged 25 and was succeeded by her aunt Anne, the seventh holder.
She was the wife of John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace, on her death in 1697, the title passed to her granddaughter Martha Johnson, the eighth holder. However, it was not until 1702 that she was confirmed in the title, the 8th Baroness was succeeded by her kinsman Sir Edward Noel, 6th Baronet, of Kirkby Mallory, who became the ninth Baron. He was the heir of the Hon. Margaret Noel, daughter of the 7th Baroness, in 1762 he was created Viscount Wentworth, of Wellesborough in the County of Leicester, in the Peerage of Great Britain. He was succeeded by his son, the 2nd Viscount and he briefly represented Leicestershire in Parliament before he succeeded his father in the viscountcy. Lord Wentworth had no male heir and on his death in 1815 the viscountcy and baronetcy became extinct. The abeyance was terminated in 1856 in favour of Anne Isabella Byron, Dowager Baroness Byron and Lady Byron had in 1822 assumed by Royal licence the surname of Noel. However, she never used the title of Lady Wentworth in the four years between her accession and her death in 1860, she continued to be known as Lady Byron.
She was succeeded by her grandson Byron King-Noel, Viscount Ockham and he was the eldest son of Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, daughter of Lord and Lady Byron, and her husband William King-Noel, 1st Earl of Lovelace. However, he never married and on his death in 1862 at the age of 26. In 1893, he succeeded his father as second Earl of Lovelace, when he died in 1906, the earldom and barony separated