SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stepney Green tube station

Stepney Green is a London Underground station located on Mile End Road in Stepney, United Kingdom. It is between Whitechapel and Mile End on the District line and the Hammersmith & City line, is in Travelcard Zone 2; the station was opened in 1902 by the Whitechapel and Bow Railway, a joint venture between the District Railway and the London and Southend Railway. The new railway connected the District Railway at Whitechapel with the London and Southend at Bow. Electrified District Railway services started in 1905. Hammersmith and City line services started in 1936; the station passed to London Underground in 1950. The Hammersmith & City line was extended from Whitechapel to Barking via Stepney Green permanently in 2009 due to Crossrail and work at Whitechapel station, it is a sub-surface station with two platforms. The ticket office is above ground and connected to the platforms by stairs; the layout and design of the station is unchanged with many original features intact. This is the general off-peak frequency.

6 tph eastbound to Barking 6 tph westbound to Hammersmith via King's Cross and Wood Lane This is the general off-peak frequency. During peak times trains operate to Wimbledon. During off-peak times, 3 trains per hour from Wimbledon terminate at Barking. 12 tph eastbound to Upminster 3 tph eastbound to Barking 6 tph westbound to Ealing Broadway 6 tph westbound to Richmond 3 tph westbound to Wimbledon There is no regular service however there are two trains per day that run from Barking to Edgware Road via Victoria before 6 AM. 2 tpd westbound to Edgware Road via Victoria Stepney Green is one of the two stations serving the nearby Mile End campus of Queen Mary, University of London use, as both stations are located at each side of it. London Buses services serves the station, key routes 25 and 205, local route 309, night route N205

Siberian minorities in the Soviet era

The formation of the Soviet Union corresponded to a drastic re-structuring of the lives of many of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. The Soviet vision was not compatible with tribal life, many changes were enacted upon the native framework; this process is called "Sovietization." It is a type of acculturation using political influence. In the success of such a process, the result is total acculturation. National groups have a political identity and operate inside of the Moscow political structure yet maintain aspects of their culture. In practice however, reactions to such policies garnered a wide spectrum of reactions, with some groups in support and others in opposition; the new Soviet lifestyle made it "illegal for individuals to own means of production and communication." Several attempts were made to stop foreign exploitation of native industries, in particular the fur trade. In 1917, the fur tax was abolished, efforts were made to stop price exploitation by private fur traders. Traditionally discriminatory practices, such as forced marriages and the bride price were eliminated during Soviet re-structuring.

Russian officials opposed the practice of shamanism and the concept of shamans as religious leaders. Shamans were religious conservatives and responsible for general resistance against Soviet reform, they were responsible for assisting White supporters who fled after the Russian Civil War, which sparked Soviet anger. The shamans felt a strong need to protect the native way of life: shamanism had long provided a sense of communal solidarity; such solidarity was now used to unite the community against the Soviets for trying to force change. Indeed, the Soviets were afraid of the shamans. Shamans were able to incite violent resistance, for example the Kazym rebellion. However, anti-religious policies gained some traction, without complete success. In the case of the Khanty people, Marjorie Balzer writes that, "The scientific materialism of Soviet officialdom has gained limited acceptance without supplanting Khanty spirituality." Rituals are still performed for religion's sake, though Soviet officials claim that such rituals are secular.

Soviet replacements of shamanistic practices were not successful, because they were not presented as an acceptable alternative. Secular rituals were not rooted in native traditions: they carried Russian roots and Russian aims, which were perceived as insincere. Thus, these policies produced an outward accommodation rather than actual change. On the other hand, shamanism in the modern day has experienced a severe decline, as the community has begun to perceive of shamanism as "bad." This perception reveals the effect that past policies have effected: a fear of the political power of shamans and the turmoil they were able to create. Collectivization was the policy to reduce nomadic lifestyles and force development of sedentary occupations. National groups were clustered into collectives, which were composed of a cluster of villages centered around a main outpost; the collective center was built on a river inlet to facilitate ease of access. The goal was that the outlying villages would no longer become necessary: native groups would ideally be attracted to the consumer goods of the center and the lifestyle it presented.

The 1930s brought the introduction of a type of collective center. It was supposed to be a model of the new Soviet life and the comforts one could enjoy as part of that lifestyle; the base had an air strip, state stores, a hospital, party headquarters and a community center. Russian-style houses served as model for native peoples to emulate. Tribal lands were forcibly "donated" for the advancement of the Soviet cause; this land was divided into hunting/herding areas, fishing sections and specific slaughtering points for reindeer. After being placed in the collective, indigenous peoples were redistributed to manage these areas, with an emphasis on food production to support the increase in urban population; the collective divided members into two types of workers: sovkhoz and kolkhoz. The sovkhoz were members; the kolkhoz were members that shared in the profits, for example fishermen, whose profits oscillated depending on the season. Families were forced to rely on subsistence activities applied in a sedentary format: limited hunting, fishing planting gardens.

Some families were allowed to own individual stocks of cattle and horses. This individual stock ownership allowed for the creation of a secondary economy under the radar of the Soviet system. For example, fishing brigades would make a small profit selling caviar to visitors. Reindeer breeding was allowed, being of substantial use to the Soviets, though it operated under the assumption that it would be phased out. Reindeer breeders were perceived as uneducated, undesirable for the Soviet structure. Despite mistreatment of the reindeer herds and attempts to phase out the practice, it underwent a revival in the 1970s, as improved veterinary practices and the use of helicopters for transportation facilitated better herd management; the collectives instituted a policy of mandatory education as an exchange for the continuation of traditional life. Reindeer breeders were allowed to return to a semi-nomadic state in exchange for school-age children to attend 8 years of boarding school in the collective center.

Officials hoped that better education might encourage a rejection of traditional values and occupations in favor the more-developed Soviet style. The schools were very crowded and not in the best condition. In the 1950s and 1960s

Riverboat (TV series)

Riverboat is an American western television series starring Darren McGavin and Burt Reynolds, produced by Revue Studios, broadcast on the NBC television network from 1959 to 1961. Reynolds was replaced by Noah Beery Jr. halfway through the series in the wake of a conflict with McGavin. In the series, Captain Grey Holden and his crew navigate the vessel called the Enterprise principally, along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers; some episodes are set in the Midwest. Holden and his men encounter interesting characters along the way, including U. S. President Zachary Taylor, General Winfield Scott and a pre-presidential Abraham Lincoln. One episode focuses indirectly on the Texan Revolution of 1836. Unlike most westerns, which are set after the American Civil War, the story's time frame precedes the sectional conflict, includes the 1830s and 40s; the series ended on the NBC mid-season schedule in January 1961, replaced by a drama about the sectional conflict, The Americans. Dan Duryea played Captain Brad Turner in the first two episodes, before Darren McGavin replaced him for forty episodes.

Burt Reynolds in his television debut role played Ben Frazer in twenty episodes, before reporting disputes with McGavin and being replaced by Noah Beery, Jr. who played Bill Blake. Dick Wessel, as chief stoker Carney Kohler, was cast in forty one episodes, Jack Lambert was cast in twenty three episodes as first mate Joshua MacGregor, John Mitchum co-starred in ten episodes as Pickalong, the ship's cook, Michael McGreevey was cast in seventeen episodes as cabin boy Chip Kessler and William D. Gordon played first mate Joe Travis in thirteen episodes before his character's death; the series featured a large array of leading ladies of that era as guest stars, including Mary Tyler Moore, cast as the "Brunette Girl in Coach", with Jeanne Carmen as Janine, the "Blonde Girl in Coach", in the 1959 episode, "A Night at Trapper's Landing". Moore played Lily Belle de Lesseps the next year in "Trunk Full of Dreams". Other female guest stars include: Many male guest stars appeared on Riverboat. Ricardo Montalban portrayed United States Army Lt. Andre B.

Devereaux in "A Night at Trapper's Landing". In the story line, the Enterprise is commandeered by the military for a punitive expedition against the Indians after an attack on Devereaux and his men. Ben Frazer, tries to convince the Army that the uprising is the result of a local Indian agent; the episode features Judson Pratt, as Sergeant Ned Bolger, Stacy Harris as Colonel Nicholson, Raymond Bailey as General Jacoby, with other roles for character actors Morris Ankrum, R. G. Armstrong, Peter Whitney. Other male guest stars include: Eddie Albert, as Dan Simpson, with Russell Johnson as Darius, John M. Pickard, from the western series Boots and Saddles, uncredited as a river pirate, in "The Unwilling". Debra Paget is cast as Lela Russell. Jack Albertson, as Sampson J. Binton, DeForest Kelley as Alex Jeffords, in the series finale, "Listen to the Nightingale". Robert Bray, prior to Stagecoach West, as Tom Byson, with Beverly Garland as Dr. Nora James, in "Three Graves", the story of three mysterious recent graves in a river town Charles Bronson, as Crowley, with Ray Teal as Sheriff Clay, in "Zigzag".

The outlaws demand that Blake pretend to be the son of a dying old man so that he can compel the man to reveal the location of a large amount of money in his possession. William Fawcett is cast as the owner of the cabin where the old man is living. Stella Stevens plays Lisa. Edgar Buchanan, as Wingate Pritchard Pardee in "Duel on the River". Akins appeared as Jarret Sutton in "Escape to Memphis". Forrest Lewis appears in this episode as Mr. Chambers. Richard Carlson, as Paul Drake in "The Faithless". Having lost his religious faith, Drake refuses to render medical assistance to a two-year-old girl stricken with a communicable disease that threatens the entire vessel. William Phipps and Jeanne Bates play the parents of the child. Bethel Leslie portrays Cathy Norris. Anthony Caruso, as the Cherokee Chief White Bull in "The Long Trail". Harry Lauter and Dennis Cross appear in this episode. Richard Chamberlain, as Lt. Dave Winslow in "Chicota Landing". Lieutenant Winslow asks Holden to transport his men to a military garrison.

Instead, Cortilla takes over its gunpowder. Connie Hines portrays Lucy Bridges, Ted de Corsia is cast as another bandit. Lloyd Corrigan, as John Jenkins, with Anne Baxter as Ellie Jenkins, in "A Race to Cincinnati"