The step reckoner was a digital mechanical calculator invented by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and completed in 1694. The name comes from the translation of the German term for its operating mechanism, meaning'stepped drum', it was the first calculator. Its intricate precision gearwork, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time. Two prototypes were built. Several replicas are on display, such as the one at the Deutsches Museum, Munich. Despite the mechanical flaws of the stepped reckoner, it suggested possibilities to future calculator builders; the operating mechanism, invented by Leibniz, called the stepped cylinder or Leibniz wheel, was used in many calculating machines for 200 years, into the 1970s with the Curta hand calculator. The stepped reckoner was based on a gear mechanism that Leibniz invented and, now called the Leibniz wheel, it is unclear. Some sources, such as the drawing to the right, show a 12 digit version; this section describes the surviving 16 digit prototype in Hanover.
The machine is about 67 cm long, mounted in an oak case. It consists of two attached parallel parts; the input section has 8 dials with knobs to set the operand number, a telephone-like dial to the right to set the multiplier digit, a crank on the front to perform the calculation. The result appears in the 16 windows on the rear accumulator section; the input section is mounted on rails and can be moved along the accumulator section with a crank on the left end that turns a worm gear, to change the alignment of operand digits with accumulator digits. There is a tens-carry indicator and a control to set the machine to zero; the machine can: add or subtract an 8-digit number to/from a 16-digit number multiply two 8-digit numbers to get a 16-digit result divide a 16-digit number by an 8-digit divisorAddition or subtraction is performed in a single step, with a turn of the crank. Multiplication and division are performed digit by digit on the multiplier or divisor digits, in a procedure equivalent to the familiar long multiplication and long division procedures taught in school.
Sequences of these operations can be performed on the number in the accumulator. Leibniz got the idea for a calculating machine in 1672 from a pedometer, he learned about Blaise Pascal's machine when he read Pascal's Pensees. He divide, he presented a wooden model to the Royal Society of London on 1 February 1673 and received much encouragement. In a letter of 26 March 1673 to Johann Friedrich, where he mentioned the presentation in London, Leibniz described the purpose of the "arithmetic machine" as making calculations "leicht, gewiß", i.e. easy and reliable. Leibniz added that theoretically the numbers calculated might be as large as desired, if the size of the machine was adjusted. In English: "a number consisting of a series of figures, as long as it may be", his first preliminary brass machine was built between 1674 and 1685. His so-called older machine was built between 1686 and 1694. The'younger machine', the surviving machine, was built from 1690 to 1720. In 1775 the'younger machine' was sent to the University of Göttingen for repair, was forgotten.
In 1876 a crew of workmen found it in an attic room of a university building in Göttingen. It was returned to Hanover in 1880. From 1894 to 1896 Artur Burkhardt, founder of a major German calculator company restored it, it has been kept at the Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek since; the machine performs multiplication by repeated addition, division by repeated subtraction. The basic operation performed is to add the operand number to the accumulator register, as many times as desired; the number of additions is controlled by the multiplier dial. It operates like a telephone dial, with ten holes in its circumference numbered 0–9. To multiply by a single digit, 0–9, a knob-shaped stylus is inserted in the appropriate hole in the dial, the crank is turned; the multiplier dial turns clockwise, the machine performing one addition for each hole, until the stylus strikes a stop at the top of the dial. The result appears in the accumulator windows. Repeated subtractions are done except the multiplier dial turns in the opposite direction, so a second set of digits, in red, are used.
To perform a single addition or subtraction, the multiplier is set at one. To multiply by numbers over 9: The multiplicand is set into the operand dials; the first digit of the multiplier is set into the multiplier dial as above, the crank is turned, multiplying the operand by that digit and putting the result in the accumulator. The input section is shifted one digit to the left with the end crank; the next digit of the multiplier is set into the multiplier dial, the crank is turned again, multiplying the operand by that digit and adding the result to the accumula
Ptychobela griffithii is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Pseudomelatomidae, the turrids. Subspecies Ptychobela griffithii gracilior The length of the shell varies between 50 mm; the small, solid shell has a fusiform shape. When the ribs and the smooth spiral lirae come together, they create axial nodes on the shoulder of each whorl; the depressed sutures lack a subsutural cord. The rather wide concave aperture measures about half the total length of the shell; the wide siphonal canal is moderately long. The outer lip is somewhat thickened; the ground color of the shell is brown with white axial nodes. This marine species occurs off Oman, in the Bay of Bengal and off Japan. Subba Rao, NV Indian seashells Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 416 pp Available at - NCL, Pune Griffith, E. & Pidgeon, E.. The Mollusca and Radiata. Vol. 12, In: E. Griffith, [1824−1835, The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier. London: Whittaker and Co. viii + 601 pp. 61 pls.
Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295. Gastropods.com: Ptychobela griffithii Petit & Coan, The Molluscan Taxa Made Available In the Griffith & Pidgeon Edition Of Cuvier, With Notes On the Editions Of Cuvier and On Wood's Index testaceologicus.
Cadillac Fairview Corporation Limited is a Canadian company that invests in, manages commercial real estate in Canada and the United States. As of March 2017, the company had 73 properties, encompassing 38 million square feet, worth over $29 billion; as of September 2017, Cadillac Fairview's portfolio consisted of 60% Canadian retail and 26% Canadian office buildings. Cadillac Fairview is owned by the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan; the name "Cadillac Fairview" came into existence in 1974 as a result of the merger between Cadillac Development Corporation Ltd and Fairview Corporation. Cadillac Development Corporation was founded by partners Ephraim Diamond, Joseph Berman, Jack Kamin in Toronto in 1953 as a developers of high-rise apartment buildings. Fairview Corporation was established in 1958 as the real estate division of Cemp Investments, the holding company of the Bronfman family. Before merging and Fairview had strong ties since 1968. Bronfman-held Cemp Investments sold Cadillac Fairview in 1986.
The company was purchased by the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan in March 2000. In 2006 it expanded its operations to Brazil by buying 46 percent of Multiplan Emprendimentos Imobiliarios SA, a Brazilian shopping center manager worth more than $1 billion. In 2013, it was sued for causing hundreds of birds to die due to the glass panes at one of its Toronto office buildings, it won the case. In 2012, Cadillac Fairview bought out the leases of Sears Canada in five stores for $400 million, including the lease of the flagship Sears at Toronto Eaton Centre. Many of the former Sears locations, including the one at Eaton Centre, became Nordstroms. In 2014, it purchased the Toronto flagship store of Hudson's Bay Company for $650 million. On September 21, 2015, Cadillac Fairview rebranded its shopping centre properties, adding the prefix "CF" in front of each shopping centre name and phasing out individual mall logos in favour of a standardized logo format and image campaign. In January 2017, Cadillac Fairview sold half of its Vancouver portfolio to the Ontario Pension Board and the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board.
Financial terms were not disclosed, but the deal involved 4 million square feet of leasable space in the Pacific Centre and 12 office properties. In September 2017, it announced it would become a national partner to the Canadian Olympic Committee. Cadillac Fairview owns and manages property and large office and retail spaces across the Western Hemisphere in North America. Cadillac Fairview has developed suburban housing, such as the Erin Mills "New Town". Among its Canadian assets are one New Brunswick property, six Quebec properties, twenty-five Ontario properties, two Manitoba properties, eight Alberta properties, fourteen British Columbia properties. Cadillac Fairview's malls are large and high-quality, with high-end stores and high sales per square foot. For instance, sales at the Toronto Eaton Centre, a CF mall, were $1500 per square foot, while lower-end malls have sales closer to $325 per square foot. Cadillac Fairview has tried to sell weak malls, reducing its mall count from a high of 40 to around 20 in 2017.
Notable properties managed by Cadillac Fairview, some co-owned with other investors, are listed below. In July 2018, Cadillac Fairview was criticized for having facial recognition software installed on their mall directories, which collect anonymized information of the estimated age and gender of kiosk users. Official website
József Sebők is a retired Hungarian international football striker. He started his career at his home town club Keszthely SE from where he moved in 1995 to Zalaegerszegi TE, he will play with ZTE 5 consecutive seasons in Hungarian top league before moving in 2000 to Cyprus. He was one of the best players that AEL Limassol had, he assisted many goals and scored more. Some hail him as one of the best players to compete in the island. After leaving AEL Limassol he returned. 300 people went to the airport to greet him, but he was not able to play as well as before due to an injury. In 2007, he signed with Slovenian First League club NK Nafta Lendava where he will play until 2010, he finished his career back in Hungary with Hévíz FC. He was deployed as a winger in both sides in left, but was very competent as a striker. Between 1998 and 2004 József Sebők played a total of 12 matches for the Hungarian national team having scored twice. Earlier he had been a member of the Hungarian U-21 team. Player profile - PrvaLiga József Sebők at National-Football-Teams.com Profile at futball-adattar.hu
Wanda is an Austrian indie pop band founded in Vienna in 2012. Their debut album Amore was released in October 2014 at "Problembär Records" and debuted at number 13 on the Austrian Albums Chart on 31 October 2014, their single Bologna was released in early 2015 and peaked at number 42 on 10 April 2015. Wanda's first tour took place in late 2014 and the band is starting a second one in February 2015, with locations in Austria and Switzerland. On 2 October 2015 their second album Bussi was released, they made a deal with Universal Music Germany. Their indie pop style is influenced by roll, as well as Austropop, they label their music as "pop music with'Amore'". Their songs are sung in German, with a more or less noticeable Viennese dialect. Studio Live Official website
Japhet Kipyegon Korir is a Kenyan long-distance runner who competes in cross country running competitions and the 5000 metres. He was the gold medallist at the 2013 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, becoming the youngest world cross country champion, he has a personal best of 13:11.44 minutes for the 5000 m track event. Korir had much success as a junior cross country athlete: he won two team titles and a bronze medal at the 2010 IAAF World Cross Country Championships took the first junior title at the African Cross Country Championships in 2011, he was the runner-up at the latter event in 2012. Korir won his first international medal at the age of fifteen at the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games, getting a bronze medal in the 5000 metres, he was part of the winning Kenyan junior team at the 2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, where he finished fifth, helped retain that title at the 2010 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, where he came third as part of Kenyan podium sweep. He failed to make the team the following year but was chosen for the 2011 African Cross Country Championships, where he became the competition's first male junior champion.
He ran in Europe that year and set a personal best of 13:17.18 minutes for the 5000 m at the Nijmegen Global Athletics meeting. He began the 2012 season with a 5000 m personal best of 13:11.44 minutes at the PSD Bank Meeting and had a win at the Eurocross cross country race in Luxembourg. The IAAF World Cross Country Championships changed to a biennial format so was not held and Korir instead competed in the junior section of the 2012 African Cross Country Championships, placing a narrow second behind Ethiopia's Muktar Edris, he failed to make the Kenyan team for the 2012 World Junior Championships in Athletics in June, having been hurt by a competitor's track spikes, missed the rest of the season due to an Achilles tendon injury. In Korir's first year as a senior athlete he placed sixth at the Kenyan Cross Country Championships and the selectors, seeing he had recovered from injury, made a last-minute decision to add him to the Kenyan team. At the 2013 IAAF World Cross Country Championships he was the fourth youngest entrant in the men's senior race but he defeated much more experienced rivals to become the youngest world champion at the event.
Following this success he set his sights on competing at the 2013 World Championships in Athletics. That April he won the 5000 m at the Würzburger Residenzlauf, his form dropped in May, however, as he came last in the 3000 metres at the Doha Diamond League meeting managed only 17th place at the World 10K Bangalore race. Korir missed the rest of the 2013 track season. In early 2014, Korir won the Antrim International Cross Country race and the Great Ireland Run in April. Korir moved up to compete in the half marathon, finishing in 7th place at the CPC Loop Den Haag in a time of 1:02:41 hours. 3000 metres: 7:40.37 min 5000 metres: 13:11.44 min 5000 metres: 13:17.18 min 10K run: 27:52 min (2013 Japhet Korir at World Athletics