Stereoscopy is a film technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός, meaning'firm, solid', σκοπέω, meaning'to look, to see'. Any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Stereogram referred to a pair of stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope. Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer; these two-dimensional images are combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth. This technique is distinguished from 3D displays that display an image in three full dimensions, allowing the observer to increase information about the 3-dimensional objects being displayed by head and eye movements. Stereoscopy creates the illusion of three-dimensional depth from given two-dimensional images. Human vision, including the perception of depth, is a complex process, which only begins with the acquisition of visual information taken in through the eyes.

One of the functions that occur within the brain as it interprets what the eyes see is assessing the relative distances of objects from the viewer, the depth dimension of those objects. The cues that the brain uses to gauge relative distances and depth in a perceived scene include Stereopsis Accommodation of the eye Overlapping of one object by another Subtended visual angle of an object of known size Linear perspective Vertical position Haze or contrast and color, greater distance being associated with greater haze, a shift toward blue Change in size of textured pattern detailStereoscopy is the production of the illusion of depth in a photograph, movie, or other two-dimensional image by the presentation of a different image to each eye, which adds the first of these cues; the two images are combined in the brain to give the perception of depth. Because all points in the image produced by stereoscopy focus at the same plane regardless of their depth in the original scene, the second cue, focus, is not duplicated and therefore the illusion of depth is incomplete.

There are mainly two effects of stereoscopy that are unnatural for human vision: the mismatch between convergence and accommodation, caused by the difference between an object's perceived position in front of or behind the display or screen and the real origin of that light. Although the term "3D" is ubiquitously used, the presentation of dual 2D images is distinctly different from displaying an image in three full dimensions; the most notable difference is that, in the case of "3D" displays, the observer's head and eye movement do not change the information received about the 3-dimensional objects being viewed. Holographic displays and volumetric display do not have this limitation. Just as it is not possible to recreate a full 3-dimensional sound field with just two stereophonic speakers, it is an overstatement to call dual 2D images "3D"; the accurate term "stereoscopic" is more cumbersome than the common misnomer "3D", entrenched by many decades of unquestioned misuse. Although most stereoscopic displays do not qualify as real 3D display, all real 3D displays are stereoscopic displays because they meet the lower criteria also.

Most 3D displays use this stereoscopic method to convey images. It was first invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838, improved by Sir David Brewster who made the first portable 3D viewing device. Wheatstone used his stereoscope with drawings because photography was not yet available, yet his original paper seems to foresee the development of a realistic imaging method: For the purposes of illustration I have employed only outline figures, for had either shading or colouring been introduced it might be supposed that the effect was wholly or in part due to these circumstances, whereas by leaving them out of consideration no room is left to doubt that the entire effect of relief is owing to the simultaneous perception of the two monocular projections, one on each retina, but if it be required to obtain the most faithful resemblances of real objects and colouring may properly be employed to heighten the effects. Careful attention would enable an artist to draw and paint the two component pictures, so as to present to the mind of the observer, in the resultant perception, perfect identity with the object represented.

Flowers, busts, instruments of various kinds, &c. might thus be represented so as not to be distinguished by sight from the real objects themselves. Stereoscopy is used in photogrammetry and for entertainment through the production of stereograms. Stereoscopy is useful in viewing images rendered from large multi-dimensional data sets such as are produced by experimental data. Modern industrial three-dimensional photography may use 3D scanners to detect and record three-dimensional information; the three-dimensional depth information can be reconstructed from two images using a computer by correlating the pixels in the left and right images. Solving the Correspondence problem in the field of Computer Vision aims to create meaningful depth information from two images. Anatomically, there are 3 levels of binocular vision required to view stereo imag

Chicago Reader

The Chicago Reader, or Reader, is an American alternative weekly newspaper in Chicago, noted for its literary style of journalism and coverage of the arts film and theater. It was founded by a group of friends from Carleton College; the Reader is recognized as a pioneer among alternative weeklies for both its creative nonfiction and its commercial scheme. Richard Karpel, then-executive director of the Association of Alternative Newsweeklies, wrote: he most significant historical event in the creation of the modern alt-weekly occurred in Chicago in 1971, when the Chicago Reader pioneered the practice of free circulation, a cornerstone of today's alternative papers; the Reader developed a new kind of journalism, ignoring the news and focusing on everyday life and ordinary people. The Reader is dated every Thursday and distributed free on Wednesday and Thursday via street boxes and cooperating retail outlets; as of March 2009, the paper claimed more than 1,900 locations in the Chicago metropolitan area and an audited circulation of 100,000.

In July 2007, the paper and its sibling, Washington City Paper, were sold to Creative Loafing, publisher of alternative weeklies in Atlanta, Georgia. Creative Loafing filed for bankruptcy in September 2008. In August 2009, the bankruptcy court awarded the company to Creative Loafing's chief creditor, Atalaya Capital Management, which had loaned $30 million to pay for most of the purchase price for the Reader and the Washington City Paper; the Chicago Reader was founded by Robert A. Roth, who grew up in the Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights, his ambition was to start a weekly publication for young Chicagoans like Boston's The Phoenix and Boston After Dark. Those papers were sold on newsstands but were given away on campuses, to bolster circulation. Roth believed that 100-percent free circulation would work better, he persuaded several friends from Carleton College, including Robert E. McCamant, Thomas J. Rehwaldt and Thomas K. Yoder, to join him in his venture, they scraped together about $16,000 in capital and published the first issue, 16 pages, on October 1, 1971.

One year in its first anniversary issue, the Reader published an article titled "What Kind of Paper is This, Anyway?" in which it answered "Questions we've heard over and over in the past year." This article reported that the paper had lost nearly $20,000 in its first ten months of operation but that the owners were "confident it will work out in the end." It explained the rationale behind free circulation and the paper's unconventional editorial philosophy: "Why doesn't the Reader print news? Tom Wolfe wrote us,'The Future of the newspaper lies in your direction, i.e. the sheet willing to deal with "the way we live now."' That sums up our thoughts quite well: we find street sellers more interesting than politicians, musicians more interesting than the Cubs. They are closer to home."In its early years the Reader was published out of apartments shared by the owner-founders, Roth, McCamant and Yoder. The first apartment was in Hyde Park—the University of Chicago neighborhood on the south side of Chicago—and the second was in Rogers Park on the far north side.

Working for ownership in lieu of pay, the owner-founders owned more than 90% of the company. In 1975 the paper began to earn a profit and rented office space in the downtown area that came to be known as River North. In 1979, a reporter for the Daily Herald of Arlington Heights, called the Reader "the fastest growing alternative weekly in the U. S." In 1986, an article in the Chicago Tribune estimated the Reader's annual revenues at $6.7 million. In 1996, Crain's Chicago Business projected revenue of $14.6 million. The National Journal's Convention Daily reported. It's now as thick as many Sunday papers and is published in four sections that total around 180 pages." This report put the circulation at 138,000. The Reader began experimenting with electronic distribution in 1995 with an automated telephone service called "SpaceFinder", which offered search and "faxback" delivery of the paper's apartment rental ads, one of its most important franchises. In 1995 the paper's "Matches" personal ads were made available on the Web, in early 1996 the SpaceFinder fax system was adapted for Web searching.

In 1996 the Reader partnered with Yahoo to bring its entertainment listings online and introduced a Web site and an AOL user area built around its popular syndicated column "The Straight Dope". The Reader became so profitable in the late 1990s that it added a suburban edition, The Reader's Guide to Arts & Entertainment, but by 2006 it was operating at a loss, it faced severe competitive pressure starting near the turn of the century, as some of its key elements became available online. Numerous websites offered entertainment listings and reviews. Classified ads, a major source of revenue in the 1990s, migrated to Craigslist and other online services that published ads for free and made them searchable. By 2000 much of the paper's content was available online, but the Reader still resisted publishing a Web version of the entire paper, it concentrated on database information like classifieds and listings, leaving the long cover stories and many other articles to be delivered in print only. In 2005, when many similar publications had long been offering all their content online, the Reader began offering its articles in PDF format, showing pages just as they appeared in print — an attempt to provide value to the display advertisers who account

Central Navy Band of Russia

The Central Concert Band of the Russian Navy "Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov" known as the Central Navy Band of Russia is the official music representative of the Russian Navy. It is based in Moscow; the Conductor/Director of Music is Honored Artist of Russia, 1st rank Captain Alexei Karabanov. The central band is the leading creative team of the Russian Navy, performing for more than 70 years. On December 23, 1941, the band of the Ulyanovsky Fleet was formed with 53 Musicians consisting of sailors, front-line soldiers who came from hospitals; the first appointed military conductor was 1st rank Captain Alexander Karpey-Lazarev. In order to improve the training of the musicians of the bands of the navy, the band was transformed in October 1944 as a training band unit of the Soviet Navy. In February 1993, in honor of the 150th birthday of Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, the orchestra was given its current honorary name of the Central Concert Band of the Navy Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. In different years, the orchestra has performed during concerts in places such as Afghanistan and Syria.

Since 1945, the orchestra has been a constant participant in the Victory Parades on Red Square, since 2017, it has been the main musical participant in Naval Parades in St. Petersburg. Russian Navy March "Ship's bell"