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Stereotype

In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. It is an expectation; the type of expectation can vary. Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. Stereotypes lead to social categorisation, one of the reasons for prejudice attitudes, may arise for a number of reasons. An explicit stereotype refers to stereotypes that one is aware that one holds, is aware that one is using to judge people. If person A is making judgments about a particular person B from a group G, person A has an explicit stereotype for group G, their decision bias can be mitigated using conscious control. However, attempts to offset bias due to conscious awareness of a stereotype fail at being impartial, due to either underestimating or overestimating the amount of bias being created by the stereotype.

Implicit stereotypes are those that lay on individuals' subconsciousness, that they have no control or awareness of. In social psychology, a stereotype is any thought adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole; these thoughts or beliefs may or may not reflect reality. Within psychology and across other disciplines, different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping exist, at times sharing commonalities, as well as containing contradictory elements. In the social sciences and some sub-disciplines of psychology, stereotypes are reproduced and can be identified in certain theories, for example, in assumptions about other cultures; the term stereotype comes from the French adjective stéréotype and derives from the Greek words στερεός, "firm, solid" and τύπος, hence "solid impression on one or more idea/theory." The term was first used in the printing trade in 1798 by Firmin Didot, to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography.

The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original. Outside of printing, the first reference to "stereotype" was in 1850, as a noun that meant image perpetuated without change. However, it was not until 1922 that "stereotype" was first used in the modern psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion. Stereotypes and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts. Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component and occurs without conscious awareness, whereas prejudice is the affective component of stereotyping and discrimination is one of the behavioral components of prejudicial reactions. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one's own, prejudice represents the emotional response, discrimination refers to actions. Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other.

According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, evaluate those characteristics. Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are: Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields Stereotype content refers to the attributes that people think characterize a group. Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons and mechanisms involved in stereotyping. Early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy. For instance and Braly argued in their classic 1933 study that ethnic stereotypes were uniformly negative. By contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are ambivalent and vary along two dimensions: warmth and competence.

Warmth and competence are predicted by lack of competition and status. Groups that do not compete with the in-group for the same resources are perceived as warm, whereas high-status groups are considered competent; the groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions. The model explains the phenomenon that some out-groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected; this model was empirically tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content. Early studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid and authoritarian people; this idea has been refuted by contemporary studies that suggest the ubiquity of stereotypes and it was suggested to regard stereotypes as collective group beliefs, meaning that people who belong to the same social group share the same set of stereotypes. Modern research asserts that full understanding of stereotypes requires considering them from two complementary perspectives: as shared within a particular culture/subculture and as formed in the mind of an individual person.

Stereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, social functions on an intergroup level. For stereotyping to function on an intergroup l

Santiam River

The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River, about 12 miles long, in western Oregon in the United States. Through its two principal tributaries, the North Santiam and the South Santiam rivers, it drains a large area of the Cascade Range at the eastern side of the Willamette Valley east of Salem and Corvallis; the main course of the river is short, formed in the Willamette Valley by the confluence of the North and South Santiam rivers on the border between Linn and Marion counties 8 miles northeast of Albany. It flows west-northwest in a slow meandering course to join the Willamette from the east 8 miles north of Albany. Both the North and South Santiam rise in high Cascades in eastern Linn County; the Middle Santiam River joins the South Santiam where the South Santiam is impounded to form Foster Lake. The North Santiam is impounded to form the 400-foot deep Detroit Lake in the Cascades; the Santiam is a major source of water supply for Salem. The Great Willamette Flood of 1861, which crested on December 2, destroyed a large number of structures and animals on prairies near its confluence with the Willamette River and south of Knox Butte.

Santiam River Zone is staffed by the Santiam Type 2 initial attack hand crew and two engines based out of the Detroit Ranger District. Additionally the Willamette National Forest has fire crews on the Mckenzie and Middle Fork Ranger Districts. List of Oregon rivers Willamette Riverkeeper North Santiam Watershed Council South Santiam Watershed Council Willamette Riverkeeper

Old Deer

Old Deer a parish and village in the district of Buchan, Scotland. The population in 2011 was 152; the village lies on the Deer or South Ugie Water, 10.1 miles west of Peterhead, two miles from Mintlaw. The name'deer' has nothing to do with the animal, rather it is taken from the Gaelic word deur, meaning ‘tear’, after the tears shed by the parting of Columba with his friend Drostan, who founded the abbey here. Industries include distilling and the manufacture of woollens, there are quarries of granite and limestone; the village is the birthplace of David B. Henderson, one of only two foreign born Speakers of the United States House of Representatives; the thriving village of New Deer lies about seven miles west of the older village. The parish records spell the name in various other ways such as Deare and Dier. Columba and his nephew Drostan founded a monastery here in the 6th century, of which no trace remains; the Book of Deer is a most interesting relic of the monks, discovered in 1857 in the Cambridge University library by Henry Bradshaw.

It was stolen during the Wars of Scottish Independence by English troops. It is a small manuscript of the Gospels in the Vulgate, fragments of the liturgy of the Celtic church, notes, in the Gaelic script of the 12th century, referring to the charters of the ancient monastery, including a summary of that granted by David I of Scotland; these are among the oldest examples of Scottish Gaelic. The manuscript is adorned with Gaelic designs, it had belonged to the monks of Deer and been in the possession of the University Library since 1715. It was edited by John Stuart for the Spalding Club, by whom it was published in 1869 under the title The Book of Deer. In 1218 William Comyn, earl of Buchan, founded the Abbey of St Mary of Deer, now in ruins, 3⁄4 mi farther up the river than the monastery and on the opposite bank. Although it was erected for Cistercians from the priory of Kinloss, near Forres, the property of the Columban monastery was removed to it; the founder and he and his countess were buried in the church.

The parish is rich in antiquities, but the most noted of them is the Stone of Deer, a sculptured block of syenite, which stood near the abbey. Aikey Brae's stone circle, excavated by Richard Bradley in 2001, lies within the parish on the edge of Bridgend Wood, between Maud and Old Deer, south of B9029 on the summit of Parkhouse Hill in the north of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, it is a nearly complete recumbent stone circle. Characteristic of a recumbent stone circle is a "recumbent stone" accompanied by two standing, high tapering "flank stones", which are within the circle or near the circle, it was constructed in about 2000BC. The circle has a diameter of 14.4 m. The recumbent stone weighs 21.5 tons and, like its high flank stones is made of basalt, which does not occur nearby. The rest of the stones are made of local granite, sorted by size, with the largest one next to the flanks and the smallest ones lying opposite, it is a scheduled ancient monument. Abbot of Deer Deer Abbey Old Deer Community Website This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Old Deer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. P. 69. Abbey of Deer - Article in the Catholic Encyclopedia This article contains material translated from the article de:Aikey Brae on German Wikipedia