Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals copper. The sterling silver standard has a minimum millesimal fineness of 925. Fine silver, for example 99.9% pure silver, is soft, so silver is alloyed with copper to increase its hardness and strength. Sterling silver is prone to tarnishing, elements other than copper can be used in alloys to reduce tarnishing, as well as casting porosity and firescale; such elements include germanium, platinum and boron. Recent examples of alloys using these metals include argentium, sterlium and silvadium. One of the earliest attestations of the term is in Old French form esterlin, in a charter of the abbey of Les Préaux, dating to either 1085 or 1104; the English chronicler Orderic Vitalis uses the Latin forms libræ sterilensium and libræ sterilensis monetæ. The word in origin refers to the newly introduced Norman silver penny. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the most plausible etymology is derivation from a late Old English steorling, as some early Norman pennies were imprinted with a small star.
There are a number of obsolete hypotheses. One suggests a connection with starling, because four birds were depicted on a penny of Edward I. Another argument is that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings". In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection; because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, contracted to sterling. And land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle; the Hanseatic League was active in the London trade from 1266 to 1597. This etymology may have been first suggested by Walter de Pinchebek with the explanation that the coin was made by moneyers from that region; the claim has been made in Henry Spelman's glossary as referenced in Commentaries on the Laws of England by William Blackstone.
Yet another claim on this same hypothesis is from William Camden, as quoted in Chamber's Journal of Popular Literature and Arts, Volume 4. By 1854, the tie between Easterling and Sterling was well-established, as Ronald Zupko quotes in his dictionary of weights; the British numismatist Philip Grierson disagrees with the "star" etymology, as the stars appeared on Norman pennies only for the single three-year issue from 1077–1080. Grierson's proposed alternative is that "sterling" derives from "ster" meaning "strong" or "stout", by analogy with the Byzantine solidus known as the solidus aureus meaning "solid gold" or "reliable gold". In support of this he cites the fact that one of the first acts of the Normans was to restore the coinage to the consistent weight and purity it had in the days of Offa, King of Mercia; this would have been perceived as a contrast to the progressive debasement of the intervening 200 years, would therefore be a source for a nickname. S. E. Rigold disputes the origin being Norman, stating, "that, while medieval British coins copy or are copied by those of France, they have many typological connexions with the lands to the east—the Netherlands, the Baltic and deeper regions of central Europe."
The sterling alloy originated in continental Europe and was being used for commerce as early as the 12th century in the area, now northern Germany. In England the composition of sterling silver was subject to official assay at some date before 1158, during the reign of Henry II, but its purity was regulated from centuries earlier, in Saxon times. A piece of sterling silver dating from Henry II's reign was used as a standard in the Trial of the Pyx until it was deposited at the Royal Mint in 1843, it bears the royal stamp ENRI. REX but this was added in the reign of Henry III; the first legal definition of sterling silver appeared in 1275, when a statute of Edward I specified that 12 Troy ounces of silver for coinage should contain 11 ounces 2 1⁄4 pennyweights of silver and 17 3⁄4 pennyweights of alloy, with 20 pennyweights to the Troy ounce. This is equivalent to a millesimal fineness of 926. In Colonial America, sterling silver was used for currency and general goods as well. Between 1634 and 1776, some 500 silversmiths created items in the “New World” ranging from simple buckles to ornate Rococo coffee pots.
Although silversmiths of this era were familiar with all precious metals, they worked in sterling silver. The colonies lacked an assay office during this time, so American silversmiths adhered to the standard set by the London Goldsmiths Company: sterling silver consisted of 91.5–92.5% by weight silver and 8.5–7.5 wt% copper. Stamping each of their pieces with their personal maker's mark, colonial silversmiths relied upon their own status to guarantee the quality and composition of their products. Colonial silversmiths used many of the techniques developed by those in Europe. Casting was the first step in manufacturing silver pieces, as silver workers would melt down sterling silver into manageable ingots, they would create small components by casting silver into iron or graphite molds, but it was rare for an entire piece to be fabricated via casting. More a silversmith would forge an ingot into the
Kingsmeadow Community Comprehensive School is a school for 11- to 18-year-olds based in Dunston, Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. It was opened in 1990 on the site of Dunston Comprehensive School, combining the existing Saltwell Senior High, Dunston Comprehensive and Hillhead Junior High schools; the school's name came from Kings Meadow Island in the Tyne, dredged away in the nineteenth century to allow large ships up the river. The school has been awarded Enterprise College status; the school serves the communities of Dunston, Bensham, Lobley Hill, Team Valley and Swalwell. Kingsmeadow won the DFES School Achievement Award in 2001, 2002 and 2003 and contains the Life Long Learning Centre. In 2007, Kingsmeadow began construction of a new school building; the Duke of Kent visited on 20 March 2009 to open the new school building. In 2009 the Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow visited the school. In March 2010 the school was inspected by Ofsted and deemed "good with outstanding features".
In April 2015 the school was inspected by OFSTED and deemed "good" but "requires improvement". Key Stage 4 performance in 2015 saw 32% of students achieving 5+ A*-C GCSEs. R-Kings Meadows Official website
Isaac Dogboe is a Ghanaian-British professional boxer, the World Boxing Organization super bantamweight champion. Dogboe was born in Accra, but moved to London, England aged 8, he qualified winning silver in the African Olympic Qualifying Event beating Mohamed Bedir, Emilian Polino, Ayabonga Sonjica and only losing on countback after a 6:6 draw in the final to Aboubakr Lbida. In the first round of the 2012 Olympics he faced Satoshi Shimizu of Japan. Ahead on points in the first 2 rounds he lost the bout after the judges scored round three 5:2 in favour of the Japanese overturning Dogboe’s lead; the verdict was met with vocal displeasure from ringside spectators and was described as "contentious" and a "mystery decision" by media outlets. After turning professional in 2013, Isaac compiled a record of 17-0 before challenging Mexican fighter Cesar Juarez for the vacant Interim WBO Super bantamweight title which he won via 5th round stoppage. In his next fight Dogboe would face and beat full champion Jessie Magdaleno to become the WBO's sole champion at super bantamweight.
Isaac "Royal Storm" Dogboe retained his WBO junior featherweight title with a first-round knockout of Japanese challenger Hidenori Otake on Saturday 25 August 2018 at the Gila River Arena in Glendale, USA. Dogboe knocked the ageing Otake down twice and battered him until referee Patrick Morley was forced to intervene to stop the slaughter, he lost the WBO super bantamweight title to Emanuel Navarrete at the Hulu Theater in New York City's Madison Square Garden on 8 December 2018. All three judges scored the fight in Navarrete's favor. On 11 May 2019, the pair fought a rematch, Dogboe lost once again, by twelfth round technical knockout, his promoter is Top Rank. Isaac confirmed after his second bout with Emanuel Navarrete that he would be taking a break from the sport; this would make it possible for him to continue to study for his bachelors, which he had to defer due to the demanding nature of his career as a boxer. List of super-bantamweight boxing champions Professional boxing record for Isaac Dogboe from BoxRec AIBA record 2012 Olympics Athlete profile