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Sternocleidomastoid muscle

The sternocleidomastoid muscle is one of the largest and most superficial cervical muscles. The primary actions of the muscle are rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion of the neck; the sternocleidomastoid is innervated by the accessory nerve. It is given the name sternocleidomastoid because it originates at the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle, has an insertion at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull; the sternocleidomastoid muscle originates from two locations: the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle. It travels obliquely across the side of the neck and inserts at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull; the sternocleidomastoid is thick and narrow at its centre, broader and thinner at either end. The sternal head is a round fasciculus, tendinous in front, fleshy behind, arising from the upper part of the front of the manubrium sterni, it travels superiorly and posteriorly. The clavicular head is composed of fleshy and aponeurotic fibers, arises from the upper, frontal surface of the medial third of the clavicle.

The two heads are separated from one another at their origins by a triangular interval but blend, below the middle of the neck, into a thick, rounded muscle, inserted, by a strong tendon, into the lateral surface of the mastoid process, from its apex to its superior border, by a thin aponeurosis into the lateral half of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone. The sternocleidomastoid is innervated by the accessory nerve of the same side, it supplies only motor fibres. The cervical plexus supplies sensation, including proprioception, from the ventral primary rami of C2 and C3; the clavicular origin of the sternocleidomastoid varies greatly: in some cases the clavicular head may be as narrow as the sternal. When the clavicular origin is broad, it is subdivided into several slips, separated by narrow intervals. More the adjoining margins of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius are in contact; this would leave no posterior triangle. The supraclavicularis muscle arises from the manubrium behind the sternocleidomastoid and passes behind the sternocleidomastoid to the upper surface of the clavicle.

The function of this muscle is to obliquely rotate the head. It flexes the neck; when both sides of the muscle act together, it extends the head. When one side acts alone, it causes the head to rotate to the opposite side and flexes laterally to the same side, it acts as an accessory muscle of respiration, along with the scalene muscles of the neck. The signaling process to contract or relax the sternocleidomastoid begins in Cranial Nerve XI, the accessory nerve; the accessory nerve nucleus is in the anterior horn of the spinal cord around C1-C3, where lower motor neuron fibers mark its origin. The fibers from the accessory nerve nucleus travel upward to enter the cranium via the foramen magnum; the internal carotid artery to reach the trapezius. After a signal reaches the accessory nerve nucleus in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the signal is conveyed to motor endplates on the muscle fibers located at the clavicle. Acetylcholine is released from vesicles and is sent over the synaptic cleft to receptors on the postsynaptic bulb.

The ACH causes the resting potential to increase above -55mV, thus initiating an action potential which travels along the muscle fiber. Along the muscle fibers are t-tubule openings which facilitate the spread of the action potential into the muscle fibers; the t-tubule meets with the sarcoplasmic reticulum at locations throughout the muscle fiber, at these locations the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions that results in the movement of troponin and tropomyosin on thin filaments. The movement of troponin and tropomyosin is key in facilitating the myosin head to move along the thin filament, resulting in a contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle; the sternocleidomastoid is within the investing fascia of the neck, along with the trapezius muscle, with which it shares its nerve supply. It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as it divides the neck into anterior and posterior cervical triangles which helps define the location of structures, such as the lymph nodes for the head and neck.

Many important structures relate to the sternocleidomastoid, including the common carotid artery, accessory nerve, brachial plexus. Examination of the sternocleidomastoid muscle forms part of the examination of the cranial nerves, it can be felt on each side of the neck. The triangle formed by the clavicle and the sternal and clavicular heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is used as a landmark in identifying the correct location for central venous catheterization. Contraction of the muscle gives rise to a condition called torticollis or wry neck, this can have a number of causes. Torticollis gives the appearance of a tilted head on the side involved. Treatment involves physiotherapy exercises to stretch the involved muscle and strengthen the muscle on the opposite side of the neck. Congenital torticollis can have an unknown cause or result from birth trauma that gives rise to a mass or tumor that can be palpated within the muscle, it is given the name sternocleidomastoid because it originates at the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle, has an insertion at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull.

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Steve Gottwalt

Steven M. "Steve" Gottwalt is a Minnesota politician and former member of the Minnesota House of Representatives. A member of the Republican Party of Minnesota, he represented District 15A, which included portions of Stearns County in the west central part of the state, he is an insurance salesman and the owner of Steve Gottwalt Consulting. Gottwalt graduated from St. John's Preparatory School in Collegeville went on to the College of St. Thomas in Saint Paul, earning his B. A. in Journalism and English in 1984. He served in the United States Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps from 1983-1985, he worked as a radio broadcaster for KSJR-FM and WJON, as a network contract manager for Medica Health Plans, as director of network contracting for United HealthCare's seniors program EverCare, as director of communications for the Diocese of St. Cloud and as director of communications and consumer affairs for regional grocer Coborn's Inc.. In 2011, Gottwalt launched his own business, Steve Gottwalt Consulting LLC, providing communications, PR and benefits consulting services.

Gottwalt has been a member of the St. Cloud, Chamber of Commerce, the St. Cloud Area Economic Development Partnership, the St. Cloud Regional Airport Board, the Central Minnesota Transportation Alliance, he was chair of the St. Cloud Area Human Services Council from 1992–1995, a board member of the St. Cloud Area Planning Organization from 1997–1999, a board member of the Great River Regional Library from 1999–2001, a member of the St. Cloud mayor's Government Reform and Efficiency Task Force from 1999–2001, he was a member of the St. Cloud City Council from 1997–2006 serving as the council's vice president during that time. Gottwalt has served as spokesman and communications director for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint Cloud Gottwalt was first elected in 2006, was re-elected in 2008, 2010. In 2012, he was re-elected to the newly drawn District 14A seat but resigned before the beginning of the new legislative session, he is a former chair of the House Health and Human Services Reform Committee, served on the Health and Human Services Finance and Ways & Means committees.

During his tenure, Gottwalt sponsored an amendment to the Minnesota Constitution that would have banned same-sex marriage. Voters rejected the amendment in 2012. On January 3, 2013, Gottwalt announced his intention to vacate his seat before the end of the month to join the Center for Diagnostic Imaging as its director of state legislative policy, he vacated his seat on January 7, 2013. In 2011, Gottwalt came under fire from some conservatives in his party for supporting elements of Barack Obama's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; the conservative Citizens' Council for Health Freedom stated that he was attempting to implement the "command and control" infrastructure of Obamacare. Gottwalt subsequently withdrew the legislation. Gottwalt came under the scrutiny of members of the House Ethics Committee in 2012 when lawmakers from that committee asked whether an arrangement violated ethics rules; the arrangement in question occurred in 2011, when Gottwalt sponsored the Healthy Minnesota Contribution Program, a bill that diverted Minnesotans receiving MinnesotaCare to the private insurance market.

The legislation was part of the Republican agenda during the government shutdown and was passed in July of that year. Gottwalt obtained a license for himself to sell insurance and joined Boys and Tyler, a firm that lobbied for the bill. In his Statement of Economic Interests, filed with the Minnesota Campaign Finance Board, Gottwalt failed to disclose his insurance sales business activities; when questioned about the conflict of interest, he defended his relationship to John Tyler, owner of Boys and Tyler, saying "The fact that I'm involved in that doesn't mean we were sneakily trying to come up with something to benefit ourselves. It's the other way around because we worked together." Steve Gottwalt at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Minnesota Public Radio Votetracker: Rep. Steve Gottwalt Steve Gottwalt Campaign Web Site

Lord Howe Island

Lord Howe Island is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, 600 km directly east of mainland Port Macquarie, 780 km northeast of Sydney, about 900 km southwest of Norfolk Island. It is about 10 km long and between 0.3 and 2.0 km wide with an area of 14.55 km2, though just 3.98 km2 of that comprise the low-lying developed part of the island. Along the west coast is a sandy semi-enclosed sheltered coral reef lagoon. Most of the population lives in the north, while the south is dominated by forested hills rising to the highest point on the island, Mount Gower; the Lord Howe Island Group comprises 28 islands and rocks. Apart from Lord Howe Island itself, the most notable of these is the volcanic and uninhabited Ball's Pyramid about 23 km to the southeast of Howe. To the North lies a cluster of seven small uninhabited islands called the Admiralty Group; the first reported sighting of Lord Howe Island took place on 17 February 1788, when Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, commander of the Armed Tender HMS Supply, was en route from Botany Bay to found a penal settlement on Norfolk Island.

On the return journey, Ball sent a party ashore on Lord Howe Island to claim it as a British possession. It subsequently became a provisioning port for the whaling industry, was permanently settled in June 1834; when whaling declined, the 1880s saw the beginning of the worldwide export of the endemic kentia palms, which remains a key component of the Island's economy. The other continuing industry, began after World War II ended in 1945; the Lord Howe Island Group is part of the state of New South Wales and is regarded as an unincorporated area administered by the Lord Howe Island Board, which reports to the New South Wales Minister for Environment and Heritage. The island's standard time zone is UTC +11 when daylight saving time applies; the currency is the Australian dollar. Commuter airlines provide flights to Sydney and Port Macquarie. UNESCO records the Lord Howe Island Group as a World Heritage Site of global natural significance. Most of the island is untouched forest, with many of the plants and animals found nowhere else in the world.

Other natural attractions include the diversity of the landscapes, the variety of upper mantle and oceanic basalts, the world's southernmost barrier coral reef, nesting seabirds, the rich historical and cultural heritage. The Lord Howe Island Act 1981 established a "Permanent Park Preserve"; the island was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 21 May 2007 and the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The surrounding waters are a protected region designated the Lord Howe Island Marine Park. Lord Howe Island is part of the IBRA region Pacific Subtropical Islands and is subregion PSI01 with an area of 1,909 ha. Prior to European discovery and settlement, Lord Howe Island was uninhabited, unknown to Polynesian peoples of the South Pacific; the first reported European sighting of Lord Howe Island was on 17 February 1788 by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, commander of the Armed Tender HMS Supply, on its way from Botany Bay with a cargo of nine male and six female convicts to found a penal settlement on Norfolk Island.

On the return journey of 13 March 1788, Ball observed Ball's Pyramid and sent a party ashore on Lord Howe Island to claim it as a British possession. Numerous turtles and tame birds were returned to Sydney. Ball named Mount Lidgbird and Ball's Pyramid after himself and the main island after Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, First Lord of the Admiralty at the time. Many names on the island date from this time, from May of the same year, when four ships of the First Fleet, HMS Supply, Lady Penrhyn and Scarborough, visited it. Much of the plant and animal life was first recorded in the journals and diaries of visitors such as David Blackburn, Master of Supply, Arthur Bowes Smyth, surgeon of the Lady Penrhyn. Smyth was in Sydney, his journal entry for 19 March 1788 noted that "the Supply, in her return, landed at the island she in going out, all were agreeably surprised to find great numbers of fine turtle on the beach and, on the land amongst the trees, great numbers of fowls like a guinea hen, another species of fowl not unlike the landrail in England, all so tame that you could take hold of them with your hands but could, at all times, knock down as many as you thought proper, with a short stick.

Inside the reef there were fish innumerable, which were so taken with a hook and line as to be able to catch a boat full in a short time. She brought thirteen large turtle to Port Jackson and many were distributed among the camp and fleet."Watercolour sketches of native birds including the Lord Howe woodhen, white gallinule, Lord Howe pigeon, were made by artists including George Raper and John Hunter. As the latter two birds were soon hunted to extinction, these paintings are their only remaining pictorial record. Over the next three years, the Supply returned to the island several times in search of turtles, the island was visited by ships of the Second and Third Fleets. Between 1789 and 1791, the Pacific whale industry was born with British and American whaling ships chasing sperm whales along the equator to the Gilbert and Ellice archipelago south i

Ashley Bickerton

Ashley Bickerton is a contemporary artist. A mixed-media artist, Bickerton combines photographic and painterly elements with industrial and found object assemblages, he is associated with the early 1980s art movement Neo-Geo. Born in Barbados in 1959, Bickerton is the son of Derek Bickerton, a linguist and scholar of Creole and pidgin languages, his father's research work caused his family to move around the globe every several years. As a child Ashley Bickerton lived in a number of countries across four continents; the family settled in Hawaii in 1972. British by birth, Bickerton became a naturalized US citizen in the mid-1980s, he spent 12 years in New York where he established his career before settling on the island of Bali in 1993, where he presently resides. Bickerton graduated from the California Institute of the Arts in 1982 moved to New York to attend the Whitney Museum Independent Study Program. After exhibiting for a few years in New York, he was included in a four-person show at the Sonnabend Gallery in 1986, that included Jeff Koons, Peter Halley and Meyer Vaisman.

In 2004 The New Museum exhibited "East Village USA," a show that featured "Neo-Geo" artists including Bickerton. In 2009 he was included in Pop Life: Art in a Material World, at the Tate Modern in London The following year he was exhibited in Collecting Biennials at the Whitney Museum of American Art, which acted as a counterpoint to the 2010 Biennial and paid homage to the previous 80 years of Whitney Biennials, he has had solo exhibitions at Lehman Maupin Gallery, Sonnabend Gallery, both in New York, White Cube in London. Over the last twenty-five years, Bickerton has exhibited his work internationally and is included in public art and museum collections, his works are held in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art. In April 2014, Bickerton held his first solo exhibition at Gajah Gallery; the month-long exhibition, "Junk Anthropologies", marked a new direction for the American master of philosophical funk, where he re-established himself as a master painter in the grand tradition. The focus of the works is about the ongoing corruption of Bali that he witnessed being a resident there, with the styles influenced by Paul Gauguin, whom he has a perennial obsession for.

From April to August 2017, Bickerton had his first UK retrospective at Newport Street Gallery in London entitled "Ornamental Hysteria". Spanning more than three decades of the artist's career, the exhibition showcases 51 works, many of which were new and unexhibited pieces. Amongst the featured works was Canoe, Woman, a sculpture created in Yogyakarta Art Lab which The Guardian described as " the look of the ritual artefact of Bickerton’s tropical island obsession, creating a power object or fetish with found objects, the more hypnotic for its solemn parody – silver vestal offering a hammerhead shark, coconuts in her Indonesian canoe". Ashley Bickerton's work has explored issues in contemporary art related to the commidification of the art object itself, his objects are grotesque in a self-aware manner and are a critique of capitalism. In the 1980s Bickerton made a series of works which resembled packing cases and crates, covered with corporate logos, his early work is noted for its display of corporate logos and constructions titled as either "Self-Portraits," "Commercial pieces," or "Anthropospheres."

They are Assemblages of technological or industrial materials with the inclusion of found elements and screen printed iconographic images. These functional objects without clear purpose are covered in various logos, technological signage, codes, his artwork "Abstract Painting for People 4" made in 1987 is now included in the collection of François Pinault as of 2007. The mixed-media pieces he made in collaboration with the Singapore Tyler Print Institute are "spooky" images of green-skinned creatures emerging from a sea littered with cans and bottles. Ashley Bickerton’s most recent project has been a collaboration with the Yogyakarta Art Lab. YAL is Gajah Gallery’s major initiative based in Yogyakarta - Indonesia’s up and coming art hub - co-founded in April 2012 by Indonesian artist Yunizar and owner of Gajah Gallery Jasdeep Sandhu; this collaboration involves Ashley Bickerton creating series of sculptures which examined what Bickerton would like to think of as the "mitochondrial eve". Derived from clay models the artist created in his Bali studio, they are being reinvented in Jogjakarta in a variety of archival materials centered on cast aluminum.

These new works now coming out of YAL have been described by Jasdeep Sandhu as "Some of the more important contemporary sculpture produced in the past 10 years". Bickerton continues to develop work within his established themes and iconography of tropical surrealism, green-headed characters, assemblages, his work in 2006 and 2007 has taken the form of large-format digital prints and paintings with thick wooden frame constructions with various inlays. These elements can be seen in "Made's Warung" 2006 and "Green Head with Inlay 1". 2014 marked the start of a new series of Silver Ladies, which are manifested in a double portrait of two identical subjects, beautiful young Balinese women, nude except for a floral sash around their hips and coronas of tropical flowers. Their bare skin and dreadlocked hair are painted their lips in vivid colours; the first work in this series is a painting titled 2 C W E2 P. G

Vasilij Melik

Vasilij Melik was a Slovenian historian, who worked on political history of the Slovene Lands in the 19th century. He was born in Ljubljana as the only son of the renowned geographer Anton Melik. After finishing the Ljubljana Classical Lyceum, he enrolled at the University of Ljubljana, where he studied under the supervision of the historian Fran Zwitter. During World War Two, he was sent to the Gonars concentration camp by the Fascist Italian occupation authorities, to a labour camp near Postojna. After the Italian armistice in September 1943, he was released and returned to Ljubljana, where he graduated from history in 1944. In 1945, he worked shortly as a correspondent for the Yugoslav press agency Tanjug, continued the academic career. Melik's research was focused on the Slovene history of the 19th century, he first dedicated to the economic history, but shifted to political history history of legal and political institutions. Important is his study on the elections in the Slovene Lands between 1861 and 1918.

He researched history of everyday life of the period of modernization and industrialization of the Slovene countryside in Carniola and Lower Styria. In the 1980s, he collaborated with the publishing house Slovenska matica in the critical editions of memoirs by prominent Slovene politicians of the 19th century, including Ivan Hribar and Josip Vošnjak, he died in Ljubljana. Melik was accused after the democratisation of Slovenia in 1990, that he was too cooperative with the Communist regime. One of the main accusations against Melik was that he was involved in the removal of the Catholic conservative literary historian Anton Slodnjak from the University of Ljubljana because of his alternative interpretations of the history of Slovenian literature. In March 1959, in fact, in midst of an instigated massive denigration campaign against the distinguished scholar, Melik published a long negative critique of Slodnjak's historical interpretations, accusing him of non-scientific and metaphysical approach to literary history.

Many, including Melik's colleague historian Bogo Grafenauer, interpreted this gesture as a service to the repressive cultural policies of the Titoist regime. News on the death, short biography on the webpage of Slovenian Television

Shah Niyaz Ahmad

Shah Niyaz Ahmad was a Sufi poet from India. Shah was died on 6th Jumada al-Thani 1250 Hijri, he was descendant of 4th Rashidun Caliph Ali. He was an Alvi from his paternal line and his mother was Rizvi Syed, his great grandfathers belonged to the royal family of Bukhara. Among his great grandfathers Shah Ayaat-ul-lah Alvi settled in Multan, his grandson Azmatullah Alvi came to Sirhind. His son Elahi Shah Muhammad settled in Delhi, he was the father of Niyaz. He was appointed Chief Justice in Delhi, he earned the title of "Hakim-e-Elahi". Shah Niyaz came to Delhi with his father, his mother's name was Bibi Laado but she was famous by the name of Bibi Gharib Nawaz. She was descendant of Musa al-Kazim, his primary education started at home under the guidance of his maternal grandfather Sa'id-ud-din. He was educated at Madrasa Faqriya Delhi, he completed his education including Quran, Tafseer, Fiqh at the age of 15. He became a teacher there, he became the principal of the madarsa. Niyaz got his Sufi training from Sayed Fakhar-uddin Muhammad Dehalvi known as Fakhr-e-Jahan, in Bareilly.

Niyaz was inducted in Qadiriyya order by Abdullah Shah Baghdadi, direct descendant of Abdul Qadir Jilani. Shah Niyaz received spiritual blessings from other saints of other Sufi orders, he was initiated in Qadiriyya order by Syed Abdullah Baghdadi and Mohi-ud-din Diyasnami, in Chisti-Nizami order by Moulana Fakhar-e-Jahan and Said-ud-din, in Suharwardi order by Fakhar-e-Jahan, in Chisti-Sabri-Naqshbandi order by Shah Rahmat-ul-lah. The Sufi order he established is known as the Niyazi Silsila, he married twice. His first wife, daughter of Abdullah Baghdadi, died after some years in marriage, he had Shah Nizam-ud-din Husain and Shah Nasir-ud-din, from his second wife. He died on 6th Jumada al-Thani 1250 Hijri in Bareilly, his urs is celebrated annually in a traditional way. His eldest son Nizamuddin Hussain was successor. Other prominent khulafa included Syed Muhammed Sani of Badakshan, Maulvi Abdul Latif of Samarkand, Maulvi Naimatullah of Kabul, Maulvi Yar Muhammed of Kabul, Mulla Jan Muhammed of Kabul, Maulana Waz Muhammed of Badakshan, Maulvi Muhammed Husain of Mecca, Mirza Asadullah Baig of Bareilly, Mirza Agha Muhammad of Jabalpur, Maulvi Ubiadullah of Mansehra and Shah Miskeen Jaipuri