The beaver is a large nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes the North American beaver and Eurasian beaver. Beavers are known for building dams and lodges, they are the second-largest rodent in the world. Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, to float food and building material; the North American beaver population as of 1988 was 6 -- 12 million. This population decline is the result of extensive hunting for fur, for glands used as medicine and perfume, because the beavers' harvesting of trees and flooding of waterways may interfere with other land uses. Beavers, along with pocket gophers and kangaroo rats, are castorimorph rodents, a suborder of rodents restricted to North America. Although just two related species exist today, beavers have a long fossil history in the Northern Hemisphere beginning in the Eocene, many species of giant beaver existed until quite such as Trogontherium in Europe, Castoroides in North America. Beavers are known for their natural trait of building dams on rivers and streams, building their homes in the resulting pond.
Beavers build canals to float building materials that are difficult to haul over land. They use powerful front teeth to cut trees and other plants that they use both for building and for food. In the absence of existing ponds, beavers must construct dams before building their lodges. First they place vertical poles fill between the poles with a crisscross of horizontally placed branches, they fill in the gaps between the branches with a combination of weeds and mud until the dam impounds sufficient water to surround the lodge. They are known for their alarm signal: when startled or frightened, a swimming beaver will dive while forcefully slapping the water with its broad tail, audible over great distances above and below water; this serves as a warning to beavers in the area. Once a beaver has sounded the alarm, nearby beavers may not reemerge for some time. Beavers are slow on land, but are good swimmers, can stay under water for as long as 15 minutes. Beavers do not hibernate; some of the pile is above water and accumulates snow in the winter.
This insulation of snow keeps the water from freezing in and around the food pile, providing a location where beavers can breathe when outside their lodge. Beavers have webbed hind-feet, a broad, scaly tail, they have poor eyesight, but keen senses of hearing and touch. A beaver's teeth grow continuously, their four incisors are composed of hard orange enamel on a softer dentin on the back. The chisel-like ends of incisors are maintained by their self-sharpening wear pattern; the enamel in a beaver's incisors contains iron and is more resistant to acid than enamel in the teeth of other mammals. Beavers continue to grow throughout their lives. Adult specimens weighing over 25 kg are not uncommon. Females are as large as or larger than males of the same age, uncommon among mammals. Beavers live up to 24 years of age in the wild; the English word "beaver" comes from the Old English word beofor or befer, which in turn sprang from the Proto-Germanic root *bebruz. Cognates in other Germanic languages include the Old Saxon bibar, the Old Norse bjorr, the Middle Dutch and Dutch bever, the Low German bever, the Old High German bibar and the Modern German Biber.
The Proto-Germanic word in turn came from the Proto-Indo-European word *bhebhrus, a reduplication of the PIE root *bher-, meaning "brown" or "bright", whose own descendants now include the Lithuanian bebras and the Czech bobr, as well as the Germanic forms. The North American and Eurasian beavers are the only extant members of the family Castoridae, contained in a single genus, Castor. Genetic research has shown the modern European and North American beaver populations to be distinct species and that hybridization is unlikely. Although superficially similar to each other, there are several important differences between the two species. Eurasian beavers tend to be larger, with larger, less rounded heads, narrower muzzles, thinner and lighter underfur, less oval-shaped tails and shorter shin bones, making them less capable of bipedal locomotion than the North American species. Eurasian beavers have longer nasal bones than their North American cousins, with the widest point being at the end of the snout for the former, in the middle for the latter.
The nasal opening for the Eurasian species is triangular, unlike that of the North American race, square. The foramen magnum is rounded in the Eurasian triangular in the North American; the anal glands of the Eurasian beaver are larger and thin-walled with a large internal volume compared to that of the North American species. The guard hairs of the Eurasian beaver have a longer hollow medulla at their tips. Fur colour is different. Overall, 66% of Eurasian beavers have pale brown or beige fur, 20% have reddish brown, nearly 8% are brown and only 4% have blackish coats. In North American beavers, 50% have pale brown fur, 25% are reddish brown, 20% are brown and 6% are blackish; the two species are not genetically compatible. North American beavers have 40 chromosomes, while Eurasian beavers have 48. More than 27 attempts were made in Russia to hybridize the two species, with one breeding between a male North American beaver and a female European resulting in a single stillborn kit. Thes
North-West Mounted Police
The North-West Mounted Police was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories. The mounted police combined military and judicial functions along similar lines to the Royal Irish Constabulary, deployed the following year to the Alberta border in response to the Cypress Hills Massacre and subsequent fears of a United States military intervention, their ill-planned and arduous journey of nearly 900 miles became known as the March West and was portrayed by the force as an epic journey of endurance. Over the next few years, the police extended Canadian law across the region, establishing good working relationships with the First Nations; the force formed part of the military response to the North-West Rebellion in 1885, but faced criticism for their performance during the conflict. The mounted police assisted in the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, including relocating indigenous communities living along the route.
The force established a wide network of posts and patrols, enabling them to protect and assist the ranchers who created huge cattle businesses across the prairies. The living conditions of the police on the prairies were spartan and uncomfortable, only improved over the course of the century. Meanwhile, the railway enabled more settlers to migrate west, creating new towns and industries, while the force restricted the First Nations to the reserves; the mounted police faced challenges in adapting to the changing situation when applying the unpopular prohibition laws to the white community. The force became drawn into the growing number of industrial disputes between organised labour and company owners. By 1896, the government planned to pass policing responsibilities to the provincial authorities and close the force. With the discovery of gold in the Klondike, the force was redeployed to protect Canada's sovereignty over the region and to manage the influx of prospectors; the mounted police sent volunteers to fight in the Second Boer War, in recognition were retitled the Royal North-West Mounted Police in 1904.
The plans for closure were abandoned in the face of opposition from regional politicians. Large numbers of the police volunteered for military service during the First World War, the future of the badly depleted force was once again in doubt. Towards the end of the war, fears grew about a potential Bolshevik conspiracy and the authorities tasked the mounted police to investigate the threat. In the aftermath of the violence of the Winnipeg General Strike, the government decided to amalgamate the force with the Dominion Police, to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920. Many popular novels were published about the mounted police from 1885 onwards, in the 20th century over 250 films were made, along with radio and television portrayals; the police were depicted as courageous and chivalrous, displaying a sense of fair-play as they brought their suspects to justice. Historians, working from limited public records and chronicles, wrote eulogistic accounts of the mounted police, but as new archives became available in the 1970s, more critical and analytic accounts of the force were produced.
The force influenced public perceptions of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, which used the North-West Mounted Police's image and history to help make the modern police a popular Canadian national symbol. The North-West Mounted Police was created due to the expansion of the newly formed Dominion of Canada into the North-West Territories during the 1870s; the Dominion had been formed in 1867 by the confederation of the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but the extensive lands to the north-west remained governed by the Hudson's Bay Company. The new Dominion government was keen to expand westwards, in part due to fears that the United States might annex the region, it agreed to purchase the company's lands in exchange for £300,000 and various grants of land, adding around 2,500,000 square miles of territory to the Dominion in 1870. The North-West Territories varied geographically from the extreme conditions of the far north, through to the edges of the Great Plains in the south, covered by flat, semi-arid grasslands.
A rocky area known as the Shield, unsuitable for arable farming, had formed a natural barrier to European colonists spreading across from the eastern colonies. As a result, the territories remained thinly populated, with only around 150,000 First Nations and occasional small groups of Europeans, more substantial communities of around 12,000 Métis settled in the Red River valley of Manitoba and a further 8,500 European settlers in the colony of British Columbia. Surveys referred to the territories as the "Wild North Land" and the "Great Lone Land"; the Canadian border along the southern edge of Alberta was occupied by the Blackfoot Confederacy, a First Nation whose economy was based on hunting bison. The Blackfoot had suffered badly from smallpox, were under increasing pressure from rival groups of Sioux and Piegans that had crossed into Canada, fleeing the expansion of the United States military across the southern plains. Whiskey-traders from the United States had come across the border, selling alcohol to the aboriginal peoples, fuelling social problems and outbreaks of violence.
Although the region remained safe, there was no civil government, military explorers highlighted the "lawlessness" and lack of "security for life or property" that resulted from the absence of a formal justice system. In 1869, the Canadian Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, made plans to create a 200-strong mounted police force to maintain order along the border.
The cowboy hat is a high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat best known as the defining piece of attire for the North American cowboy. Influenced by 19th century Mexican culture, today it is worn by many people, is associated with ranch workers in the western and southern United States, western Canada and northern Mexico, with country-western singers and ranchero singers in Mexico, for participants in the North American rodeo circuit, it is recognized around the world as part of Old West apparel. The shape of a cowboy hat's crown and brim are modified by the wearer for fashion and to protect against weather; the first western model was the open-crowned "Boss of the Plains", after that came the front-creased Carlsbad, destined to become "the" cowboy style. The high-crowned, wide-brimmed, soft-felt western hats that followed are intimately associated with the cowboy image; the concept of a broad-brimmed hat with a high crown worn by a rider on horseback can be seen as far back as the Mongolian horsemen of the 13th century.
The hat has a tall crown that provides insulation, a wide brim, shade. Hot and sunny climates inspire designs with wide brims such as the sombrero of Mexico, it is not clear. However, European-Americans in the Western United States had no standard headwear. People moving West wore many styles of hat, including top hats, remains of Civil War headgear, sailor hats. Contrary to popular belief, it was the bowler and not the cowboy hat, the most popular in the American West, prompting Lucius Beebe to call it "the hat that won the West"; the working cowboy wore high-crowned hats. The hats were most adopted from the Mexican Vaqueros before the invention of the modern design. However, the original cowboy hats originated in Northern Mexico. John Batterson Stetson is credited for making the modern day American Cowboy Hat; the original "Boss of the Plains", manufactured by Stetson in 1865, was flat-brimmed, had a straight sided crown, with rounded corners. These light-weight, waterproof hats were natural in color, with four-inch brims.
A plain hatband was fitted to adjust head size. The sweatband bore Stetson's name. While only making one style of hat, they came in different qualities ranging from one-grade material at five dollars apiece to pure beaver felt hats for thirty dollars each. J. B. Stetson was the first to market the "Boss of the Plains" to cowboys, it has remained the universal image of the American West; the charisma of the West was carried back East when adventurers returned in the expensive "Boss of the plains" style hat. In the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, a hat was an indispensable item in every man's wardrobe. Stetson focused on expensive, high-quality hats that represented a real investment for the working cowboy and a statement of success for the city dweller; the durability and water-resistance of the original Stetson obtained additional publicity in 1912, when the battleship USS Maine was raised from Havana harbor, where it had sunk in 1898. A Stetson hat was found in the wreck, submerged in seawater for 14 years.
The hat had been exposed to ooze and plant growth. However, the hat was cleaned off, appeared to be undamaged. Modern cowboy hats are made of fur-based felt, straw or, less leather, they are sold with a wide flat brim. They have a simple sweat band on the inside to stabilize the fit of the head, a small decorative hat band on the outside of the crown. Hats are customized by rolling the brim. A more decorative hat band is added. In some places, "stampede strings" or "wind strings" are attached. Hats can be manufactured in any color, but are most seen in shades of beige and black. Beginning in the 1940s, pastel colors were introduced, seen on hats worn by movie cowboys and rodeo riders. "Today's cowboy hat has remained unchanged in construction and design since the first one was created in 1865 by J. B. Stetson." Ornamentation, such as bows or buckles, are attached on the left side. This had a practical purpose; because the majority of people are right-handed, in the absence of a wide brim, bows or feathers on the right side of headwear could interfere with the use of weapons.
Inside the cowboy hat is a memorial bow to past hatters, who developed brain damage from treating felt with toxic mercury. The bow on the inside hatband at the rear of the hat crossbones. "Early hatters used mercury in the making of their felt. Their bodies absorbed mercury, after several years of making hats, the hatters developed violent and uncontrollable muscle twitching. Lack of medical knowledge caused people to attribute these strange gyrations to madness, not mercury."The modern cowboy hat has remained unchanged in construction and underlying design since the Stetson creation. The cowboy hat developed the capability in the early years, to identify its wearer as someone associated with the West. "Within a decade the name "John B. Stetson" became synonymous with the word "hat" in every corner and culture west of the Mississippi." The shape of the hat's crown and brim were modified by the wearer for fashion and to protect against weather by being softened in hot steam and allowed to dry and cool.
Felt tends to stay in the shape. Because of the ease of personalization, it was possible to tell where a cowboy hat was from, right down to which ranch by looking at the crease in the crown; as the mystique of the "Wild West" was popularized by entertainers such as Buffalo Bill Cody and western movies starring actors such
The pith helmet known as the safari helmet, sun helmet, sola topee or topi, is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of sholapith. Pith helmets were worn by European travelers and explorers, in the varying climates found in Africa, Southeast Asia, the tropics, but have been used in many other contexts, they were issued to European military personnel serving overseas "in hot climates" from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. The pith helmet was first worn by Spanish forces during the colonial era of the Spanish East Indies, was adopted by the French in Indochina due to its effectiveness in protecting from damp and humid weather. Subsequently, it was worn by non-indigenous officers commanding locally recruited troops in the colonial armies of France, Spain, Italy, Imperial Germany and the Netherlands, as well as civilian officials in their territories; as such it became something of a symbol of colonial rule. Helmets of a similar style but without true pith construction continued to be used as late as World War II by European and American military personnel.
Such was the popularity of the pith helmet that it became a common civilian headgear for Westerners in the tropics from the end of the 19th century. The civilian pith helmet was less decorative and more practical, not as tall as the military counterpart, with a wide brim all round, it was worn by men and women and young, both in formal and casual occasions, until the Second World War. After the war, the Viet Minh of Vietnam copied the pith helmet from the former French colonizer, adopted it as their own. Today it is still worn by both civilians and the military in Vietnam. For military use, helmets of this type had begun to prove clumsy and conspicuous in the field, after World War II they ceased to be worn on active service. Outside Vietnam the pith helmet is now worn by certain units of the British, Canadian and Thai military, the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince of Monaco, on ceremonial occasions. Similar sun helmets are still worn today by some mail carriers of the U. S. Postal Service.
The pith helmet has seen use as a form of identification by U. S. Marine Corps marksmanship instructors at Parris Island, San Diego, fleet ranges, similar to the campaign hat worn by drill instructors; these Marines wear black metal USMC insignia on the front of their pith helmet if they are marksmanship coaches, or gold if they are marksmanship trainers and block NCOs. A pith helmet derives from either the sola plant, Aeschynomene aspera, an Indian swamp plant, or from Aeschynomene paludosa. In the narrow definition, a pith helmet is technically a type of sun helmet made out of pith material. However, the pith helmet may more broadly refer to the particular style of helmet. In this case, a pith helmet can be made out of fibrous, or similar material. Whatever the material, the pith helmet is designed to face from the sun. Pith helmets were used by the Spanish military, which used the term salacot. Crude forms of pith helmet had existed as early as the 1840s, but it was around 1870 that the pith helmet became popular with military personnel in Europe's tropical colonies.
The Franco-Prussian War had popularized the German Pickelhaube, which may have influenced the distinctive design of the pith helmet. Such developments may have merged with a traditional design from the salakot; the alternative name salacot appears in Spanish and French sources. During the Philippine–American War, President Emilio Aguinaldo and the Philippine Revolutionary Army used to wear the pith helmet borrowed from the Spaniards alongside the straw hat and the native salakot. Made of pith with small peaks or "bills" at the front and back, the helmet was covered by white cloth with a cloth band around it, small holes for ventilation. Military versions had metal insignia on the front and could be decorated with a brass spike or ball-shaped finial; the chinstrap would be either brass chain, depending on the occasion. The base material became the more durable cork, although still covered with cloth and still referred to as "pith" helmet. During the Anglo-Zulu War, British troops dyed their white pith helmets with tea for camouflage.
Soon khaki-coloured pith helmets became standard issue. While this form of headgear was associated with the British Empire, all European colonial powers used versions of it during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the French tropical helmet was first authorised for colonial troops in 1878. The Dutch wore the helmet during the entire Aceh War and the United States Army adopted it during the 1880s for use by soldiers serving in the intensely sunny climate of the Southwest United States, it was worn by the North-West Mounted Police in policing North-West Canada, 1873 through 1874 to the North-West Rebellion and before the stetson in the Yukon Gold Rush of 1898. European officers commanding locally recruited indigenous troops, as well as civilian officials in African and Asian colonial territories, used the pith helmet. Troops serving in the tropics wore pith helmets, although on active service they sometimes used alternatives such as the wide-brimmed slouch hat worn by US troops in the Philippines and by British empire forces in the stages of the Boer War.
In what was the British Empire, sun helmets made of pith first appeared in Ind
Boss of the Plains
The Boss of the Plains was a lightweight all-weather hat designed in 1865 by John B. Stetson for the demands of the American West, it was intended to be durable and elegant. This design and the term "Stetson" became all-but-interchangeable with what became known as the cowboy hat; the Boss was designed with a high crown to provide insulation on the top of the head, a wide stiff brim to provide shelter from both sun and precipitation for the face and shoulders. The original fur-felt hat was shed rain. Overall, the hat was lightweight. On the underside, the hat included a sweatband, a lining to protect the hat, and, as a memorial to earlier designs, a bow on its sweatband, which had the practical purpose of helping distinguish the front from the back; the original designs were natural in color with four-inch brims. For years, Stetson worried about the waterproofing, decided to make his hat of beaver felt, it took about 42 beaver belly pelts to produce a high quality hat. Because of the tight weave of most Stetson hats, it was waterproof enough to be used as a bucket.
One story tells of a cowboy crossing a long dry stretch of prairie. His canteen sprang a leak, he saved the drinking water by carrying it in his Stetson. Stetson featured advertising of a cowboy watering his horse with water carried in the crown; the wearer could use the brim to direct water to a person's mouth. A high quality hat in good condition was viewed in some places as a status symbol; the straight-sided, round cornered, flat brimmed original Boss of the Plains design dominated for about twenty years. Most 19th-century photographs show. Most hats were kept open crown. However, through use and customization by individual wearers, hats were modified from their original appearance. In particular, the crown would become dented, at first inadvertently by deliberate choice of individual owners; the brim was rolled or curved and ornamentation was sometimes added. These creases and brim shapes began to reflect where a particular hat owner lived or worked, in some cases cowboys on individual ranches could be identified by the crease in their hat.
Thus, the manufactured styles began to change. The first popular modification was a long crease sloping from the high back down towards the front, called the "Carlsbad crease" after a style used by wearers in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Another design, derived from the pointed top of the Mexican sombrero, worked its way north and became known as the "Montana peak," which had four dents derived from being handled on top with four fingers. Entertainers who promoted cowboy and western culture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries popularized Stetson designs. Buffalo Bill had custom hats with wide brims made for his Wild West shows, with designs created for Hollywood including the Tom Mix style "ten-gallon" hats used in Western films. Over time, the working cowboy hat of the ranch cowboy, as modified by popular entertainers and rodeo competitors, became an essential part of the cowboy image. At times, various politicians and law enforcement units adopted descendants of the Boss of the Plains hat to strengthen their association with the culture and values of the Old West.
The Boss of the Plains-inspired design that became the modern cowboy hat has retained its basic features in construction and design since the first one in 1865, demonstrating the degree to which form succeeded in following function. Robert Baden-Powell learned of the practicality of the Boss of the Plains hat through his association with Frederick Russell Burnham during the Second Matabele War of 1896-97, he popularized the "lemon squeezer" style during the Siege of Mafeking in the Second Anglo-Boer War; when Baden-Powell established the South African Constabulary in 1900, he chose the Boss of the Plains as their uniform headgear. Popular culture has it that, on receiving the first shipment of hats from the Stetson company, the handbill identified them as'hats, B-P style', misconstrued as an allusion to Baden-Powell's initials. Baden-Powell adopted the hat for use by the Boy Scouts. American author, Laurie Winn Carlson, wrote Boss of the Plains: The Hat that Won the West, which tells the history behind this hat.
Bender, Texan Bix. Hats & the cowboys who wear them. ISBN 1-58685-191-8 Carlson, Laurie. Boss of the Plains, the hat that won the West. ISBN 0-7894-2479-7 Manns, William. Cowboys & the Trappings of the Old West. ISBN 0-939549-13-1 Reynolds and Rich Rand The Cowboy Hat book. ISBN 0-87905-656-8 Snyder, Jeffrey B. Stetson Hats and the John B. Stetson Company 1865-1970. ISBN 0-7643-0211-6 curtrich.com, in search of the real cowboy hat, Cowboy Chronicle April 2004 reprint, accessed online April 1, 2009. Deathvalley49ers.org, John B. Stetson Hat Co. to revive, the famed'Boss of the Plains' hat, accessed online April 28, 2009
The half eagle is a United States coin, produced for circulation from 1795 to 1929 and in commemorative and bullion coins since the 1980s. Composed entirely of gold, it has a face value of five dollars, its production was authorized by The Act of April 2, 1792, it was the first gold coin minted by the United States. The design and composition of the half eagle changed many times over the years, but it was designed by Robert Scot. At this time the coin contained.0833 copper and silver. It had a diameter of 25 mm, a weight of 8.75 grams, a reeded edge. The obverse design, or "Turban Head", depicted a capped portrait of Liberty facing to the right; the reverse depicted a small eagle. This type was produced from 1795 to 1798. Another type was minted that depicted a larger heraldic eagle on the reverse with the inscription "E PLURIBUS UNUM"; this type was produced through 1807. From 1807 to 1812, a new type designed by John Reich was produced, the "Draped Bust", featuring a round-capped Liberty facing left on the obverse and a modified eagle on the reverse.
For the first time, the value "5 D." was placed on the reverse of the coin to indicate its value. In 1813 a modified version of the Draped Bust was introduced, removing much of the bustline and giving Liberty an overall larger appearance; this design which would last through 1834. Another modification occurred in 1829 when the diameter of the coin was reduced to 23.8 mm, although the overall design remained unchanged. By 1834, the gold in the half eagle had been worth more than its face value for several years; the Act of June 28, 1834 called for a reduction in the gold used. The weight of the coin was reduced to 8.36 grams, the diameter reduced to 22.5 mm, the composition changed to.8992 gold and.1008 silver and copper. A new obverse, the "Classic Head", was created by William Kneass for the altered coin; the reverse still depicted the modified eagle introduced in 1813, but "E PLURIBUS UNUM" was removed to distinguish further the new composition. In 1837, the gold content of this type was increased to.900 in accordance with the Act of January 18, 1837.
In 1839 the coin was redesigned again. The new obverse was designed by Christian Gobrecht and is known as the "Liberty Head or "Coronet head"; the reverse design remained the same, although the value was changed from "5 D." to "Five D.". For those struck at the Philadelphia Mint, there was no longer any silver in the coin - its composition was now.900 gold and.100 copper. However, gold ore used at the southern branch mints of Charlotte and Dahlonega had a high natural silver content, many of these coins contained up to five percent silver, giving them a distinct so-called "green gold" color, its weight was the same, 8.359 grams, but the diameter was reduced one final time, to 21.6 mm, in 1840, for a gold content of 0.242 Troy Oz. This design was used for nearly 70 years, from 1839 to 1908, with a modest change in 1866, when "In God We Trust" was placed on the reverse above the eagle; the Liberty Head half eagle holds the distinction of being the only coin of a single design to be minted at seven U.
S. Mints: Philadelphia, Charlotte, New Orleans, San Francisco, Carson City, Denver. Common date Liberty Half Eagles in circulated grades are worth about $330 as of December 2017. Scarcer dates and coins of higher grades can be worth much more, all Charlotte, Carson City and Dahlonega pieces are scarce and valuable. In 1908, the final type, designed by Bela Lyon Pratt, was first produced; the composition and diameter of the coin remained unchanged, but both the obverse and reverse were drastically altered. The new design matched the new quarter eagle design of the same date; these two series are unique in United States coinage because the design and inscriptions are stamped in incuse, rather than being raised from the surface, meaning that the flat surfaces are the highest points of the coin. The obverse depicted an Indian head wearing a feathered headdress; the reverse depicted a perched eagle with the inscriptions "E PLURIBUS UNUM" and "IN GOD WE TRUST". Production of the half eagle was suspended during World War I and not resumed until 1929, the final year of issue.
Due to higher demand common date Indian Head half eagles tend to be worth more than common date Liberty Head half eagles. The $5 denomination has the distinction of being the only denomination for which coins were minted at eight US mints. Prior to 1838 all half eagles were minted in Philadelphia because there were no other operating mints. In 1838, the Charlotte Mint and the Dahlonega Mint produced half eagles of the Coronet type in their first years of operation, would continue to mint half eagles until 1861, their last year of operation; the New Orleans Mint minted half eagles from 1840 to 1861. The San Francisco Mint first produced half eagles in 1854, its first year of operation, as did Carson City in 1870, Denver in 1906. Although circulating half eagle production was discontinued in 1929, half eagle commemorative and $5 denominated bullion coins were minted at West Point starting in the late twentieth century. Proof coins were produced at Philadelphia from 1859 on. Turban Head 1795–1807 Turban Head, Small Eagle 1795–1798 Turban Head, Large Eagle 1795–1807 Draped Bust 1807–1812 Capped Head 1813–1834 Classic Head 1834–1838 Liberty Head 1839–1907 Coronet, without motto 1839–1866 Coronet, with motto 1866–1908 Indian Head 1908–1916, 1929 A Guide Book of United States Coins by R.
S. Yeoman ed. Kenneth Bressett, 2003 Complete U. S. Coin History United States Department of the Treasury: "Half eagle" references "Rare Half Eagle" (Profe
Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, was a British Army officer, writer and first Chief Scout of the world-wide Boy Scout Movement, founder, with his sister Agnes, of the world-wide Girl Guide / Girl Scout Movement. Baden-Powell authored the first editions of the seminal work Scouting for Boys, an inspiration for the Scout Movement. Educated at Charterhouse in Surrey, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were read by boys. In 1907, he held a demonstration camp, the Brownsea Island Scout camp, now seen as the beginning of Scouting. Based on his earlier books Aids to Scouting, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for boy readership. In 1910 Baden-Powell formed The Boy Scouts Association.
The first Scout Rally was held at The Crystal Palace in 1909, at which appeared a number of girls in Scout uniform, who told Baden-Powell that they were the "Girl Scouts", following which, in 1910, Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell started the Girl Guides Movement. In 1912 he married Olave St Clair Soames, he gave guidance to the Scouting and Girl Guiding Movements until retiring in 1937. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, where he died and was buried in 1941, his grave is now a National Monument. Baden-Powell's father was the Reverend Professor Baden Powell, a prominent mathematician and theologian, whose family originated in Suffolk, his mother was Henrietta Grace, daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth whose earliest known Smyth ancestor was a Royalist American colonist. Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell at 6 Stanhope Street, Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857, he was called Stephe by his family. He was named after his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer, his third name was his mother's maiden name.
Baden-Powell was the son of The Reverend Baden Powell, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University and Church of England priest and his third wife, Henrietta Grace Smyth, eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth. After Powell died in 1860, to identify her children with her late husband's fame, to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, his mother styled the family name Baden-Powell; the name was legally changed by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902. Baden-Powell had four older half-siblings from the second of his father's two previous marriages, six full siblings Warington, the often-ill Augustus, Francis and Baden, as well as three others, who had all died young before he was born. Baden-Powell's father died. Subsequently, Baden-Powell was raised by his mother, a strong woman, determined that her children would succeed. In 1933 he said of her "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."Baden-Powell attended Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells. He was given a scholarship to a prestigious public school.
He played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on canoeing expeditions with his brothers, his first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were out-of-bounds. In 1876 Baden-Powell joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant, he enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads. Although Baden-Powell claimed the beads had been those of the Zulu king Dinizulu, one researcher learned from Baden-Powell's diary that he had taken beads from a dead woman's body around that time and indeed the bead form is more similar to dowry beads than to warrior beads; the beads were incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement.
Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and in 1890 he was brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth. He was posted to Malta for three years working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence, he travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings. In 1884 he published Scouting. Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896, served in the Second Matabele War, in the expedition to relieve British South Africa Company personnel under siege in Bulawayo; this was a formative experience for him not only because he commanded reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in the Matopos Hills, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas took hold here. It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to stories of the American O