The Montreal Expos were a Canadian professional baseball team based in Montreal, Quebec. The Expos were the first Major League Baseball franchise located outside the United States, they played in the National League East Division from 1969 until 2004. Following the 2004 season, the franchise relocated to Washington, D. C. and became the Washington Nationals. After the minor league Triple-A Montreal Royals folded in 1960, political leaders in Montreal sought an MLB franchise, when the National League evaluated expansion candidates for the 1969 season, it awarded a team to Montreal. Named after the Expo 67 World's Fair, the Expos played at Jarry Park Stadium before moving to Olympic Stadium in 1977; the Expos failed to post a winning record in any of their first ten seasons. The team won its only division title in the strike-shortened 1981 season, but lost the 1981 National League Championship Series to the Los Angeles Dodgers; the team was sold in 1991 by its majority, founding owner, Charles Bronfman, to a consortium headed by Claude Brochu.
Felipe Alou was promoted to the team's field manager in 1992, becoming MLB's first Dominican-born manager. He led the team to four winning seasons, including 1994, where the Expos had the best record in baseball before a players' strike ended the season. Alou became the Expos leader in games managed; the aftermath of the 1994 strike initiated a downward spiral as the Expos chose to sell off their best players, attendance and interest in the team declined. Major League Baseball purchased the team prior to the 2002 season after the club failed to secure funding for a new ballpark. In their final two seasons, the team played 22 home games each year at Hiram Bithorn Stadium in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On September 29, 2004, MLB announced the franchise would relocate to Washington, D. C. for the 2005 season, the Expos played their final home game in Montreal. The Expos posted an all-time record of 2,753 wins, 2,943 losses and 4 ties during their 36 years in Montreal. Vladimir Guerrero led the franchise in both home runs and batting average, Steve Rogers in wins and strikeouts.
Three pitchers threw four no-hitters: Bill Stoneman, Charlie Lea, Dennis Martínez, who pitched the 13th official perfect game in Major League Baseball history. The Expos retired four numbers in Montreal, nine former members have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, with Gary Carter, Andre Dawson and Tim Raines' plaques depicting them with Expos caps. Professional baseball in Montreal dates back to 1890 when teams played in the International Association. A second attempt at hosting a pro team failed in 1895; the Montreal Royals of the Eastern League played 20 seasons. The Royals were revived in 1928 and were purchased by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1939 to serve as one of their Triple-A affiliates. Under Dodgers' management, the Royals won seven International League championships and three Junior World Series titles between 1941 and 1958. In 1946, Jackie Robinson joined the Royals and led the team to a Junior World Series title in advance of his breaking baseball's colour barrier one year later.
By the late 1950s, the Royals' championship years were past, faced with declining attendance, the team was sold and relocated following the 1960 season as the Dodgers reduced the number of teams they maintained at the AAA level. Upon the Royals' demise, Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau and city executive committee chairman Gerry Snyder began their campaign for a Major League Baseball team; the city, considered a leading candidate to acquire the St. Louis Browns if the team had relocated in 1933, was too late to submit its candidacy for a team as part of the National League's 1962 expansion but presented its bid to the league's owners at the winter meetings in 1967. Aiding Montreal's bid was the fact that Walter O'Malley, who owned the Dodgers and oversaw the Montreal Royals, was the chairman of the NL's expansion committee. On May 27, 1968, National League president Warren Giles announced the league would add expansion teams in San Diego and Montreal at a cost of US$10 million each. With the franchise secured, Snyder built an ownership group of six partners led by financier Jean-Louis Lévesque and Seagram heir Charles Bronfman.
Lévesque was tapped as chairman and the public face of the ownership group since he was a francophone. However, he bowed out, Bronfman took over as chairman; the new group was faced with the immediate problem of finding a suitable facility in which to play for at least two years. Drapeau had promised the NL that a domed stadium would be built by 1971. However, Snyder's successor as executive committee chairman, Lucien Saulnier, told Bronfman that Drapeau could not make such a guarantee on his own authority; as 1968 dragged on without movement from the city on a facility and his group threatened to walk away. While they had more than enough money between them to pay the first installment of the expansion fee, they wanted assurances that a park would be built before proceeding any further with the effort. Delorimier Stadium, which hosted the Royals, was rejected as a temporary facility; the Autostade, home of the Canadian Football League's Montreal Alouettes, was ruled out due to the prohibitive cost of expanding it and adding a dome, as well as doubts that the city had the right to make the needed renovations to the federally-owned facility.
By August 1968, the NL owners had grown concerned about the unresolved stadium question, putting the franchise's future in doubt. There were rumours of awarding the
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles southwest of Seattle, 31 miles northeast of the state capital, 58 miles northwest of Mount Rainier National Park; the population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the third largest in the state. Tacoma serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier called Takhoma or Tahoma, it is locally known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails". Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma, a center of international trade on the Pacific Coast and Washington State's largest port.
Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington Tacoma. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have been revitalized. With over $1 billion having been invested in downtown Tacoma alone, private investment has surpassed public investment by a ratio of 4:1. Tacoma has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country; that same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie"; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin built a water-powered sawmill on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.
In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator, built a cabin. Carr hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver, who named his project Tacoma City, derived from the indigenous name for the mountain. Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875, following its selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad due to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, others. However, the railroad built its depot on New Tacoma, two miles south of the Carr–McCarver development; the two communities grew together and joined, merging on January 7, 1884. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, the population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest". George Francis Train was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century.
In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the finish line. In November 1885, white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents peacefully living in the city; as described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation, on the morning of November 3, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground." The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1898 led to Tacoma's prominence in the region being eclipsed by the development of Seattle. A major tragedy marred the end of the 19th century, when a streetcar accident resulted in significant loss of life on July 4, 1900. From May to August 1907, the city was the site of a smelter workers' strike organized by Local 545 of the Industrial Workers of the World, with the goal of a fifty-cent per day pay raise.
The strike was opposed by the local business community, the smelter owners threatened to blacklist organizers and union officials. The IWW opposed this move by trying to persuade inbound workers to avoid Tacoma during the strike. By August, the strike had ended without meeting its demands. Tacoma was a major destination for big-time automobile racing, with one of the nation's top-rated racing venues just outside the city limits, at the site of today's Clover Park Technical College. In 1924, Tacoma's first movie studio, H. C. Weaver Studio, was sited at present-day Titlow Beach. At the time, it was the third-largest freestanding film production space in America, with the two larger facilities being located in Hollywood; the studio's importance has undergone a revival with the discovery of one of its most famous lost films, Eyes of the Totem. The 1929 crash of the stock market, resulting in the Great Depression, was only the first event in a series of misfortunes to hit Tacoma in the winter of 1929–3
Beaverton High School
Beaverton High School is a public high school located in Beaverton, United States. The original schoolhouse, called Beaverton Public School, opened in 1875 on land between Canyon Road and Broadway Street. In 1902, a ninth grade class was added, followed by a 10th grade in 1910 and 11th grade in 1915. Voters approved a $21,000 bond issue submitted by the school board in 1915 to construct a 21-room high school building on land south of Second Street between Stott Street and Erickson Street. On June 19, 1916, the city of Beaverton dedicated the new Beaverton High School. Construction costs totaled $20,778, according to the Beaverton Times newspaper, it is the oldest high school in Beaverton and is believed to be the oldest public high school in the state of Oregon, in its original location and building. Beaverton High School contains grades 9–12. In 1938, a new school called Beaverton Grade School was built on land just east of Beaverton High School; the building would be renamed Merle Davies School in 1948 to honor a longtime principal.
In 1983, the Merle Davies building became a classroom annex to Beaverton High School. It was reopened in September 2010 as additional classrooms; the school's auditorium burned down in March 1979. In 1985, Beaverton High School was honored in the Blue Ribbon Schools Program, the highest honor a school can receive in the United States. In 2008, 75% of the school's seniors received a high school diploma. Of 521 students, 390 graduated, 99 dropped out, five received a modified diploma, 27 were still in high school in 2009; the school's marching band captured the NWAPA Championship in 2011. The school's winter percussion ensemble placed first at the NWAPA Winter Percussion Championship in 2014. Anomie Belle - musician and artivist Shoshana Bean - stage actress/singer John Brotherton - actor Mike Byrne - musician, drummer for The Smashing Pumpkins Ben Crane - four-time PGA Tour tournament champion Ryan Deckert - represented District 8 in the Oregon House of Representatives James FitzPatrick - professional football player Collin Hegna - musician for The Brian Jonestown Massacre Dorothy Johnson - film actress Steve Lyons - former Major League Baseball player and current announcer for the Boston Red Sox Anthony Newman - NFL safety Meredith Phillips - television personality/contestant on ABC reality television series The Bachelorette Jordan Senn - professional football player for the Carolina Panthers in the National Football League Ari Shapiro - radio journalist for NPR Jordan Railey - basketball player Anthony Taylor - basketball player Mac Wilkins - gold medalist in the 1976 Summer Olympics in the discus throw.
S. Track & Field, men's 1500 meters. Beaverton High School website
A third baseman, abbreviated 3B, is the player in baseball whose responsibility is to defend the area nearest to third base — the third of four bases a baserunner must touch in succession to score a run. In the scoring system used to record defensive plays, the third baseman is assigned the number'5'; the third baseman requires good reflexes in reacting to batted balls, as he is the closest infielder to the batter. The third base position requires a strong and accurate arm, as the third baseman makes long throws to first base; the third baseman sometimes must throw to second base in time to start a double play. The third baseman must field fly balls in fair and foul territory. Third base is known as the "hot corner", because the third baseman is close to the batter and most right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball hard in this direction. A third baseman must possess good hand-eye coordination and quick reactions in order to catch hard line drives sometimes in excess of 125 miles per hour. Third basemen must begin in a position closer to the batter if a bunt is expected, creating a hazard if the ball is instead hit sharply.
As with middle infielders, right-handed throwing players are standard at the position because they do not need to turn their body before throwing across the infield to first base. Mike Squires, who played fourteen games at third base in 1982 and 1983, is a rare example of a third baseman who threw lefty; some third basemen have been converted from middle infielders or outfielders because the position does not require them to run as fast. Expectations of how well a third baseman should be able to hit have varied a great deal over time. Players who could hit with more ability were not suited for third base, either because they were left-handed or because they were not mobile enough for the position. However, the beginning of the live-ball era in the 1920s created a greater demand for more offense, third basemen have since been expected to hit either for a high average or with moderate to substantial power. Since the 1950s the position has become more of a power position with sluggers such as Eddie Mathews, Mike Schmidt and Ron Santo becoming stars.
There are fewer third basemen in the Baseball Hall of Fame than there are Hall of Famers of any other position. Furthermore, with the notable exception of John McGraw and Bobby Cox, few third basemen have gone on to have successful managing careers, with Jimmy Dykes and Negro Leaguer Dave Malarcher being the next most prominent managers who began their careers at third base. Frank "Home Run" Baker Johnny Bench Wade Boggs George Brett Jimmy Collins Ray Dandridge Judy Johnson George Kell Freddie Lindstrom Edgar Martínez Eddie Mathews John McGraw Paul Molitor Brooks Robinson Mike Schmidt Pie Traynor Jud Wilson Ron Santo Chipper Jones Brooks Robinson – 16 Mike Schmidt – 10 Scott Rolen – 8 Eric Chavez – 6 Robin Ventura – 6 Buddy Bell – 6 Ken Boyer – 5 Doug Rader – 5 Ron Santo – 5 Nolan Arenado – 5 Gary Gaetti – 4 Adrián Beltré – 4 Matt Williams – 4 Frank Malzone – 3 Evan Longoria – 3 David Wright – 2 Wade Boggs – 2 Graig Nettles – 2 Manny Machado – 2 Graig Nettles: 412 Graig Nettles: 410 Brooks Robinson: 410 Brooks Robinson: 405 Harlond Clift: 405 Mike Schmidt: 404 Doug DeCinces: 399 Brandon Inge: 398 Clete Boyer: 396 Mike Schmidt: 396 Buddy Bell: 396 Denny Lyons: 255 Jimmy Williams: 251 Jimmy Collins: 251 Jimmy Collins: 243 Willie Kamm: 243 Willie Kamm: 236 Frank Baker: 233 Bill Coughlin: 232 Ernie Courtney: 229 Jimmy Austin: 228
In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, gives established players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warm climates of Arizona and Florida to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, spring training coincides with spring break for many US college students. Spring training starts in mid-February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, which falls in the last week of March. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days position players arrive and team practice begins. Exhibition games begin around the first of March. Spring training by major league teams in sites other than their regular season game sites first became popular in the 1890s and by 1910 was in wide use.
Hot Springs, has been called the original "birthplace" of spring training baseball. The location of Hot Springs and the concept of getting the players ready for the upcoming season was the brainchild of Chicago White Stockings team President Albert Spalding and Cap Anson. In 1886, the White Stockings traveled to Hot Springs to prepare for the upcoming season. After holding spring training at the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds, the White Stockings went on to have a successful season and other teams took notice. In subsequent years other teams joined Chicago and began holding spring training in Hot Springs, leading to the first spring training games; the Cleveland Spiders, Detroit Tigers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers, Boston Red Sox followed the White Stockings to Hot Springs. Whittington Field/Ban Johnson Park, Majestic Park, Fogel Field were all built in Hot Springs to host Major League teams. Famously, on St. Patrick's Day, 1918, a young successful pitcher named Babe Ruth of the Boston Red Sox was forced to play an emergency game at first base in a spring training game against Pittsburgh.
This game changed the course of baseball history, as it was the first time Ruth had played any position other than pitcher. Ruth responded by hitting two home runs that day in Hot Springs, the second was a 573-foot shot that landed across the street from Whittington Park in a pond of the Arkansas Alligator Farm and Petting Zoo; the Red Sox took notice and soon Ruth was playing the field more often. Over 130 Major League Baseball Hall of Famers, including such names as Ruth, Cy Young, Cap Anson, Honus Wagner, Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Walter Johnson, Rogers Hornsby, Mel Ott, Dizzy Dean, Jimmie Foxx, Stan Musial all trained in Hot Springs Spring Training; the First Boys of Spring is a 2015 documentary about Hot Springs Spring Training. The film was narrated by area native, actor Billy Bob Thornton, produced by filmmaker Larry Foley; the documentary began airing nationally on the MLB Network in February 2016. Early training sites include the St. Louis Cardinals in Tulsa, Oklahoma; the Detroit Tigers are credited with being the first team to conduct spring training camp in Arizona.
They trained in Phoenix at Riverside Park at Central Avenue and the Salt River in 1929. The Philadelphia Phillies were the first of the current major-league teams to train in Florida, when they spent two weeks in Jacksonville, Florida in 1889. Spring training in Florida began in earnest in 1913, when the Chicago Cubs trained in Tampa and the Cleveland Indians in Pensacola. One year two other teams moved to Florida for spring training, the real start of the Grapefruit League. Except for a couple of years during World War II, when travel restrictions prevented teams training south of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, Florida hosted more than half of the spring training teams through 2009. Since 2010, major league teams have been divided between Arizona and Florida during spring training, with 15 teams in Florida and 15 teams in Arizona. All but six of the major league teams have gone to spring training in Florida at one time or another. Many of the most famous players in baseball history have called Florida home for 4–6 weeks every spring.
According to the autobiography of former Cleveland Indians owner Bill Veeck, the avoidance of racism was one reason the Cactus League was established. In 1947, Veeck was the owner of the minor league Milwaukee Brewers and the team trained in Ocala, Florida. Veeck inadvertently sat in the Black section of the segregated stands and engaged in conversation with a couple of fans. According to Veeck's book, the local law enforcement told Veeck he could not sit in that section, called the Ocala mayor when Veeck argued back; the mayor backed down when Veeck threatened to take his team elsewhere for spring training and promised to let the country know why. Veeck sold the Brewers in 1945 and temporarily retired to a ranch in Tucson, but purchased the Cleveland Indians in 1946. Intending to introduce African-American players, Veeck decided to buck tradition and train the Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try, thus the
George Thomas Seaver, nicknamed Tom Terrific and The Franchise, is an American professional baseball pitcher. He pitched in Major League Baseball from 1967 to 1986 for the New York Mets, Cincinnati Reds, Chicago White Sox, Boston Red Sox, he played a role in the Mets' victory in the 1969 World Series. With the Mets, Seaver won the National League's Rookie of the Year Award in 1967, won three NL Cy Young Awards as the league's best pitcher, he is a 12-time All-Star. Seaver is the Mets' all-time leader in wins, he threw a no-hitter in 1978. During a 20-year MLB career, Seaver compiled 311 wins, 3,640 strikeouts, 61 shutouts and a 2.86 earned run average. In 1992, Seaver was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame by the highest percentage of votes recorded at the time, he is one of two players wearing a New York Mets hat on his plaque in the Hall of Fame. He is a member of the New York Mets Hall of Fame and the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame. Seaver was born in California, to Betty Lee and Charles Henry Seaver.
He attended Fresno High School, played in the school's baseball team as a pitcher. Seaver compensated for his lack of strength by developing great control on the mound. Despite being an All-City basketball player, he hoped to play baseball in college, he joined the United States Marine Corps Reserves on June 28, 1962. He served with AIRFMFPAC 29 Palms, through July 1963. After six months of active duty in the Reserves, Seaver enrolled at Fresno City College; the University of Southern California recruited Seaver to play college baseball for the USC Trojans. Unsure as to whether Seaver was worthy of a scholarship, he was sent to pitch for the Alaska Goldpanners of Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1964. After a stellar season – in which he pitched and won a game in the national tournament with a grand slam – he was awarded a scholarship to USC; as a sophomore, Seaver posted a 10–2 record, he was drafted in the tenth round of the 1965 Major League Baseball draft by the Los Angeles Dodgers. When Seaver asked for $70,000, the Dodgers passed.
In 1966, Seaver signed a professional contract with the Atlanta Braves, who had drafted him in the first round of the secondary June draft. However, the contract was voided by Baseball Commissioner William Eckert because his college team had played two exhibition games that year. Seaver intended to finish the college season, but because he had signed a pro contract, the NCAA ruled him ineligible. After Seaver's father complained to Eckert about the unfairness of the situation, threatened with a lawsuit, Eckert ruled that other teams could match the Braves' offer; the Mets were subsequently awarded his signing rights in a lottery drawing among the three teams that were willing to match the Braves' terms. Seaver spent one season with the Jacksonville Suns of the International League joined the New York Mets in 1967, he was named to the 1967 All-Star Game, got the save by pitching a scoreless 15th inning. Seaver won 16 games for the last-place Mets, with 18 complete games, 170 strikeouts, a 2.76 earned run average, all Mets' records to that point, was named the National League Rookie of the Year.
Seaver started for the Mets on Opening Day in 1968. He won 16 games again during that season, recorded over 200 strikeouts for the first of nine consecutive seasons, but the Mets moved up only one spot in the standings, to ninth. In 1969, Seaver won his first National League Cy Young Award, he finished runner-up to Willie McCovey for the League's Most Valuable Player Award. In front of a crowd of over 59,000 at New York's Shea Stadium on July 9, Seaver threw 8 1⁄3 perfect innings against the division-leading Chicago Cubs. Rookie backup outfielder Jim Qualls broke up Seaver's bid for a perfect game when he lined a clean single to left field. In the 1969 National League Championship Series, Seaver outlasted Atlanta's Phil Niekro in the first game a 9–5 victory. Seaver was the starter for Game One of the 1969 World Series, but lost a 4–1 decision to the Baltimore Orioles' Mike Cuellar. Seaver pitched a 10-inning complete game for a 2–1 win in Game Four; the Mets won the series. At year's end, Seaver was presented with the Hickok Belt as the top professional athlete of the year and Sports Illustrated magazine's "Sportsman of the Year" award.
On April 22, 1970, Seaver set a major league record by striking out the final 10 batters of the game in a 2–1 victory over the San Diego Padres at Shea Stadium. Al Ferrara, who had homered in the second inning for the Padres' run, was the final strikeout victim of the game. In addition to his 10 consecutive strikeouts, Seaver tied Steve Carlton's major league record, at the time, with 19 strikeouts in a nine-inning game; the Mets won the game in which Carlton struck out 19, with Carlton victimized by Ron Swoboda's pair of 2-run homers in a 4–3 Mets' victory in St. Louis on September 15, 1969. By mid-August, Seaver's record stood at 17–6 and he seemed well on his way to a second consecutive 20-victory season, but he only won one of his last ten starts, including four on short rest, to finish 18–12. Nonetheless, Seaver led the National League in both strikeouts. In 1971, Seaver led the league in earned run average and strikeouts while going 20–10. However, he finished second in the Cy Young balloting to Ferguson Jenkins of the Chicago Cubs, due to Jenkins' league-leading 24 wins, 325 innings pitched, exceptional control numbers.
In baseball, a home run is scored when the ball is hit in such a way that the batter is able to circle the bases and reach home safely in one play without any errors being committed by the defensive team in the process. In modern baseball, the feat is achieved by hitting the ball over the outfield fence between the foul poles without first touching the ground, resulting in an automatic home run. There is the "inside-the-park" home run where the batter reaches home safely while the baseball is in play on the field; when a home run is scored, the batter is credited with a hit and a run scored, an RBI for each runner that scores, including himself. The pitcher is recorded as having given up a hit, a run for each runner that scores including the batter. Home runs are among the most popular aspects of baseball and, as a result, prolific home run hitters are the most popular among fans and the highest paid by teams—hence the old saying, "Home run hitters drive Cadillacs, singles hitters drive Fords.
In modern times a home run is most scored when the ball is hit over the outfield wall between the foul poles before it touches the ground, without being caught or deflected back onto the field by a fielder. A batted ball is a home run if it touches either foul pole or its attached screen before touching the ground, as the foul poles are by definition in fair territory. Additionally, many major-league ballparks have ground rules stating that a batted ball in flight that strikes a specified location or fixed object is a home run. In professional baseball, a batted ball that goes over the outfield wall after touching the ground becomes an automatic double; this is colloquially referred to as a "ground rule double" because the rule is not written into the rules of baseball, but is rather a rule of the field being used. A fielder is allowed to reach over the wall to attempt to catch the ball as long as his feet are on or over the field during the attempt, if the fielder catches the ball while it is in flight the batter is out if the ball had passed the vertical plane of the wall.
However, since the fielder is not part of the field, a ball that bounces off a fielder and over the wall without touching the ground is still a home run. A fielder may not deliberately throw his glove, cap, or any other equipment or apparel to stop or deflect a fair ball, an umpire may award a home run to the batter if a fielder does so on a ball that, in the umpire's judgment, would have otherwise been a home run. A home run accomplished in any of the above manners is an automatic home run; the ball is dead if it rebounds back onto the field, the batter and any preceding runners cannot be put out at any time while running the bases. However, if one or more runners fail to touch a base or one runner passes another before reaching home plate, that runner or runners can be called out on appeal, though in the case of not touching a base a runner can go back and touch it if doing so won't cause them to be passed by another preceding runner and they have not yet touched the next base; this stipulation is in Approved Ruling of Rule 7.10.
An inside-the-park home run occurs when a batter hits the ball into play and is able to circle the bases before the fielders can put him out. Unlike with an outside-the-park home run, the batter-runner and all preceding runners are liable to be put out by the defensive team at any time while running the bases; this can only happen. In the early days of baseball, outfields were much more spacious, reducing the likelihood of an over-the-fence home run, while increasing the likelihood of an inside-the-park home run, as a ball getting past an outfielder had more distance that it could roll before a fielder could track it down. Modern outfields are much less spacious and more uniformly designed than in the game's early days, therefore inside-the-park home runs are now a rarity, they occur when a fast runner hits the ball deep into the outfield and the ball bounces in an unexpected direction away from the nearest outfielder, or an outfielder misjudges the flight of the ball in a way that he cannot recover from the mistake.
The speed of the runner is crucial as triples are rare in most modern ballparks. If any defensive play on an inside-the-park home run is labeled an error by the official scorer, a home run is not scored. All runs scored on such a play, still count. An example of an unexpected bounce occurred during the 2007 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at AT&T Park in San Francisco on July 10, 2007. Ichiro Suzuki of the American League team hit a fly ball that caromed off the right-center field wall in the opposite direction from where National League right fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. was expecting it to go. By the time the ball was relayed, Ichiro had crossed the plate standing up; this was the first inside-the-park home run in All-Star Game history, led to Suzu