Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Small government is a term used in liberalism by political conservatives and libertarians to describe a government with minimal involvement in certain areas of public policy or the private sector matters considered to be private or personal. It is an important topic in classical liberalism and conservatism, but one questioned by supporters of big government. In Australian politics, the Labor Party has traditionally been perceived as the party of big government while the Liberal Party is the party of small government. Of the 34 advanced economies, Australia's revenue is the ninth-lowest and spending the seventh-lowest. Former Prime Minister of Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen wrote the book From Social State to Minimal State in 1993, in which he advocated an extensive reform of the Danish welfare system along classical liberal lines. In particular, he favors lower taxes and less government interference in corporate and individual matters. However, Rasmussen has since repudiated many of the views expressed in the book, moving towards the centre-right and adopting environmentalism.
Hong Kong has followed small government, laissez-faire policies for decades, limiting government intervention in business. Milton Friedman described Hong Kong as a laissez-faire state and he credits that policy for the rapid move from poverty to prosperity in 50 years. However, some argue that since Hong Kong was a British colony and Britain was not a free market, Hong Kong's success was not due to laissez-faire policies. A 1994 World Bank Group report stated that Hong Kong's GDP per capita grew in real terms at an annual rate of 6.5% from 1965 to 1989, a consistent growth percentage over a span of 25 years. By 1990, Hong Kong's per capita income surpassed that of the ruling United Kingdom. Since 1995, Hong Kong has been ranked as having the world's most liberal capital markets by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal; the Fraser Institute concurred in 2007. After financial reforms beginning in 1984—first "Rogernomics" and "Ruthanasia"—successive governments transformed New Zealand from a regulated economy to a liberalized free market economy.
The New Zealand Government sold its telecommunications company, railway network, a number of radio stations and two financial institutions. These reforms were implemented by the Labour Party, which has since reverted to its social democratic and interventionist outlook. Small government is associated with conservatism in contemporary New Zealand politics; the idea of small government was promoted in the United Kingdom by the Conservative government under the Premiership of Margaret Thatcher. There are differing views on the extent, it allowed the stock markets and industries to compete more with each other and made British goods more valued in world trade. An important part of the Margaret Thatcher government's policy was privatisation, intended to reduce the role of the state in the economy and allow industries to act without government interference. Supporters blamed excessive government intervention for much of Britain's economic woes during the late 1960s and 1970s. Opponents argue; this argument is heard in connection with the railways and the National Health Service.
Small government supporters, such as the British author and journalist James Bartholomew, point out that although record amounts of funding have gone into social security, public education, council housing and the NHS, it has been detrimental to the people it was intended to help and does not represent value for investment. In the 20th century, small government was associated with the Conservative Party and big government with the Labour Party. In addition to opposing government intervention in the economy, advocates of small government oppose government intervention in people's personal lives; the Labour government during the premiership of Tony Blair was criticized on this score, e.g. by giving unwanted advice about eating and smoking. This has been dubbed as the "nanny state"; the United States is a constitutional republic. At the time the nation was founded there was disagreement between the Federalists who supported a strong federal government. In The Federalist Papers, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay explained why a strong federal government was necessary.
Hamilton wrote: Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success. President Thomas Jefferson said: wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned; the current "small government" movement in the United States is a product of Ronald Reagan's presidency from 1981 to 1989. Reagan declared himself a small-government conservative and famously said: Government is not a solution to our problem; this has become the unofficial slogan of the Tea Party movement and conservative commentators like Glenn Beck and Rush Limbaugh. The Tea Party movement claims the United States used to have a small government and has turned
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
New Jersey Legislature
The New Jersey Legislature is the legislative branch of the government of the U. S. state of New Jersey. In its current form, as defined by the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, the Legislature consists of two houses: the General Assembly and the Senate; the Legislature meets in the state capital of Trenton. Democrats hold super majorities in both chambers of the legislature; the New Jersey Legislature was established in 1702 upon the surrender by the Proprietors of East Jersey and those of West Jersey of the right of government to Queen Anne. Anne's government united the two colonies as the Province of New Jersey, a royal colony, establishing a new system of government; the instructions from Queen Anne to Viscount Cornbury, the first royal governor of New Jersey, outlined a fusion of powers system, which allowed for an overlap of executive and judicial authority. It provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of an appointed Council and an elected General Assembly; the Provincial Council consisted of twelve members, appointed by and serving at the pleasure of the British crown.
With the exception of resignations and those being removed for cause, councillors served for life. The former provinces of East and West Jersey were reorganized as the Eastern Division and the Western Division of the Province of New Jersey. Councillors were apportioned. In practice, this was not always followed; the Assembly consisted of 24 members with two each elected in the Cities of Burlington and Perth Amboy, ten at-large from each of the two divisions. As this system proved unwieldy for holding elections, in 1709 the Assembly was reapportioned; the number of members remained with a total of twelve from each division. In his instructions to Governor William Burnet, King George I recommended the reapportionment of Salem's seats to the formed Hunterdon County. Membership continued at 24 until 1768, when it was expanded to 30 by the addition of two representatives each from Morris and Sussex Counties; this apportionment remained until superseded by the Constitution of 1776. The Governor had the authority to summon the Legislature, to dissolve the Assembly and call new elections.
On December 6, 1775, Governor William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution. In 1775, representatives from New Jersey's 13 counties established a Provincial Congress to supersede the Royal Governor. In June 1776, this congress had authorized the preparation of a constitution, written within five days, adopted by the Provincial Congress, accepted by the Continental Congress; the Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of a General Assembly with three members from each county and a legislative council with one member from each county. All state officials, including the governor, were to be appointed by the Legislature under this constitution; the Vice-President of Council would succeed the governor.
Accordingly, the first session of the legislature convened on August 27, 1776. Legislative politics was defined in the following years by an intense rivalry between the Federalists, the Whigs, the Democratic Party; the New Jersey Constitution of 1844 provided for a direct popular election of the governor, gave him the power to veto bills passed by the legislature. The General Assembly was expanded to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the counties based on population; the Legislative Council was renamed the Senate, was to be composed of one member from each of the state's 19 counties, serving a three-year term. During the Civil War, party allegiance became entrenched. Democrats won both houses until the Republicans gained control in 1893. A court ruling obtained by the Republicans provided that members of the General Assembly were to be elected from the counties at-large, rather than from election districts of unequal population. Regardless of any changes, the legislature met infrequently, had high turnover among its members, was far from being the most influential or powerful organ of state government.
New Jersey adopted its current constitution in 1947. Under this constitution, the governor was given additional veto powers and the ability to serve two terms. Hundreds of independent agencies were consolidated into 20 principal executive departments under the control of the governor. Senators' terms were extended to four years. In 1966, the Senate was expanded from 21 to 40 members and the General Assembly from 60 to 80. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1964 and a New Jersey Supreme Court decision in 1972, the state's legislative districts were reapportioned into the current arrangement. Two more modern developments have helped shape the Legislature: the increase in importance of legislative committees and the development of longer tenures for the legislative leadership; the Legislature has the power to enact laws by a majority vote of both houses, subject to the Governor
Franklin, New Jersey
See also: Franklin Township, New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 5,045 reflecting a decline of 115 from the 5,160 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 183 from the 4,977 counted in the 1990 Census. Franklin, known as the "Fluorescent Mineral Capital of the World," is located over a rich ore body containing more than 150 minerals, many of them fluorescent and 25 of which are found nowhere else on earth. Settled in the 17th century, the village known as Franklin Furnace after Benjamin Franklin, developed near iron mines and iron smelting operations located along the Wallkill River. In the early 19th century, zinc deposits in the area began to be developed commercially. For most of the century many small companies mined iron in the Franklin area. In 1897 all zinc mining efforts merged into the New Jersey Zinc Company, a major controlling factor in the development of Franklin. Immigrants from Russia, Britain and Poland joined the work force at the mine.
The population, 500 in 1897, had swelled to 3,000 by 1913. On March 18, 1913, the Borough of Franklin was incorporated from portions of Hardyston Township, based on the results of a referendum held on April 23, 1913. According to the United States Census Bureau, Franklin borough had a total area of 4.570 square miles, including 4.498 square miles of land and 0.072 square miles of water. The borough borders the boroughs of Hamburg and Ogdensburg, as well as Sparta and Hardyston townships. Franklin Furnace provides many examples of the complex mineralogy of the area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,045 people, 1,936 households, 1,316.480 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,121.6 per square mile. There were 2,136 housing units at an average density of 474.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 92.15% White, 2.18% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.74% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.23% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.83% of the population. There were 1,936 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.0% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.15. In the borough, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 31.5% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.3 years. For every 100 females there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 93.1 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $62,813 and the median family income was $81,875. Males had a median income of $49,413 versus $45,385 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $29,708.
About 5.1% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,160 people, 1,898 households, 1,324 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,150.2 people per square mile. There were 1,997 housing units at an average density of 445.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 95.10% White, 0.62% African American, 0.35% Native American, 1.47% Asian, 1.22% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.42% of the population. There were 1,898 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.22.
In the borough the age distribution of the population shows 27.5% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $44,985, the median income for a family was $52,682. Males had a median income of $41,080 versus $26,201 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,386. About 5.6% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Franklin is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office.
The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Franklin, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative bo
2017 New Jersey elections
A general election was held in the U. S. state of New Jersey on November 7, 2017. Primary elections were held on June 6. All elected offices at the state level were on the ballot in this election cycle, including Governor and Lieutenant Governor for four-year terms, all 80 seats in the New Jersey General Assembly for two-year terms, all 40 seats in the State Senate for four-year terms. In addition to the gubernatorial and State Legislative elections, numerous county offices and Freeholders in addition to municipal offices were up for election. There were two statewide ballot questions and some counties and municipalities had a local ballot question. Non-partisan local elections, some school board elections, some fire district elections were held throughout the year. All 40 seats of the New Jersey Senate were up for election. Prior to the elections, Democrats held a 24–16 majority in the upper house. Democrats picked up an open seat in District 7 and defeated a Republican incumbent in District 11, while Republicans defeated an appointed Democratic incumbent in District 2.
Overall, this resulted in Democrats having a net gain of one seat, increasing their majority to 25–15. Raymond Lesniak, District 20 Diane Allen, District 7 Joe Kyrillos, District 13In addition, four members who were elected in the last election in 2013 have since left office: Donald Norcross, Peter J. Barnes III, Kevin J. O'Toole, Jim Whelan. DeclaredJeff Van Drew, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredMary Gruccio, Superintendent of Vineland Public Schools and former Cumberland County FreeholderResults DeclaredAnthony Parisi Sanchez, community activist and former Marine Corps reservist EndorsementsPollingResults Incumbent Democratic Senator Jim Whelan declined to seek a fourth term, announcing his retirement on January 4, 2017. Whelan died in office on August 22. DeclaredColin Bell, former Atlantic County Freeholder and nominee for Assembly in 2015WithdrawnVince Mazzeo, state assemblyman ResultsFollowing the death of Whelan on August 22, 2017, Bell was unanimously selected to fill the remainder of his term by local Democratic committee members on September 5, was sworn in on October 5.
DeclaredChris A. Brown, state assemblymanResults EndorsementsPolling Results DeclaredStephen M. Sweeney, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredFran Grenier, chairman of the Salem County Republican Party and former Woodstown Borough CouncilmanResults Polling EndorsementsResults DeclaredFred H. Madden, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredMichael PascettaResultsPascetta was not on the official list of candidates for the general election. EndorsementsResults DeclaredNilsa Cruz-Perez, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredKeith Walker, nominee for Senate in 2011 and 2013Results DeclaredMohammad Kabir EndorsementsResults DeclaredJames Beach, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredRobert ShapiroResults EndorsementsResults Citing health concerns, incumbent Republican Senator Diane Allen declined to run for a seventh term, announcing her retirement on January 31, 2017. DeclaredRob Prisco, Riverside Township Committeeman and nominee for Assembly in 2015ResultsOn June 13, Governor Chris Christie nominated Prisco to a worker's compensation judgeship, whom would drop out.
Local Republican committee members selected Delanco Mayor John Browne as a replacement candidate on September 6. DeclaredTroy Singleton, state assemblymanWithdrawnCory CottinghamDeclinedHerb Conaway, state assemblyman Carol A. Murphy, director of policy and communication for Assemblywoman Gabriela Mosquera Results EndorsementsResults DeclaredDawn Marie Addiego, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredGeorge B. YoungkinResults EndorsementsResults DeclaredChristopher J. Connors, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredBrian Corley White, attorneyResults EndorsementsResults DeclaredJames W. Holzapfel, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredEmma Mammano, mental health counselorResults EndorsementsResults DeclaredJennifer Beck, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredVin Gopal, nominee for Assembly in 2011, former chairman of the Monmouth County Democratic Party Results EndorsementsPolling Results DeclaredArt Haney, chairman of the Old Bridge Republican Party and former mayor of Old Bridge Samuel D. Thompson, incumbent senatorEndorsementsResults DeclaredDavid Lande, attorneyResults DeclaredKevin Antoine, SUNY health professor EndorsementsResults Incumbent Republican Senator Joe Kyrillos announced that he would not run for a ninth term on October 25, 2016.
DeclaredDeclan O'Scanlon, state assemblymanWithdrawnAmy Handlin, state assemblywoman Results DeclaredSean Byrnes, former Middletown Township Committeeman Joshua Leinsdorf, former Princeton school board member and perennial candidateResults EndorsementsResults DeclaredLinda R. Greenstein, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredBruce MacDonald, jewelry store owner Ileana Schirmer, Hamilton Township CouncilwomanResults EndorsementsResults DeclaredShirley Turner, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredLee Eric NewtonResults Endorsements Results DeclaredChristopher Bateman, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredLaurie Poppe, social worker, nominee for Hillsborough Township Committee in 2015 and 2016WithdrawnZenon Christodoulu, businessmanDeclinedAndrew Koontz, Mercer County Freeholder Liz Lempert, Mayor of Princeton Andrew Zwicker, state assemblyman Results Endorsements Polling Results DeclaredBill Irwin, Piscataway Board of Education President Bob Smith, incumbent senatorResults DeclaredDaryl J. Kipnis, attorneyResults EndorsementsResults DeclaredPatrick J.