Kappa Sigma known as Kappa Sig, is an American collegiate social fraternity founded at the University of Virginia in 1869. Kappa Sigma is one of the five largest international fraternities with 318 active chapters and colonies in North America, its endowment fund, founded in 1919, has donated more than $5 million to undergrads since 1948. In 2012 alone, the Fraternity's endowment fund raised over $1 million in donations. According to the traditions of the fraternity, Kappa Sigma evolved from an ancient order, known in some accounts as "Kirjath Sepher", said to have been founded between 1395 and 1400 at the University of Bologna; the story says that the corrupt governor of the city, one-time pirate and papal usurper Baldassare Cossa, took advantage of the students at Bologna, one of Europe's preeminent universities which attracted students from all over the continent, by sending his men to assault and rob them. On December 10, 1869, five students at the University of Virginia met in 46 East Lawn and founded the Kappa Sigma Fraternity in America.
William Grigsby McCormick, George Miles Arnold, John Covert Boyd, Edmund Law Rogers, Jr. and Frank Courtney Nicodemus established the fraternity based on the traditions and of the ancient order in Bologna. These five founders became collectively known as the "Five Friends and Brothers". In 1872, Kappa Sigma initiated Stephen Alonzo Jackson, who would go on to transform a struggling local fraternity into a strong international Brotherhood; the organization attributes much of its success to Jackson noting that, "Since his death in 1892, the success of the Order is the direct result of Jackson's devotion'to make Kappa Sigma the leading college fraternity of the world.'"In 1873, Kappa Sigma expanded to Trinity College, the University of Maryland, Washington and Lee University. The fraternity attributes this growth to the initiation of Stephen Alonzo Jackson in 1872. During his membership, Jackson revised the ritual of Kappa Sigma, he created the Supreme Executive Committee, which now serves as the governing body of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity on an international level.
Jackson introduced the idea of a frequent, national convention of all Kappa Sigmas, a practice now continued by the biennial Grand Conclave, characterized the event as "the finest hour" of Kappa Sigma. In 1885, the publication of Kappa Sigma's quarterly magazine was commissioned under the name The Quarterly This publication ran for 5 years until it was reorganized to run bi-monthly and renamed The Caduceus, the name it holds to this day. In 1912, Wilbur F. Denious struck upon the idea to establish a charitable endowment for Kappa Sigma; as a result of the hard work of him and many others, the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was established in 1919 "to support the charitable and beneficent purposes of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity." In 2002, along with Phi Delta Theta, Kappa Sigma ended its involvement in the North-American Interfraternity Conference at the national level due to disenchantment with the strategic direction of the organization. However, many individual chapters remain members of their host university's Interfraternity Conference, but no chapter is required to recognize or be involved with their university's IFC if they should choose not to.
In 2003, the Kappa Sigma Fraternity ushered in an unprecedented era of growth for the fraternity. In the Spring of 2005, Kappa Sigma Fraternity began fundraising for and construction of a new headquarters; this $6 million project had its grand opening on June 2, 2007. At the 66th Conclave, the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was declared to be the only official educational foundation of the fraternity and is housed at the new headquarters. Kappa Sigmas are taught to live their lives by the Star and Crescent, which are the symbols of the Fraternity that make up the official badge: They follow the four pillars of the Fraternity: Fellowship, Leadership and Service; the Star and Crescent is used as part of the guidelines behind Kappa Sigma's strict no-tolerance anti-hazing policy. The Fraternity takes all allegations of hazing seriously and revokes charters from guilty chapters which can be as old as 130 years. To be eligible for membership a prospective member must profess a belief in God, though adherence to a specific religion is not required.
In at least one situation, Kappa Sigma has revoked a chapter's charter for omitting the fraternity's religious requirements from its initiation. The Kappa Sigma Fraternity consists of over colonies; each chapter is led by a five-member Executive Committee, each referred to as an officer. These officers consist of the Grand Master, Grand Procurator, Grand Master of Ceremonies, Grand Scribe, Grand Treasurer; each chapter and colony has a number of committee chairs that are assigned to specific areas. Over 1,500 alumni volunteer as advisors for Kappa Sigma. At the international level, the Supreme Executive Council sets policy for the fraternity, disciplines chapters, approves the formation of colonies and chapter; the offices of the SEC mirror the office of the undergraduate EC and consist of the Worthy Grand Master, the Worthy Grand Procurator, the Worthy Grand Master of Ceremonies, the Worthy Grand Scribe, the Worthy Grand Treasurer. The WGM, WGP, the WGMC each serve a two-year term, while the WGS and WGT each
Samuel Jacob Bradford is an American football quarterback, a free agent. He has played in the National Football League for the St. Louis Rams, Philadelphia Eagles, Minnesota Vikings, Arizona Cardinals. Bradford attended Putnam City North High School in Oklahoma City, where he starred in football and golf; as a senior quarterback in 2005, he threw for 17 touchdowns in 12 games. Bradford was not recruited coming out of high school, but he did receive a scholarship offer from the University of Oklahoma, which he accepted. After a redshirt season in 2006, Bradford threw for 3,121 yards and 36 touchdowns as a redshirt freshman. In 2008, Bradford became only the second sophomore to win the Heisman Trophy as he led the highest-scoring offense in NCAA history, throwing for 4,464 yards with 48 touchdowns and just six interceptions, he again led the nation in passing and added five rushing touchdowns as the Sooners went 12-1 and advanced to the BCS national title game. Bradford declared for the NFL Draft following the 2009 season and was drafted by the St. Louis Rams with the first overall selection in the 2010 NFL Draft.
That year, Bradford set the record for most completions by a rookie in NFL history, which helped earn him the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year award. Prior to the start of the 2015 season, the Rams traded Bradford along with a 2015 fifth round pick to the Philadelphia Eagles in exchange for quarterback Nick Foles, a 2015 fourth-round pick, a 2016 second-round pick. Following his 2015 campaign with the Eagles, in which he set career-highs in passing yards, completion percentage and yards per attempt, the Minnesota Vikings acquired Bradford after their starting quarterback Teddy Bridgewater was lost to a season-ending knee injury before the start of the season. Bradford was born to Martha Bradford in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, he attended Putnam City North High School in Oklahoma City, where he starred in football, basketball and golf for the Putnam City North Panthers. Bradford gave up after his freshman year, he earned All-City honors as a junior quarterback in football by The Oklahoman. Following his senior season in which he threw for 2,029 yards and 17 touchdowns in 12 games, Bradford was named to the Oklahoma Coaches Association All-State Team and was a Second-Team All-State pick by The Oklahoman.
Bradford was a Division I-caliber basketball player. As a senior, he averaged 18.6 points and 10.5 rebounds per game and played on the same elite AAU team as fellow Oklahoma City native and Detroit Pistons star Blake Griffin. In golf, Bradford defeated future PGA touring pros Kevin Tway and Robert Streb during his high school career. In addition to the aforementioned sports, Bradford played hockey in his youth. In 1999, when Bradford was 12, his travel team, the Junior Blazers, won a regional championship, beating a team from Houston, he quit the sport that same year, according to his former hockey coach Mike McEwen, who played on three Stanley Cup championship teams with the New York Islanders, Bradford had the talent to make it in the NHL. McEwen said that Bradford was one of the best players he coached. In the spring of 2005, by the end of Bradford's junior season, he garnered interest from several Division I programs, including Stanford, Texas Tech, nearby Oklahoma. Following his senior season, Bradford was viewed as a two-to-three-star recruit and was not that ranked among the high school class of 2006, with his highest ranking being No. 12 among only pro-style quarterbacks by recruiting source Rivals.com.
Bradford was ranked behind Pat Devlin, "Juice" Williams and Josh Freeman, was overshadowed by the likes of five-star recruits like Mitch Mustain, Matthew Stafford and Tim Tebow. Bradford received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Oklahoma, where he played for coach Bob Stoops's Oklahoma Sooners football team from 2006 to 2009, he redshirted as a freshman in 2006 before becoming the starter in 2007 and turning in one of the best seasons by a quarterback, passing for 4,720 yards with 50 touchdowns and just eight interceptions. As a result, he won the Heisman Trophy. After Oklahoma lost the 2009 BCS National Championship Game 24-14 to Florida, instead of declaring for the upcoming draft, elected to return to Oklahoma for another crack at the title, he ended up playing in just three games due to a shoulder injury, the Sooners, ranked No. 3 to start the season, finished with an 8-5 record. In 2006, Oklahoma's starting quarterback Rhett Bomar a sophomore, was dismissed from the team for violating NCAA rules.
Paul Thompson, a senior quarterback-turned-wide receiver, converted back to quarterback and led the 2006 Oklahoma Sooners football team to win the Big 12 Championship Game. His departure left a void at the quarterback position at Oklahoma. Six players on the roster tried out for the starting position during the following off-season, including three walk-on quarterbacks, true freshman Keith Nichol, junior Joey Halzle, Bradford, a redshirt freshman. On August 21, 2007, Bradford won the starting quarterback role for the 2007 team. In his first game for the Sooners, against the University of North Texas, Bradford completed 21 of 23 attempts for 363 yards and three touchdowns in a little over two quarters, breaking the school record for passing yards in a half, held by his quarterback coach Josh Heupel, with 350; the next game, Bradford broke Heisman Trophy winner Jason White's school record fo
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
College Football All-America Team
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best American college football players at their respective positions. The original use of the term All-America seems to have been to the 1889 College Football All-America Team selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports in association with football pioneer Walter Camp. Camp took over the responsibility for picking the All-America team and was recognized as the official selector in the early years of the 20th century; as of 2009, the College Football All-America Team is composed of the following College Football All-American first teams: Associated Press, Football Writers Association of America, American Football Coaches Association, Walter Camp Foundation, The Sporting News, Sports Illustrated, Pro Football Weekly, ESPN, CBS Sports, College Football News, ProFootballFocus, Rivals.com, Scout.com. As of 2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes the All-America teams selected by the AP, AFCA, FWAA, Sporting News, the WCFF to determine consensus All-Americans.
If three of these organizations select a player to their first team, he automatically receives the "consensus" honor. If a player is named an All-American by all five organizations, he receives "unanimous All-America" recognition. Depending upon the distribution of first team honors at any given position, it is possible to be consensus with fewer than three first-team selections; the University of Oklahoma has produced the most unanimous All Americans of any program, with 35. There have been 2,868 players from 156 colleges and universities since 1889 who were selected to at least one All-American first team. Only four players have earned that honor four times: They are: Marshall Newell, Tackle, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893 Harvard Frank Hinkey, End, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894 Yale Gordon Brown, Guard, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 Yale T. Truxtun Hare, Guard, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 Pennsylvania The Associated Press has a panel of sportswriters who vote to determine the AP All-America Team, it has selected an All-America team since 1925.
The American Football Coaches Association has selected an All-America team every year since 1945. It is referred to as the "Coaches' All-America Team"; the Selection Process is an All-America Selection Committee is made up of three head coaches from each of the AFCA's nine I-A districts, one of whom serves as a district chairman, along with another head coach who serves as the chairman of the selection committee. The coaches in each district are responsible for ranking the top players in their respective districts; the Coaches’ All-America Team has been sponsored by various entities throughout the years but it is now under its own banner, the AFCA. These are the sponsors/publishers of the team throughout the years. 1945–1947: Published in Saturday Evening Post1948–1956: Published in Collier's1957–1959: General Mills1960–1993: Eastman Kodak1994: Schooner's International1995–1996: AFCA1997–1999: Burger King2000–present: AFCA The Football Writers Association of America Team, the second longest continuously published team in college football, has been a staple of the college football scene since 1944.
It is sometimes referred to as the "Writers' All-America Team". The FWAA has selected an All-America team with the help of its members and an All-America Committee which represents all the regions in the country; some who have helped to select this team over the years: Mark Blaudschun, Grantland Rice, Bert McGrane, Blackie Sherrod, Furman Bisher, Pat Harmon, Fred Russell, Edwin Pope, Murray Olderman, Paul Zimmerman. The All-America team is selected by a committee of writers representing all conferences and regions of the NCAA; the Writers' Team has been highlighted in various media forums. From 1946-70, Look published the FWAA team and brought players and selected writers to New York City for a celebration. During that 25-year period, the FWAA team was introduced on national television shows by Bob Hope, Steve Allen, Perry Como and others. After Look folded, the FWAA started a long association with NCAA Films, which produced a 30-minute television show and sold it to sponsors; the team was part of ABC Television's 1981 College Football Series.
From 1983-90, the team was either on ABC or ESPN, since 1991 has returned to the national spotlight on ABC. The corporate sponsor for the Writers' team is AT&T, after several years of Cingular being the sponsor; the Walter Camp Football Foundation All-America team is selected by the head coaches and sports information directors of the 120 Football Bowl Subdivision schools and certified by UHY Advisors, a New Haven-based accounting firm. Walter Camp, "The Father of American Football," first selected an All-America team in 1889; the WCF claims an 80% participation rate in the voting for its All-America team. Sporting News known as The Sporting News and known colloquially as TSN, have teams college football editors and staff select teams, which they have been doing since 1934. From that year through the 1962 season TSN's All-America team was picked by a poll of sportswriters. Beginning in 1964 the team was selected by "professional scouts and observers"; the Sporting News cited the advent of two-platoon football as the need to go to that system.
United Press International is a defunct organization that selected players in a national poll of sportswriters and began selecting teams in 1925 as "United Press". In 1958, after it merged with the International News Service, it became United Press International; the INS had chosen teams since 1913. UPI continued to choose an All-Americ
The Oklahoma Sooners are the athletic teams that represent the University of Oklahoma, located in Norman. The 19 men's and women's varsity teams are called the "Sooners", a reference to a nickname given to the early participants in the Land Run of 1889, which opened the Unassigned Lands in the future state of Oklahoma to non-native settlement; the university's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I in the Big 12 Conference. The university's current athletic director is Joe Castiglione. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma was ranked as the third best college sports program in America by Sports Illustrated; the University of Oklahoma was a charter member of the Southwest Athletic Conference during its formation in 1914. Five years in 1919, OU left the SWC and joined the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association. In 1928, this conference split, OU remained aligned with the teams that formed the Big Six Conference. Over the next 31 years, more schools were added and the conference underwent several name changes, incrementing the number each time up to the Big Eight Conference where it remained until 1996.
Four Texas schools joined with the members of Big Eight to form the current Big 12 Conference. When combined with Blake Griffin's John Wooden Award and Sam Bradford's Heisman Trophy, Oklahoma became the second school to have a top winner in both basketball and football in the same year; the Sooners have been participating in college football since 1895. Calling Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium at Owen Field home, the team has won numerous bowl games, 41 conference championships, seven Associated Press National Championships, making the Sooners football program the most decorated in the Big 12. Oklahoma has scored the most points in Division I-A football history despite the fact they have played over 60 fewer games than the second place school on that list. OU has the highest winning percentage of any team since the start of the AP poll in 1936; the Sooners possess 7 national championships in football, with the 1950, 1955, 1956, 1974, 1975, 1985, 2000 seasons featuring the top team in the Associated Press final poll, the 2000 Bowl Championship Series National Championship as well.
This number is 3rd only to the Notre Dame Fighting Irish and the Alabama Crimson Tide for the most AP titles of any Division I college football team after the end of World War II. In addition to these seven acknowledged national championships there are nine additional years in which the NCAA's official record book recognizes the Sooners as national champions: 1949, 1953, 1957, 1967, 1973, 1978, 1980, 1986, 2003; the University of Oklahoma does not acknowledge these additional "championships", as they were not awarded by the Associated Press, United Press International, USA Today Coaches Poll, or the Bowl Championship Series. Individual success is a major part of Oklahoma football. C. Watts, Keith Jackson and Jammal Brown. More than a dozen Sooner players have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. Oklahoma has more Butkus award winners than any other school. Coaches Bennie Owen, Bud Wilkinson, Barry Switzer have passed through the gameday tunnel for the Sooners, each on his way to the College Football Hall of Fame.
Owen was the first successful coach at OU and was a major advocate of the forward pass, which at the turn of the century was not popular. The playing surface at Oklahoma's Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium is popularly known as Owen Field in honor of his long tenure and devotion to the university. Wilkinson left many imprints on the game, such as the 5-2 defense with five linemen and two linebackers; the record of 47 straight wins is regarded as one of the great achievements in sports, a streak, unlikely to be broken. Switzer won three national championships and forged arguably the fiercest rushing offense the Oklahoma wishbone formation, throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Though the end of Switzer's tenure at Oklahoma was marked by controversy and poor player behavior, he is well regarded by both his past players and Sooner fans. During his 16 years as the Sooners' head coach, Switzer led his team to 12 conference championships and never lost more than two games in a row, his winning percentage of.837 stands as the fourth-highest in the history of 1-A football.
Other Hall of Fame coaches whose tenure included stints at the University of Oklahoma are Lawrence "Biff" Jones and Jim Tatum. The Oklahoma Baseball tradition is long and storied, with two National Championships in 1951 and 1994, along with numerous All-Americans, their home field is L. Dale Mitchell Baseball Park, named after famed player Dale Mitchell; the current coach is Pete Hughes. The baseball program was a
Oklahoma Sooners football
The Oklahoma Sooners football program is a college football team that represents the University of Oklahoma. The team is a member of the Big 12 Conference, in Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the program began in 1895 and is one of the most successful programs since World War II with the most wins and the highest winning percentage since 1945. The program has 7 national championships, 48 conference championships, 162 First Team All-Americans, seven Heisman Trophy winners. In addition, the school has had 23 members inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and holds the record for the longest winning streak in Division I history with 47 straight victories. Oklahoma is the only program that has had four coaches with 100+ wins, they became the sixth NCAA FBS team to win 850 games when they defeated the Kansas Jayhawks on November 22, 2014. The Sooners play their home games at Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium in Oklahoma. Lincoln Riley is the team's head coach.
Football at Oklahoma made its start in September 1895, 12 years before statehood and one year after the first organized football game in Oklahoma Territory. The team was organized by John A. Harts, a student from Winfield, Kansas who had played the game in his home state; that first team was composed of non-students, including a local fireman. That first "season" saw the team go 0–1, being blanked 0–34 by a more experienced Oklahoma City Town Team; the first game was played on a field of low prairie grass just northwest of the current site of Holmberg Hall. Several members of the Oklahoma team were injured, including Coach Harts, by the end of the game, the Oklahoma team was borrowing members from the opposing squad so they would have a full lineup. After that year, Harts left Oklahoma to prospect for gold in the Arctic; the team got its first real coach in 1897 when the new modern language professor, Vernon Louis Parrington, was named head coach. Parrington played some football at Harvard and was more exposed to football coming from the East coast.
In his four years as head coach, Parrington's teams racked up nine wins, one loss, two ties. After the 1900 season, football began interfering with his real passion, he stepped down as head coach shortly thereafter and went on to win the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1928 at the University of Washington. The Sooners had three more coaches over the next four seasons. Fred Roberts led the Sooners to a 3–2 season in 1901, Mark McMahon recorded an 11–7–3 record in his two years as coach in 1902 and 1903, Fred Ewing recorded a 4–3–1 record in 1904; the most notable event of those four years came in 1904 when Oklahoma had its first match against its in-state rival, Oklahoma A&M. The game was played on November 1904 at Mineral Wells Park in Guthrie, Oklahoma; the Oklahoma team soundly defeated the Oklahoma Aggies 75–0, but it was an unusual touchdown, remembered most of that game. Bedlam football, the athletic rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University, was born that day.
After ten years of football, the program began to get serious and started looking for a permanent head coach. They found Bennie Owen, a former quarterback of the undefeated Kansas team of 1899 led by famous coach Fielding H. Yost. Owen's previous team beat Oklahoma twice in 1903 and 1904, so the Sooners were familiar with his ability. Owen's first two years at Oklahoma were spent between Norman and Arkansas City as Oklahoma did not have a big enough budget to keep him there all year; the early years of Owen's tenure were tough because of budget issues. Due to a low travel budget, his teams would have to play as many as three games in one trek. For instance, in 1905, his squad played three teams in three Kansas cities in five days and again in 1909 when they played three games in Missouri and Texas in six days. In Owen's first year, 1905, he gave Oklahoma its first victory over rival Texas, defeating them 2–0. Owen's first dominant team came in 1908 when they went 8–1–1, losing only to the powerful Kansas team.
His 1908 team used hand-offs directly to large runners. His 1911 team, on the other hand, had several small and fast players that the quarterback would pass directly to; that team went 8–0. Owen had two more undefeated seasons in 1915 and 1918. 1920 was Oklahoma's first season in the stronger Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association after three season in the Southwest Conference of which it was a founding member. In the new conference, they went 6–0–1 tying only Kansas State. Owen retired after the 1926 season. During Owen's 22-year career at Oklahoma, he went 122 -- a 67.7 % winning percentage. In 1951, he became the first person from Oklahoma to be inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in its inaugural year. Adrian Lindsey was hired by Oklahoma to coach the football team in 1927. Before coming to Oklahoma, Lindsey was an assistant football coach at his alma mater. Lindsey is remembered as the coach who resigned after failing to produce a winning team. Lindsey's record was not that shabby, however.
His players were small in size and number and the schedules they faced were too difficult for such a small squad. Lindsey's 1929 Sooners team defeated Nebraska, 20–7, marking the worst defeat the Cornhuskers saw from a Big Six team in two decades. In 1931, he took his team and defeated the Hawaii Warriors in Honolulu by a score of 7–0; this game marked the first time a university located in the central continental U
Norman is a city in the U. S. state of Oklahoma located 20 miles south of downtown Oklahoma City. As the county seat of Cleveland County and a part of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area, its population was 110,925 at the 2010 census. Norman's estimated population of 122,843 in 2017 makes it the third-largest city in Oklahoma. Norman was settled during the Land Run of 1889, which opened the former Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory to American pioneer settlement; the city was named in honor of Abner Norman, the area's initial land surveyor, was formally incorporated on May 13, 1891. Economically the city has prominent higher education and related research industries, as it is home to the University of Oklahoma, the largest university in the state, with nearly 32,000 students enrolled; the university is well known for its sporting events by teams under the banner of the nickname "Sooners," with over 85,000 people attending football games. The university is home including the Fred Jones Jr.. Museum of Art, which contains the largest collection of French Impressionist art given to an American university, as well as the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.
The National Weather Center, located in Norman, houses a unique collection of university, state and private sector organizations that work together to improve the understanding of events related to the Earth's atmosphere. Norman lies within Tornado Alley, a geographic region where tornadic activity is frequent and intense; the Oklahoma City metropolitan area, including Norman, is the most tornado-prone area in the world. The Storm Prediction Center, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is located at the NWC. SPC forecasts severe tornado outbreaks nationwide. Additionally, research is conducted at the co-located National Severe Storms Laboratory, which includes field research and operates various experimental weather radars; the Oklahoma region became part of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Prior to the American Civil War the United States government began relocating the Five Civilized Tribes – the five Native American tribes that the United States recognized via treaty – to Oklahoma.
Treaties of 1832 and 1833 assigned the area known today as Norman to the Creek Nation. Following the Civil War, the Creeks were accused of aiding the Confederacy and as a result they ceded the region back to the United States in 1866. In the early 1870s, the federal government undertook a survey of these unassigned lands. Abner Ernest Norman, a 23-year-old surveyor from Kentucky, was hired to oversee part of this project. Norman's work crew set up camp near what is today the corner of Lindsey streets. In 1887, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway began service to the area, opened to settlement as part of the Land Run of 1889. On April 22, 1889, the Land Run saw the founding of Norman, with at least 150 residents spending the night in makeshift campsites. Two prominent Norman businessmen, former Purcell railroad freight agent Delbert Larsh and railroad station chief cashier Thomas Waggoner, began lobbying for the territorial government to locate its first university in Norman; the two were interested in growing the city and had reasoned that, rather than try to influence legislatures to locate the contested territory capital in Norman, it made sense to attempt to secure the state's first university instead.
On December 19, 1890, Larsh and Waggoner were successful with the passage of Council Bill 114, establishing the University of Oklahoma in Norman 18 years before Oklahoma statehood. The City of Norman was formally incorporated on May 13, 1891. By the 1890s, Norman had become a sundown town. African Americans were not allowed to live within the city limits or stay overnight until the early 1960s; the city has continued to grow throughout the decades. By 1902 the downtown district contained two banks, two hotels, a flour mill, other businesses; the rail lines transitioned to freight during the 1940s as the United States Numbered Highway system developed. The city population reached 11,429 in 1940. In 1941, the University of Oklahoma and Norman city officials established Max Westheimer Field, a university airstrip, leased it to the U. S. Navy as a Naval Flight Training Center in 1942; the training center was used for training combat pilots during World War II. A second training center, known as Naval Air Technical Training Center, a naval hospital were established to the south.
In the years following World War II the airstrip was transferred back to the university's control. Today the airstrip is called the University of Oklahoma Westheimer Airport. Following the war the remaining military presence and post-war veterans who came to Norman to get an education again grew the city's population, 27,006 by 1950; the Navy again utilized the bases in a lesser capacity from 1952 to 1959 in support of the Korean War effort. With the completion of Interstate 35 in June 1959, Norman found its role as a bedroom community to Oklahoma City increasing rapidly. Throughout the 1960s Norman's land mass increased