Stephen Gary Wozniak known by his nickname "Woz", is an American electronics engineer, programmer and technology entrepreneur. In 1976 he co-founded Apple Inc. which became the world's largest information technology company by revenue and largest company in the world by market capitalization. Through their work at Apple in the 1970s and 1980s, he and Apple co-founder Steve Jobs are recognized as two prominent pioneers of the personal computer revolution. In 1975, Wozniak started developing the Apple I into the computer that launched Apple when he and Jobs first began marketing it the following year, he designed the Apple II in 1977, known as one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputers, while Jobs oversaw the development of its foam-molded plastic case and early Apple employee Rod Holt developed the switching power supply. With computer scientist Jef Raskin, Wozniak had major influence over the initial development of the original Apple Macintosh concepts from 1979 to 1981, when Jobs took over the project following Wozniak's brief departure from the company due to a traumatic airplane accident.
After permanently leaving Apple in 1985, Wozniak founded CL 9 and created the first programmable universal remote, released in 1987. He pursued several other business and philanthropic ventures throughout his career, focusing on technology in K–12 schools; as of November 2019, Wozniak has remained an employee of Apple in a ceremonial capacity since stepping down in 1985. Steve Wozniak was born and raised in San Jose, the son of Margaret Louise Wozniak from Washington state and Francis Jacob "Jerry" Wozniak from Michigan, his father, Jerry Wozniak, was an engineer for Lockheed Corporation. He graduated in Cupertino, California; the name on Wozniak's birth certificate is "Stephan Gary Wozniak", but his mother said that she intended it to be spelled "Stephen", what he uses. Wozniak has spoken of his Polish descent. In the early 1970s, Wozniak's blue box design earned him the nickname "Berkeley Blue" in the phreaking community. Wozniak has credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek conventions while in his youth as a source of inspiration for his starting Apple Inc.
In 1969, Wozniak returned to the San Francisco Bay Area after being expelled from the University of Colorado Boulder in his first year for hacking the university's computer system and sending prank messages on it. He re-enrolled at De Anza College in Cupertino, before transferring to the University of California, Berkeley in 1971. In June 1971, as a self-taught project, Wozniak designed and built his first computer with his friend Bill Fernandez. Predating useful microprocessors and keyboards, using a punch card and only 20 TTL chips donated by an acquaintance, they named it "Cream Soda" after their favorite beverage. A newspaper reporter stepped on the power supply cable and blew up the computer, but it served Wozniak as "a good prelude to my thinking 5 years with the Apple I and Apple II computers". Before focusing his attention on Apple, he was employed at Hewlett-Packard where he designed calculators, it was during this time that he dropped out of befriended Steve Jobs. Wozniak was introduced to Jobs by Fernandez, who attended Homestead High School with Jobs in 1971.
Jobs and Wozniak became friends when Jobs worked for the summer at HP, where Wozniak too was employed, working on a mainframe computer. "We first met in 1971 during my college years. A friend said,'you should meet Steve Jobs because he likes electronics, he plays pranks.' So he introduced us." Their first business partnership began that year when Wozniak read an article titled “Secrets of the Little Blue Box” from the October 1971 issue of Esquire, started to build his own “blue boxes” that enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no cost. Jobs, who handled the sales of the blue boxes, managed to sell some two hundred of them for $150 each, split the profit with Wozniak. Jobs told his biographer that if it hadn't been for Wozniak's blue boxes, "there wouldn't have been an Apple."In 1973, Jobs was working for arcade game company Atari, Inc. in Los Gatos, California. He was assigned to create a circuit board for the arcade video game Breakout. According to Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell, Atari offered $100 for each chip, eliminated in the machine.
Jobs had little knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Wozniak reduced the number of chips by using RAM for the brick representation. Too complex to be comprehended at the time, the fact that this prototype had no scoring or coin mechanisms meant Woz's prototype could not be used. Jobs was paid the full bonus regardless. Jobs told Wozniak that Atari gave them only $700 and that Wozniak's share was thus $350. Wozniak did not learn about the actual $5,000 bonus until ten years later. While dismayed, he said that if Jobs had told him about it and had said he needed the money, Wozniak would have given it to him. In 1975, Wozniak began designing and developing the computer that would make him famous, the Apple I. On June 29 of that year, he tested his first working prototype, displaying a few letters and running sample programs, it was the first time in history that a character displayed on a TV screen was generated by a home computer.
With the Apple I, Wozniak was working to impress other members of the Palo Alto-based Homebrew Computer Club, a local
"This Ain't No Rag, It's a Flag", is a song written and performed by the Charlie Daniels Band and released as a bonus track on their 2001 album Live!. It was released in November 2001 as only single from the live album; this song was written in response to the September 11 attacks. Its peak position was number 33 on the US Country charts; the song is his highest-charted single since 1989's "Simple Man". The song first gained attention when CMT refused to allow Daniels to perform it on October 21 during the Country Freedom Concert, staged in Nashville; the event was to raise funds for the Salvation Army's disaster relief efforts in New York City. Daniels refused to go on the show in protest saying that "if my song would be offensive my presence would be offensive." Daniels told Phyllis Stark of Billboard Magazine that the events of September 11 "hit me hard. It floored me. I couldn't get away from it. I wept a lot." Daniels said that people kept sending him emails asking if he was going to write a song about the attacks.
Deborah Evans Price of Billboard magazine reviewed the song favorably calling it "far more rousing than racist, this well-performed rocker is all about nationalism and our intention to kick some terrorist butt." She states that there is "no doubt the more dovish among us will take offense, but when juxtaposed against rescue efforts that have evolved into recovery, who cares? "This Ain't No Rag, It's a Flag" debuted at number 51 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of November 10, 2001
Violet Renice Palmer is a retired American basketball referee in the NBA and WNBA and the first female official to reach the highest competitive tier in any major U. S. professional sports league. She earned recognition as a member of two NCAA Division II women's championship basketball teams. Palmer was the first woman to officiate an NBA playoff game when she did so in the April 25, 2006 match between the Indiana Pacers and New Jersey Nets. In the NBA, Palmer wore uniform number 12, she retired in 2016. A native of Compton, Palmer grew up in the same neighborhood where Serena and Venus Williams lived as small children, she attended college at Cal Poly Pomona, where she played point guard on the 1985 and 1986 NCAA Division II women's championship teams. In 2001, Palmer established Violet Palmer's Official Camp to train youths in the art of officiating games; the camp runs annually from July 9 to July 11. In 2010, Palmer was part of a family team on the game show Family Feud. Palmer had officiated hundreds of NBA games, as well as others in the WNBA.
After years of refereeing at various levels, including NBA pre-season and exhibition games, Palmer was offered an opportunity to officiate the NCAA Division I men's tournament in 1996. She accepted, but the offer was retracted when NCAA members balked at the idea of having a female referee male players. In 1997, however and Dee Kantner were signed by the NBA to together become the first top-level female officials in any major U. S. professional sport. On October 31, 1997, Palmer made history when she officiated the NBA season opener between the Vancouver Grizzlies and the Dallas Mavericks, in British Columbia, Canada; as a woman, Palmer's achievement was received with mixed feelings. While magazines such as Ebony and Sports Illustrated celebrated her achievement, some NBA players were critical. Charles Barkley: "Violet, I was wrong about you. I apologize. You're all right with me." Former basketball player Dennis Scott, who played for the Phoenix Suns at the time expressed concern at having females referee male players.
Scott, in particular, worried that female referees would physically abused. However, Palmer has been officiating without any major gender issues so far, she was one of three NBA referees who officiated the brawl-marred December 16, 2006, game between the Denver Nuggets and New York Knicks. The officiating crew, which consisted of Dick Bavetta and Robbie Robinson, ejected all 10 players who were on the court when the brawl broke out. On May 28, 2009, Palmer was hired as coordinator of women's basketball officials for the West Coast Conference. On February 16, 2014, Palmer became the first female to officiate an All-Star Game in any of the four major United States sports. On July 6, 2015, Palmer was named coordinator of women's basketball officials for the Western Athletic Conference. On September 22, 2016, Palmer retired from on-court duties with the NBA due to knee issues. Afterward, she began work as a manager in the NBA's referee operations department. At the time of her retirement, she had refereed 919 NBA games.
In July 2014, Palmer announced plans to marry her girlfriend of 20 years, celebrity hair stylist Tanya Stine. NBA's only female ref'doesn't back down' First Woman Set to Ref NBA Playoff Game Referee Violet Palmer makes NBA history Sports: Out of Bounds NBA's two female officials still crossing barriers NBA's First Female Referee, Violet Palmer, Retires from On-Court Work Video: NBA Referee Violet Palmer Being Delightful on Family Feud The NBA's First Female and Openly Lesbian Ref Recalls 19 Years of Close Calls