Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction/adventure films such as Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Raiders of the Lost Ark, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park, which became archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer or executive producer for several successful film trilogies and more including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several video games. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing films, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Russian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur, 8 mm, "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute, 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute, war film he titled Escape to Nowhere, using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur, 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia, which he cited as "the film that set me on my journey". In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family moved to Saratoga, California where he attended and graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after, he graduated. Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. Spielberg attended Brookdale Community College for his undergrad. While still a student, he was offered a small, intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing
The Dorak affair was a scandal concerning a group of antiquities from the Yortan culture, the so-called "Dorak Treasure", which took place in the 1950s and 1960s in Turkey and centred on the British archaeologist James Mellaart. According to Mellaart, he encountered a young lady called Anna Papastrati on a train from Istanbul to Izmir and noticed that she was wearing an unusual armband, she is meant to have told him that this armband was part of a collection of antiquities, in the possession of her family. He therefore went to the house of Papastrati, who according to him was a young Greek lady and spoke good English with a slight American accent. There she showed him numerous pieces; the Yortan culture was one of the cultures. Mellaart stayed several days in the house at Izmir, making notes. Photography of the pieces was forbidden, according to Mellaart. Papastrati promised to photograph the pieces herself at the next opportunity and send the photos to him; the items were said to have been found in shallow graves near the city of Dorak, south of the Sea of Marmara, during the Greco-Turkish War.
Mellaart reported that he had seen photographs of the graves in which the Dorak treasure had been found and that there was a description of the discovery in Modern Greek, which he had seen. Mellaart said he left the house after a few days without noting its location, although he noted a name and address on a piece of notepaper. No communication was received subsequently from Papastrati. Mellaart said that he did not make the discovery public at first because he was waiting for the photos and consent to publication, he said. In mid-October 1958, a letter was received by the British Institute of Archaeology in Ankara, where Mellaart was deputy director, it read: Dear James, Here is the letter you want so much. As the owner, I authorise you to publish your drawings of the Dorak objects, which you drew in our house. You always were more interested in these old things than in me! Well, there it is. Good luck, goodbye. Love, Anna Pappastrati; the letter was dated "18/10/1958" and the return to sender address was "Kazim Direk Caddesi no.
217, Karsiyaka – Izmir." Mellaart published his sketches and notes on the finds in The Illustrated London News. Discussing their significance in the article, Mellaart drew parallels with the Treasure of Ur. Investigations by the Turkish authorities and by journalists revealed, that the address on Kazim Direk Caddesi belonged to a commercial building in a street which had no residential houses. However, there were at least two other streets of the same name in Izmir at that time, the street might have been renamed. At any rate, the address could not be located; the pieces which Mellaart had described, never appeared in private collections or on the legal art market. In 1962, a press campaign began in Turkey, in which Mellaart was charged with smuggling the treasure, in exchange for a cut worth 240 million Deutsche Marks. There was eye-witness testimony that a thick-set foreigner had been seen near the find location at Dorak with a woman. One witness identified Mellaart himself. In 1964, public pressure reached such a point that the Turkish government forbid Mellaart from excavating at Çatalhöyük and they allowed him to enter Turkey in 1965, on condition that he would participate only as an assistant.
There are various views about the reality behind the Dorak affair. One perspective holds that Mellaart, known only in relation to the excavations at Çatalhöyük, had invented the treasure himself; the supposed letter from Anna Papastrati has similarities with the typewriter used by his wife in the institute and for his other correspondence at that time. Another opinion connects the American accent of "Anna Papastrati" with the US base at Izmir or with employment at a CIA operation there. In the late 1960s, this was known as a key point for smuggling of items out of Turkey for the illegal art market. In this view, Mellaart was used to provide high-value finds of the Yortan culture with a history from a renowned expert. In this view, the meeting with Mellaart on the train was intentionally arranged and he was played by criminals. Posthumously, Mellaart has been implicated in several cases of fabrication of archeological finds. Kenneth Pearson/Patricia Connor, Die Dorak-Affäre. Schätze, Journalisten.
Zsolnay, Hamburg 1968. Dora Jane Hamblin, Türkei - Land der lebenden Legenden, Bastei-Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1975, ISBN 3-404-25012-5, S. 187–197. Suzan Mazur, Dorak Diggers Weigh in on Anna & Royal Treasure, www.scoop.co.nz from 4 August 2005 Suzan Mazur, Getting to The Bottom of the Dorak Affair, www.scoop.co.nz from 27 August 2005 Suzan Mazur, The Dorak Affair's Final Chapter, www.scoop.co.nz from 10 October 2005
Terry E. Van Horne was a former Democratic member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, where he represented the 54th legislative district, he was born in Pittsburgh and graduated from Arnold High School in 1963. He earned a degree from Duquesne University in 1968 and a law degree from Widener University School of Law in 1993, he was first elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1980, a position he held until 2000. In 2000, Democratic Congressman Ron Klink vacated Pennsylvania's 4th congressional district to challenge Republican Rick Santorum for the United States Senate. Van Horne won an 8-way primary election to win the Democratic nominee to succeed Klink, he defeated the state and national party's preferred candidate, Matthew Mangino, the Lawrence County, Pennsylvania district attorney. Van Horne lost the election to then-Pennsylvania Senator Melissa Hart. In July 2007, Van Horne was hired as the municipal manager for Pennsylvania, he was fired by the Penn Hills municipal council in February 2009 and said that he was distracted by his duties as solicitor for East Deer Township and that he had failed to move into the municipality within the required time period.
Pennsylvania House of Representatives - Terry E. Van Horne at the Wayback Machine official PA House profile