Stewart Copeland

Stewart Armstrong Copeland is an American musician and composer. He was the drummer of the British rock band the Police, has produced film and video game soundtracks and written various pieces of music for ballet and orchestra. According to MusicRadar, Copeland's "distinctive drum sound and uniqueness of style has made him one of the most popular drummers to get behind a drumset." He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of The Police in 2003, the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2005, the Classic Drummer Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2016, Copeland was ranked 10th on Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Drummers of All Time", he is known for composing soundtracks for the Spyro video game series. Stewart Armstrong Copeland was born in Alexandria, Virginia on July 16, 1952, the youngest of four children of Alabama-born CIA officer Miles Copeland Jr. and Scottish archaeologist Lorraine Adie. The family moved to Cairo, Egypt, a few months after his birth, Copeland spent his formative years in the Middle East.

In 1957, his family moved to Beirut and Copeland attended the American Community School there. He was playing drums for school dances within a year, he moved to England and attended Millfield boarding school in Somerset from 1967 to 1969. Copeland went to college in California, attending United States International University and the University of California, Berkeley. Returning to England, he worked as road manager for the progressive rock band Curved Air's 1974 reunion tour, as drummer for the band during 1975 and 1976. In early 1977, Copeland founded the Police with lead singer-bass guitarist Sting and guitarist Henry Padovani, they became one of the top bands of the 1980s; the Police's early track list was Copeland compositions, including the band's first single "Fall Out" and the B-side "Nothing Achieving". Though Copeland's songwriting contribution was reduced to a couple of songs per album as Sting started writing more material, he continued to co-arrange all The Police's songs together with his two bandmates.

Amongst Copeland's most notable songs are "On Any Other Day", "Does Everyone Stare", "Contact", "Bombs Away", "Darkness" and "Miss Gradenko". Copeland co-wrote a number of songs with Sting, including "Peanuts", "Landlord", "It's Alright for You" and "Re-Humanize Yourself". Copeland recorded under the pseudonym Klark Kent, releasing several UK singles in 1978 with one entering the UK Singles Chart that year, along with an eponymous 10-inch album on green vinyl released in 1980. Recorded at Nigel Gray's Surrey Sound Studio, Copeland played all the instruments and sang the lead vocals himself. Kent's "Don't Care", which peaked at #48 UK in August 1978 predates the first chart single by the Police by several months as "Don't Care" was released in early June 1978. In 1982, Copeland was involved in the production of a WOMAD benefit album called Rhythm. Copeland's score for Rumble Fish secured him a Golden Globe nomination in 1983; the film and produced by Francis Ford Coppola from the S. E. Hinton novel had a song released to radio on A&M Records "Don't Box Me In" —a collaboration between Copeland and singer/songwriter Stan Ridgway, leader of the band Wall of Voodoo—that received significant airplay upon release of the film that year.

The Rhythmatist record of 1985 was the result of a pilgrimage to Africa and its people, it features local drums and percussion, with more drums, other musical instruments and occasional lead vocals added by Copeland. The album was the official soundtrack to the movie of the same name, co-written by Stewart, he starred in the film, "A musical odyssey through the heart of Africa in search of the roots of rock & roll." The band attempted a reunion in 1986. After The Police disbanded, Copeland established a career composing soundtracks for movies, television and ballets. Copeland occasionally played drums for other artists. Peter Gabriel employed Copeland to perform on his song "Red Rain" from his 1986 album So because of his "hi-hat mastery", he has performed with Mike Rutherford and Tom Waits. That year he teamed with Adam Ant to record the title track and video for the Anthony Michael Hall movie Out of Bounds. In 1989, Copeland formed Animal Logic with jazz bassist Stanley Clarke and singer-songwriter Deborah Holland.

The trio had success with their first album and world tour but the follow-up recording sold poorly, the band did not continue. In 1993 he composed the music for Channel 4's director Bob Baldwin. In 1999, he provided the voice of an additional American soldier in the animated musical co

Anglo-Scottish Wars

The Anglo-Scottish Wars comprise the various battles which continued to be fought between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland from the time of the Wars of Independence in the early 14th century through to the latter years of the 16th century. Although the Wars of Independence, in which Scotland twice resisted attempted conquest by Plantagenet kings of England, formally ended in the treaties of 1328 and 1357 relations between the two countries remained uneasy. Incursions by English kings into Scotland continued under Richard II and Henry IV and informal cross-border conflict remained endemic. Formal flashpoints on the border included places remaining under English occupation, such as Roxburgh Castle or the port of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Roxburgh was recaptured by the Scots in 1460 under Mary of Guelders after the death of James II in the same campaign. Possession of Berwick changed hands a number of times, as one country attempted to take advantage of weakness or instability in the other, culminating in final capture for the English of the Scottish port by Richard, Duke of Gloucester in 1482.

England's preoccupation with civil war during the Wars of the Roses may have been a component in the period of relative recovery for her northern neighbour during the course of the 15th century, by the first decade of the 16th century James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England were making overtures for lasting peace. This broke down after the accession of the more overtly bellicose Henry VIII to the English throne and James IV's catastrophically misjudged incursion into Northumbria in 1513 ending in the Battle of Flodden. Three decades after the death of James V in 1542, the so-called'rough wooing' at the hands of invading English armies under the Earl of Hertford brought manifest depredations to Scotland; the last pitched battle between Scotland and England as independent states was the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in September 1547. Periods of fighting and conflict continued. France played a key role throughout the period of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. Scots and English soldiers on French soil during the Hundred Years War fought on opposing sides, with the Scots standing for the French against the English under the Auld Alliance.

France in periods, in turn intervened on Scottish soil for the Scots. This French involvement had complex political consequences for all sides by the 16th century; the Anglo-Scottish Wars can formally be said to have ended with the Union of the Crowns in 1603, wherein England and Scotland entered a personal union under James VI and I, who inherited both crowns. Bloody conflict between the two states continued to arise in different and more complex guise throughout the course of the 17th century. During the mid-15th century there were many conflicts on the border of England and Scotland, most notably the Battle of Sark in 1448. England under Henry VIII declared war on France in 1512. James IV of Scotland invaded England in fulfillment of his alliance with France. In 1513, after preliminary raids by borderers came to grief, James's main army invaded England, his artillery subdued English castles such as Norham and Wark. However, James issued a formal challenge for an open field battle to the English army under the Earl of Surrey and fortified his position.

Surrey's army manoeuvred around the Scottish army, which launched an attack to open a route north to Scotland. In the resulting disastrous Battle of Flodden, James IV was killed, along with many of his nobles and gentry, the "Flowers of the Forest". James V of Scotland was an infant a year old at his father's death. Various factions among the Scottish nobles contended for power, custody of the young king. While Henry VIII secretly encouraged some of them, English armies and some families of English and nominally Scottish Border Reivers forayed and looted in southwest Scotland, to maintain pressure on the Scottish authorities. After the faction of the Earl of Angus gained control, peaceful relations were restored between England and Scotland; when James V came of age and assumed control, he overthrew the Angus faction, renewed Scotland's Auld Alliance with France. He married first Madeleine of Valois, a daughter of Francis I of France, when she died a few months of tuberculosis, he married Mary of Guise.

Tension between England and Scotland increased once again. War broke out in 1541. Once again there were preliminary border skirmishes, but when James sent a large army into England, its leadership was weak and divided and it suffered a humbling defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. James died shortly afterward the defeat. Once again, Scotland's monarch was this time Mary, Queen of Scots. Henry tried to pressure a divided Scotland into an alliance, secure the marriage of Mary to his son Edward; when Cardinal Beaton gained control of the government of Scotland and renewed the alliance with France, Henry reacted in 1544 by sending an army under the Earl of Hertford, Edward's uncle, to systematically devastate and slaughter throughout southern Scotland, as a means of inducing a change of heart. Campaigning continued the next year

Wake Up! (Pope Francis album)

Wake Up! Music Album with His Words and Prayers is a progressive rock album by Pope Francis released on 27 November 2015 on Believe Digital; the album is formed of speeches by Pope Francis recorded in numerous locations worldwide between 2013 and 2015 with accompanying music tracks of prayers and hymns by various Italian artists and producers. Under the art direction of Don Giulio Neroni, who curated other albums for Popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI, various Italian artists and producers contributed to the music like Giorgio Kriegsch, Mite Balduzzi, Giuseppe Dati, Lorenzo Piscopo, the orchestral director Dino Doni, former member of Italian progressive rock band Le Orme Tony Pagliuca; the album will be released through the Believe Digital label. The album sets papal prayers and speeches to pop and classical music; the lyrics are varyingly Spanish, Portuguese or Italian, although the title track "Wake Up! Go! Go! Forward!" is in English. While most of the music is described by Rolling Stone as "New Age neoclassicism" not unlike the work of Vangelis or Kitaro, "Wake Up!

Go! Go! Forward!" is identified as "the most rocking". Tom Maxwell of Aljazeera America states "Musically, the album is similar to but more animated than what one would hear during a yoga class or massage session" and that "What might be most noteworthy about Wake Up! is how groundbreaking it is.... For such a figure to release an album of music at all is scarcely precedented, much less one that incorporates popular musical forms of the last few decades."Entertainment reporter Chi Chi Izundu on BBC Newsbeat expressed the opinion that some of the album "has the vibe of 80s rock", another part is "hauntingly beautiful" and that the album is "all in all, a pleasant listen". Helen Brown in The Telegraph calls it a "mellow, accessible album" and states "Proceeds go to help refugees at a time when displaced people are struggling to find room at the inn. Whatever your stance on the Catholic Church, or its leader, I suspect Pope Francis has made a good call here. At a time of inflamed religious emotions, the world could use a little Holy chill out."

The first track released from the album was "Wake Up! Go! Go! Forward!" on 26 September 2015. Wake Up! Includes the following tracks. Official Site