Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, broken up in stages between 1987 and 2001. The component parts and operations continued to exist under new names; the company known as Josef und Franz Werndl and Company was founded in 1864 as a rifle manufacturer. It grew during the First World War, by the end of which it employed 14,000 people; the company began producing bicycles in 1894, Steyr automobiles after 1918. In September 1917 Steyr recruited Hans Ledwinka, now remembered as one of the great automobile engineers of the twentieth century, but relatively unknown, to the position of "Chefkonstrukteur", to lead the creation of their automobile manufacturing business The first Steyr car, the six cylinder Type II "12/40" appeared in 1920, it was well-built, if a little cumbersome. The small but luxurious 1.5 L six Type XII of the late twenties won international motor press acclaim. The company changed its name to Steyr-Werke AG in 1926. In 1934, Steyr merged with Austro-Daimler-Puch to form Steyr-Daimler-Puch.
The range produced in these years consisted of modern designs, sporting or complete unit construction bodies in streamlined livery, from the one-litre Steyr 50 to the 2.3 L Steyr 220 "six". During World War II, when Austria was part of the Third Reich, Steyr-Daimler-Puch's Generaldirektor Georg Meindl became one of the first German industrialists to suggest the use of slave labour from concentration camps to boost manpower at Steyr; the request was approved and prisoners were brought by guarded train from the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex at Gusen 30 km distant. On 5 January 1942, Meindl wrote a letter to SS Gruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner recommending a new'satellite' prison camp be constructed to house prisoners nearer the Steyr factory complex, explaining how this would reduce the time and loss of prisoners in transit to and from work while reducing security and transport overhead costs; this was approved and prisoners were used for facilities construction, to supplant manufacturing labor.
This practice heretofore was not common at other larger German companies, though others followed suit including Mercedes-Benz and MAN. The vehicle range was for military use, including the Steyr RSO Raupenschlepper Ost with an air-cooled 3.5 L V8 engine designed by Ferdinand Porsche, who worked for the company at that time. War-time production there included small arms, assault rifles, machine guns, aircraft engines. After the war, Steyr-Daimler-Puch built Diesel engined trucks and buses and heavy tractors and resumed passenger car production. First, Steyr assembled the FIAT 1100E put their own engine in a Fiat 1400, renaming the car the "Steyr 2000". From 1957 through to the early 1970s it produced the tiny Puch 500 under license from FIAT, again with an engine of Austrian design. Most prominent, was its range of off-road cars, from the two-cylinder Haflinger and the 4 x 4 or 6 x 6 Pinzgauer, the Fiat Panda 4x4 to the Mercedes-Puch G. SDP was the initial designer and manufacturer of these utility vehicles.
The Haflinger was produced from 1959–1974, the Pinzgauer from 1971–2000, the Puch G from 1979. The company's Puch division produced a line of motorcycles and motor scooters marketed in the United States through Sears Roebuck including the Puch 250 SGS, delivered in a cardboard crate box to the customer's home; the Austro-Daimler branch built heavy trucks for the imperial Austrian army. The main Steyr civil agricultural tractor production started in 1947. After the war Steyr-Daimler-Puch resumed manufacturing bicycles and mopeds establishing distributors in several countries to manage their sales. Steyr made bicycles for sale for other retailers, most notably Sears. In the mid 1970s "Steyr-Daimler-Puch America" was incorporated in Connecticut to manage importation and distribution of bicycles and mopeds. Puch Austro-Daimler bicycles remained in production at Graz in Austria until the motorcycle and bicycle fabrication portions of the company there were sold in the mid 1987 to Piaggio & C. S.p. A. of Italy.
Because of their extreme durability and toughness Steyr products won many enthusiastic friends around the world. In 1987, Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG began selling portions of its different production lines to form separate companies, which included Steyr Nutzfahrzeuge AG for truck manufacturing, Steyr Bus GmbH for bus manufacturing, Steyr-Daimler-Puch Fahrzeugtechnik AG and the EUROSTAR joint venture in Graz-Liebenau for assembly of automobiles and, in 1990, Steyr Tractor. Other production lines were spun off or sold outright to form independent companies, including Puch's motorcycle division going to Piaggio and Steyr Mannlicher producing weapons. In 1990, the diesel engine division was spun off into Steyr Motorentechnik GmbH, which in 2001 became an independent company, renaming itself Steyr Motors GmbH. Steyr Landmaschinentechnik AG was sold to Case Corporation in 1996 and renamed Case Steyr Landmaschinentechnik. Automobile production remained with Steyr-Daimler-Puch Fahrzeugtechnik until Magna International acquired a majority holding, in 1998, in 2001–2002 SFT was absorbed by Magna, becoming Magna Steyr.
In 1998, the production of military vehicles was sold to an Austrian investor company, which named it Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug GmbH. In 2003, SSF was sold to the U. S. com
The Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, based in Riga, is the regulating agency of the telecommunication market in the European Union. It was created by the Telecoms Package, passed in September 2009. BEREC includes national regulatory authorities on its board and an administrative staff including Community officials; the budget will be €5.5 million. BEREC will issue opinions on market remedies proposed by NRAs; the Members of BEREC met for the first time in January 2010 in Brussels to elect a chairman and vice chairmen, who will serve a 12-month term and will focus on topics such as Next Generation Access, Net Neutrality, Universal Service Obligations and the functional separation of local network access and backhaul network access. The European Telecom Market Authority was proposed by Viviane Reding as agency for the European Union in 2007. Although presented as having power to override national telecommunications regulators, it would in fact act as a consultative body for the European Commission.
It is proposed that the Authority be able to issue opinions and recommendations, to the Commission, concerning spectrum issues, market analyses that have not been completed on time by national regulators, on the possible imposition of remedies such as price control, accounting separation, or indeed functional separation. The Commission would have to take the utmost account of these opinions and recommendations, but would not be bound by them, it is proposed that the Authority be able to issue decisions, which would be binding, in the area of the ETNS. The Commission would have no say in this; the Authority would consist of 27 members representing each of the 27 national regulators and voting by simple majority. It has been reported that a similar system of cooperation exists between the Commission and the European Medicines Agency although in the context of authorisations to market products, rather than regulation of market conditions. In 2009 it was decided to transform the established in 2002 European Regulators Group into the Body of European Regulators of Electronic Communications and for its office seat was chosen Riga, Latvia in May 2010.
European Commission roaming regulations Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators Official website Regulation No 1211/2009 Commission decision: 2002/627/EC of 29 July 2002 Procedure file reflects the current state of the procedure towards the adoption of the BEREC
The Rawlinson Excidium Troie, discovered among the manuscripts collected by Richard Rawlinson conserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, is unique in that it contains the only medieval account of the Trojan War, independent of Dictys and Dares, "strikingly different from any other known mediaeval version of the Trojan War", according to its editor, E. Bagby Atwood, its discovery revealed a source for many details in medieval texts whose sources had been obscure, not appearing in the familiar Latin epitomes of the Iliad, through which Homer was transmitted to medieval culture, the Greek text being lost to Western Europe. That there was a lost Latin source grew clearer in the late nineteenth century, as scholars compared narrative poems like the Middle English The Seege or Batayle of Troy with Konrad von Würzburg's Trojanische Krieg and with versions in Old Norse and in Bulgarian, found that they shared details in the opening episodes that were not to be found in Dares nor in the famous Roman de Troie of Benoît de Sainte-Maure.
The themes included the dream of Hecuba and the birth of Paris, his Judgement of the goddesses—with varying degrees of independence in this oft-told material—and his carrying off of Helen, the youth of Achilles. In some of the vernacular poems, traces of Latin declensions in proper names betrayed an unidentified Latin source; the Rawlinson manuscript formed part of a volume of fragments collected by Peter Le Neve and antiquary, which found their way into Rawlinson's library. It consists of eight and a half folios, written in two columns in a fine late thirteenth-century hand. Two-thirds of the manuscript consists of a condensed epitome of the Aeneid, unusually faithful to the original, but rearranged in chronologically consecutive order; the opening third contains a history of the Trojan War from the marriage of Thetis to the building of the Trojan Horse, set out in a question-and-answer fashion that suggested to Atwood a school text prefatory to the study of Virgil. The narrative material has been drawn together and classically ordered from so many scattered sources that its editor, E. Bagby Atwood, considered that it was "utterly impossible to consider that the account was originated by the mediaeval author of the extant version," and "utterly impossible to suppose a mediaeval writer capable of selecting and arranging this scattered information in a simple, connected narrative agreeing so in plan and order with the ancient Epic Cycle".
He concluded that it was a rescension of a older Latin chronicle of the Trojan War as early as the Augustan age. English translation of this work
In Greek mythology, Zelus or Zelos was the daimon that personifies dedication, eager rivalry, envy and zeal. The English word "zeal" is derived from his name. Zelus was the son of the Titan Pallas and the Oceanid Styx and thus, brother to Nike and Bia. Zelus together with his siblings were winged enforcers who stood in attendance at Zeus' throne and formed part of his retinue. "And Styx the daughter of Okeanos was joined to Pallas and bare Zelos and trim-ankled Nike in the house. She brought forth Kratos and Bia, wonderful children; these have no house apart from Zeus, nor any dwelling nor path except that wherein God leads them, but they dwell always with Zeus the loud-thunderer. For so did Styx the deathless daughter of Okeanos plan on that day when the Olympian Lightener called all the deathless gods to great Olympos, said that whosoever of the gods would fight with him against the Titanes, he would not cast him out from his rights, but each should have the office which he had before amongst the deathless gods.
And he declared that he, without office and rights as is just. So deathless Styx came first to Olympos with her children through the wit of her dear father, and Zeus honoured her, gave her great gifts, for her he appointed to be the great oath of the gods, her children to live with him always. And as he promised, so he performed unto them all." "Nike, Kratos and Bia were born to Pallas and Styx. Zeus instituted and oath to be sworn by the waters of Styx that flowed from a rock in Haides' realm, an honor granted in return for the help she and her children gave him against the Titanes." Zelus Roman name was Invidia, which, in Latin, meant "to look against in a hostile manner". Because of its relation to Zelus, his Roman form was sometimes associated with the seven deadly sins. "From Pallas the giant and Styx: Scylla, Invidia, Victoria." "Among the men of the fifth age... There will be no favour for the just or for the good. Strength will be right and reverence will cease to be. Envy, foul-mouthed, delighting in evil, with scowling face, will go along with wretched men one and all.
And Aidos and Nemesis, with their sweet forms wrapped in white robes, will go from the wide-pathed earth and forsake mankind to join the company of the deathless gods: and bitter sorrows will be left for mortal men, there will be no help against evil." "O father Zeus, how fierce a heart hath Zelos! Him hast thou made, O lord, mightier than nature to behold and has given him the bitter force of fire, in his right hand hast vouchsafed to him to wear a sword of adamant, he preserves not, when he comes, dear children to their loving parents, he knows nor comrade nor kin nor cousin, when he intervenes grievous and unspeakable. He in former times arrayed against their own children heroes themselves and hobble heroines." Zelos may have been identified with Agon, the personification of competition, was connected with Eris. He was sometimes associated with the daimon of romantic jealousy. Hesiod, Theogony from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA.
Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Hesiod and Days from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website
Alfred O. Deshong was an American industrialist and art collector from Chester, Pennsylvania. Deshong came from a wealthy family including his grandfather Peter Deshong and father John O. Deshong, he operated a successful quarry business for years and was a director of the Delaware County National Bank. He invested his fortune in the collection of art. Deshong donated liberally to support the Chester Hospital and upon his death, donated his trust and land to the city of Chester which resulted in the creation of the Deshong Art Museum and Deshong Park. Over time, the museum fell into disrepair, suffered theft and closed; the art museum is vacant and the art collection resides with Widener University. Alfred Odenheimer Deshong was born in Chester, Pennsylvania to John O. Deshong and Emmeline L. Deshong and educated in the local schools, he attended the Bolmar Academy in Pennsylvania. In 1862, Deshong enlisted as a private in Company K, Tenth Regiment of the Pennsylvania Militia and served in the Battle of Antietam under Captain Thatcher.
He was honorably discharged on September 27, 1862. In 1863, Deshong re-enlisted, he enlisted in company A of the 37th Regiment, Emergency Corps, known as the "Slipher Phalanx". He served in the Battle of Gettysburg and was honorably discharged on August 4, 1863. In 1865, he entered into partnership with his brother, John O. Deshong, Jr. and operated the Deshong quarries in Ridley Township, Pennsylvania. The partnership was successful and lasted for 30 years until John's death on November 1, 1895. In 1895, Deshong was elected a director of the Delaware County National Bank. Deshong donated liberally to support Chester Hospital, located at 9th and Barclay Streets in Chester; the Alfred O. Deshong sanitary cottage for the treatment of tuberculosis was built by Deshong and donated to the Chester Hospital. After his death, he left in trust his art collection, mansion and 27 acre estate to the city of Chester as an art gallery and for educational purposes; the bequest resulted in the establishment of the Deshong Memorial Park and the building of an art gallery.
The Deshong mansion was built in 1850 on 22 acres off Edgemont Avenue in the Greek Revival Italianate style by Alfred's father, John O. Deshong, Sr, it was willed to the people of Chester after Alfred's death. The land was turned into a public park named Deshong Park and an art museum was built on the property; the mansion and art museum fell into disrepair in the 1980s. The trust was dissolved and the property was taken over by the Delaware County Industrial Development Authority; the mansion suffered a partial collapse in 2013 and was demolished in 2014. The Deshong Art Museum was built in 1914 after his death on the same property as the Deshong Mansion; the building was designed to be fireproof with exterior walls of Dover marble. The large main gallery for paintings was modeled after the Emperor of Germany's gallery at Cassel, it housed over 300 pieces of art including carved Japanese ivory figures, Chinese carved hard stone vessels and 19th century American and European paintings including American Impressionists Edward Redfield, Robert Spencer and George Loftus NoyesOther select works from the collection include: Allan Piu bella, painting by Francesco Vinea Alpine Mountain Scene, painting by Alexandre Calame At the Cobblers, painting by Jose Jimenez Aranda Child Feeding her Pets, painting by Gaetano Chierici Departure for the Hunt, painting by Vladimir Makovsky Hasty Pudding, oil on canvas painting by Gaetano Chierici Her Japanese Dolls by Adrien Moreau Kindergarten, painting by Otto Piltz Meadows in Winter, painting by George Loftus Noyes Morning in Thuringia, painting by Barend Cornelis Koekkoek Raspberries on a Leaf, oil on panel painting by Lilly Martin Spencer Spirited Conflict, painting by Alberto Pasini The Artists Den, painting by Francois Auguste Biard The Avalanche, painting by Gerolamo Induno Une gardienne du feu sacre de vesta by Louis Hector Leroux Deshong's last art purchase was a pair of large Foo dogs cast in bronze.
The statues were placed flanking the doors of the Deshong mansion. At one time it was the only public art gallery on the East Coast. From 1961 to 1978 the building was operated as a library, but over the years the museum fell into disrepair. In July 1977 the museum was looted and several pieces of art were stolen; the heist was carried out by 15 year old Laurence McCall from Chester, Pennsylvania who would skip school and frequent the museum. The museum had limited security and McCall was able to steal paintings valued at the time at $450,000 by taking them off the wall and sliding them out of the museum's windows. Many of the stolen items were sold through other art auction houses in New York City. McCall was caught when he was 19; the authorities were not able to prove that he stole the artwork, but he was convicted for failure to pay taxes, sentenced to fifteen years in prison and served three. A majority of the artwork was recovered. In 1979, Widener University restored the museum. In July 1984 the remaining trustees that managed the art museum dissolved the trust.
The Asian and impressionistic art collection and $500,000 of the trust were given to Widener University where the collection is displayed. Deshong was known as a lavish host, entertaining artists and political figures at the Deshong mansion, he never became reclusive toward the end of his life. Deshong is interred at Chester Rural Cemetery, his grave is marked by the bronze sculpture, "Sorrow" by Samuel Murray. The Widener University Art Collection & Gallery
Friday Hill House is a Grade II listed house at Simmons Lane, Friday Hill, London, E4. It was built in 1839 by the architect Lewis Vulliamy; the manor house built and owned by Robert Boothby Heathcote, both the lord of the manor and rector of the local church. It was he who paid for the building of the church of St Paul in Chingford, he is buried in the Boothby family vault in Old Church Road. The vault was purchased by Robert Boothby; the present building has been used as a further education centre, but was put up for sale in 2012. The grounds hosts one of the Great Trees of London, a large London Plane