Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs combined logographic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood; the hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Siniatic script that evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Through the Phoenician alphabet's major child systems, the Greek and Aramaic scripts, the Egyptian hieroglyphic script is ancestral to the majority of scripts in modern use, most prominently the Latin and Cyrillic scripts and the Arabic script and Brahmic family of scripts; the use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty. Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period.
The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. With the final closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost. Although attempts were made, the script remained undeciphered throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period; the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing would only be accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω; the glyphs themselves since the Ptolemaic period were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". Greek ἱερογλυφός meant "a carver of hieroglyphs". In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590 short for nominalised hieroglyphic, from adjectival use.
Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" recovered at Abydos in 1998 or the Narmer Palette; the first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia".
There are many instances of early Egypt-Mesopotamia relations, but given the lack of direct evidence for the transfer of writing, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". Instead, it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a credible argument can be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one, although Egyptian writing does make a sudden apparition at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionnary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts.
These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms in monumental and other formal writing; the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods, it appears that the misleading quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part, as a response to the changed political situation. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish'true Egyptians' from some of the foreign conquerors. Another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generally. Having learned that hieroglyphs were sacred writing, Greco-Roman authors imagined the complex but rational system as an allegorical magical, system transmitting secre
Otto "Otl" Aicher was a German graphic designer and typographer. He is best known for having designed pictograms for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich that proved influential on the use of stick figures for public signage, as well as designing the typeface Rotis. Aicher co-founded the Ulm School of Design. Aicher was born in Ulm, in the south-western state of Baden-Württemberg, on 13 May 1922. Aicher was a classmate and friend of Werner Scholl, through him met Werner's family, including his siblings Hans and Sophie Scholl, both of whom would be executed in 1943 for their membership in the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. Like the Scholls, Aicher was opposed to the Nazi movement, he was arrested in 1937 for refusing to join the Hitler Youth, he was failed on his abitur examination in 1941. He was subsequently drafted into the German army to fight in World War II, though he tried to leave at various times. In 1945 he deserted the army, went into hiding at the Scholls' house in Wutach.
In 1946, after the end of the war, Aicher began studying sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich. In 1947, he opened his own studio in Ulm. In 1952 he married Inge Scholl, the older sister of Werner and Sophie. In 1953, along with Inge Scholl and Max Bill, he founded the Ulm School of Design, which became one of Germany's leading educational centres for design from its founding until its closure in 1968. Faculty and students included such notable designers as Tomás Maldonado, Peter Seitz, Anthony Froshaug. Aicher was involved in corporate branding and considered one of the pioneers of Corporate design. Among others he was influential to the corporate identity of the company Braun and he designed the logo for German airline Lufthansa in 1969. In 1966 Aicher was asked by the organisers of the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich to become the Olympic Games' lead designer, he was asked to create a design for the Olympics that complemented the architecture of the newly built stadium in Munich designed by Günther Behnisch.
Aicher consulted with Masaru Katsumie. Basing his work in part on iconography for the'64 Games, Aicher created a set of pictograms meant to provide a visual interpretation of the sport they featured so that athletes and visitors to the Olympic village and stadium could find their way around, he created pictograms using a series of grid systems and a specific bright colour palette that he chose for these Games. These designs were directly influential on the DOT pictograms, developed in 1974 by the United States Department of Transportation, which applied the same principles to standard public signage such as those for toilets and telephones; the series of pictograms he created was not a simple task. Otl Aicher helped to design the logo of the Munich Olympics, he went through several stages with his design team before finding the successful emblem. One of their first ideas was to use an element of the city's coat of arms or Münchner Kindl within the design which showed a monk or child pointing into the distance while clasping a book in his hand.
Other ideas were to use the surrounding areas of the city, referencing the sun and landscape within the design. The "Strahlenkranz" was created, a garland which represented the sun but the five Olympic rings merged in a spiral shape. Designer Coordt von Mannstein reworked Aicher's original design through a mathematical calculation to amalgamate the garland and spiral together to get the final design; the colours chosen for the designs of the games were selected to reflect the tones of the Alps. The mountains in blue and white would make up the palette of colours which included green and silver; the colours were used to identify allocated themes such as media, technical services, celebrity hospitality and public functions and each had a different colour so visitors could differentiate the themes around the stadium and village. Uniforms were colour-coordinated to represent these themes, the Olympic staff could be identified as working for a particular department by the colour they were wearing.
Aicher used the typeface Univers for the Olympic designs. The design team produced 21 sports posters to advertise the sports at the games, using the official design colours and including the logo and "München 1972"; the design team used a technique called "posterization" for the graphics on the posters, separating the tonal qualities from the images in a manual process and using the official munich colours for these games. The first of these posters was a poster of the Olympic stadium which became the official poster for these games; the posters were displayed all around the Olympic sites. Posters were hung in twos alongside posters designed by famous artists chosen to represent this Olympics such as David Hockney, R. B. Kitaj, Tom Wesselmann and Allen Jones, he created the first official Olympic Mascot, a striped dachshund named Waldi. Aicher's pictograms at the 1972 Munich Olympics In 1980 Otl Aicher became a consultant of the kitchen manufacturer bulthaup, he created the rotis font family in 1988, naming it after the domicile of Rotis in the city of Leutkirch im Allgäu, where Aicher lived and kept his studio, still used today by bulthaup.
He designed the logo for the University of Konstanz as well as Munich Airport, the latter consisting of the letter M in a simple sans-serif font. Aicher died in Günzburg on 1 September 1991, after he was struck by a
Signage is the design or use of signs and symbols to communicate a message to a specific group for the purpose of marketing or a kind of advocacy. A signage means signs collectively or being considered as a group; the term signage is documented to have been popularized in 1975 to 1980. Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience; this is manifested in the form of wayfinding information in places such as streets or on the inside and outside buildings. Signs vary in form and size based on location and intent, from more expansive banners and murals, to smaller street signs, street name signs, sandwich boards and lawn signs. Newer signs may use digital or electronic displays; the main purpose of signs is to communicate, to convey information designed to assist the receiver with decision-making based on the information provided. Alternatively, promotional signage may be designed to persuade receivers of the merits of a given product or service. Signage is distinct from labeling, which conveys information about a particular service.
The term,'sign' comes from the old French signe, meaning a gesture or a motion of the hand. This, in turn, stems from Latin'signum' indicating an"identifying mark, indication, symbol. In the English, the term is associated with a flag or ensign. In France, a banner not infrequently took the place of signs or sign boards in the Middle Ages. Signs, are best known in the form of painted or carved advertisements for shops, cinemas, etc, they are one of various emblematic methods for publicly calling attention to the place to which they refer. The term,'signage' appears to have come into use in the 20th century as a collective noun used to describe a class of signs advertising and promotional signs which came to prominence in the first decades of the twentieth century; the Oxford Dictionary defines the term, signage, as "Signs collectively commercial or public display signs." Some of the earliest signs were used informally to denote the membership of specific groups. Early Christians used the sign or a cross or the Ichthys to denote their religious affiliations, whereas the sign of the sun or the moon would serve the same purpose for pagans.
The use of commercial signage has a ancient history. Retail signage and promotional signs appear to have developed independently in the East and the West. In antiquity, the ancient Egyptians and Greeks were known to use signage. In ancient Rome, signboards were used for shop fronts as well as to announce public events. Roman signboards were made from stone or terracotta. Alternatively, they were whitened areas, known as albums on the outer walls of shops and marketplaces. Many Roman examples have been preserved. Apart from the bush, certain identifiable trade signs that survive into modern times include the three balls of pawnbrokers and the red and white barber's pole. Of the signs identified with specific trades, some of these evolved into trademarks; this suggests that the early history of commercial signage is intimately tied up with the history of branding and labelling. Recent research suggests. One well-documented early, example of a developed brand associated with retail signage is that of the White Rabbit brand of sewing needles, from China's Song Dynasty period.
A copper printing plate used to print posters contained message, which translates as: “Jinan Liu’s Fine Needle Shop: We buy high quality steel rods and make fine quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time.” The plate includes a trademark in the form of a'White Rabbit" which signified good luck and was relevant to the primary purchasers, women with limited literacy. Details in the image show a white rabbit crushing herbs, included advice to shoppers to look for the stone white rabbit in front of the maker's shop. Thus, the image served as an early form of brand recognition. Eckhart and Bengtsson have argued that during the Song Dynasty, Chinese society developed a consumerist culture, where a high level of consumption was attainable for a wide variety of ordinary consumers rather than just the elite; the rise of a consumer culture prompted the commercial investment in managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and sophisticated brand concepts. During the Medieval period, the use of signboards was optional for traders.
However, publicans were on a different footing. As early as the 14th century, English law compelled innkeepers and landlords to exhibit signs from the late 14th-century. In 1389, King Richard II of England compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises; the legislation stated "Whosoever shall brew ale in the town with intention of selling it must hang out a sign, otherwise he shall forfeit his ale." Legislation was intended to make public houses visible to passing inspectors of the quality of the ale they provided. In 1393 a publican was prosecuted for failing to display signs; the practice of using signs spread to other types of commercial establishments throughout the Middle Ages. Similar legislation was enacted in Europe. For instance, in France edicts were issued 1567 and 1577, compelling innkeepers and tavern-keepers to erect signs. Large towns, where many premises practiced the same trade, where thes
The Chapman Stick is an electric musical instrument devised by Emmett Chapman in the early 1970s. A member of the guitar family, the Chapman Stick has ten or twelve individually tuned strings and has been used on music recordings to play bass lines, melody lines, chords, or textures. Designed as a polyphonic chordal instrument, it can cover several of these musical parts simultaneously. A Stick looks like a wide version of the fretboard of an electric guitar, but with 8, 10 or 12 strings, it is, however longer and wider than a guitar fretboard. Unlike the electric guitar, it is played by tapping or fretting the strings, rather than plucking them. Instead of one hand fretting and the other hand plucking, both hands sound notes by striking the strings against the fingerboard just behind the appropriate frets for the desired notes. For this reason, it can sound many more notes at once than some other stringed instruments, making it more comparable to a keyboard instrument than to other stringed instruments.
This arrangement lends itself to playing many lines at once, many Stick players have mastered performing bass and melody lines simultaneously. The Chapman Stick is held via a belt-hook and a shoulder strap; the player hooks the instrument onto the belt and places the head and dominant arm through the shoulder strap. The instrument settles into a position 30 to 40 degrees from vertical, which allows both of the player's hands to and comfortably address the fretboard; the player hammers onto the strings with the fingertips in the same way that one would strike a piano key. The technique is similar to that of the piano inasmuch as the player covers both bass and melody notes together with both hands, each note is struck with one finger of one hand. One hand plays the melody on the treble strings and the other plays rhythm on the bass strings. In recent years, a seated playing position has become somewhat popular wherein a cross-member is laid upon the knees of the seated player and the stick's belthook rests upon the crossmember.
In 1969, jazz guitarist Emmett Chapman developed the two-handed tapping technique and applied it to his playing. At the time, Chapman was playing a 9-string long-scale guitar, but decided to develop a new instrument for use with "free hands" to use the method's full potential; the Chapman Stick took five years to develop, during which Chapman opted to set up a business to sell it. The first production model of the Stick was launched in 1974. On October 10 of the same year, Chapman brought his instrument to public attention by demonstrating it on the game show What's My Line? Former Weather Report bassist Alphonso Johnson was among the first musicians to introduce the Chapman Stick to the public. Session player Tony Levin was an early user and was playing the instrument from the mid-1970s: he would bring it to sessions and tours with Peter Gabriel, featured it in his work as a member of King Crimson from 1981 onwards, he would use it with Liquid Tension Experiment and in sessions for bands including Pink Floyd and Yes.
Levin formed the band Stick Men. Recordings that have been influential on Stick players, because of the prominent role the Stick plays, include the 1981 King Crimson album Discipline and Emmett Chapman's own album Parallel Galaxy. Amy Grant's hit single "Angels" featured a Stick solo; the Stick made a disguised appearance in David Lynch's film, Dune as Gurney Halleck's baliset, although the scene where Halleck plays the instrument was removed from the theatrical version and can only be seen in the extended versions. The piece being played in the scene is from Emmett Chapman's recording of his original song "Back Yard" from a cassette recording. Wayne Lytle, creator of Animusic, commented that on his piece "Stick Figures", his inspiration for the semi-anthropomorphic bass guitar was the Chapman Stick. Chapman Sticks have been made from many materials; the first were made from hardwoods, most from ironwood, but some from ebony and other exotic woods, until the early 1980s. The next group was made from an injection-molded polycarbonate resin through 1989.
These were followed by one-piece hardwood structures with an adjustable truss rod, for a time from 2001 to mid-to-late 2000s the "Stick XG" made of structural graphite, continuous strand carbon fiber. Today, they are made from laminated hardwoods, laminated bamboo, as well as graphite. In contrast to the guitar or bass, the Stick is set up with little relief in the fretboard, it is flat compared to a guitar, which has a slight bow. Combined with a long scale length, stainless steel pyramidal fret rails low string action, sensitive pickups, this setup is advantageous to the tapping style of play; the rear surface of the instrument has deep-beveled edges. The original tuning consists of 5 bass strings, tuned upwards in all-fifths tuning, with the low string in the middle of the fretboard, 5 melody strings, tuned upwards in all-fourths tuning, again with the low string in the middle of the fretboard; the hardware is adjustable to accommodate any gauge string at any position. On the 36"-scale instrument notes can range from low C to high D (a whole step below
United States Department of Transportation
The United States Department of Transportation is a federal Cabinet department of the U. S. government concerned with transportation. It was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, began operation on April 1, 1967, it is governed by the United States Secretary of Transportation. Prior to the Department of Transportation, the Under Secretary of Commerce for Transportation administered the functions now associated with the DOT. In 1965, Najeeb Halaby, administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency – the future Federal Aviation Administration – suggested to U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that transportation be elevated to a cabinet-level post, that the FAA be folded into the DOT. Federal Aviation Administration Federal Highway Administration Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Federal Railroad Administration Federal Transit Administration Maritime Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Office of Inspector General Office of the Secretary of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Bureau of Transportation Statistics Transportation Security Administration – transferred to Department of Homeland Security in 2003 United States Coast Guard – transferred to Department of Homeland Security in 2003 Surface Transportation Board – spun off as an independent federal agency in 2015 In 2012, the DOT awarded $742.5 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to 11 transit projects.
The awardees include light rail projects. Other projects include both a commuter rail extension and a subway project in New York City, a bus rapid transit system in Springfield, Oregon; the funds subsidize a heavy rail project in northern Virginia, completing the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority's Metro Silver Line to connect Washington, D. C. and the Washington Dulles International Airport. President Barack Obama's budget request for fiscal year 2010 included $1.83 billion in funding for major transit projects, of which more than $600 million went towards 10 new or expanding transit projects. The budget provided additional funding for all of the projects receiving Recovery Act funding, except for the bus rapid transit project, it continued funding for another 18 transit projects that are either under construction or soon will be. Following the same the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014 delegates $600 million for Infrastructure Investments, referred to as Discretionary Grants.
The Department of Transportation was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2016 of $75.1 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act FOIA requests, published in 2015, the Department of Transportation earned a D by scoring 65 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations American Highway Users Alliance National Highway System National Transportation Safety Board Passenger vehicles in the United States Transportation in the United States United States Federal Maritime Commission Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Official website United States Department of Transportation in the Federal Register This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Transportation
In animal anatomy, the mouth known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth; this cavity is known as the buccal cavity, from the Latin bucca. Some animal phyla, including vertebrates, have a complete digestive system, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Which end forms first in ontogeny is a criterion used to classify animals into protostomes and deuterostomes. In the first multicellular animals, there was no mouth or gut and food particles were engulfed by the cells on the exterior surface by a process known as endocytosis; the particles became enclosed in vacuoles into which enzymes were secreted and digestion took place intracellularly. The digestive products were diffused into other cells; this form of digestion is used nowadays by simple organisms such as Amoeba and Paramecium and by sponges which, despite their large size, have no mouth or gut and capture their food by endocytosis.
The vast majority of other multicellular organisms have a mouth and a gut, the lining of, continuous with the epithelial cells on the surface of the body. A few animals which live parasitically had guts but have secondarily lost these structures; the original gut of multicellular organisms consisted of a simple sac with a single opening, the mouth. Many modern invertebrates have such a system, food being ingested through the mouth broken down by enzymes secreted in the gut, the resulting particles engulfed by the other cells in the gut lining. Indigestible waste is ejected through the mouth. In animals at least as complex as an earthworm, the embryo forms a dent on one side, the blastopore, which deepens to become the archenteron, the first phase in the formation of the gut. In deuterostomes, the blastopore becomes the anus while the gut tunnels through to make another opening, which forms the mouth. In the protostomes, it used to be thought that the blastopore formed the mouth while the anus formed as an opening made by the other end of the gut.
More recent research, shows that in protostomes the edges of the slit-like blastopore close up in the middle, leaving openings at both ends that become the mouth and anus. Apart from sponges and placozoans all animals have an internal gut cavity, lined with gastrodermal cells. In less advanced invertebrates such as the sea anemone, the mouth acts as an anus. Circular muscles around the mouth are able to contract in order to open or close it. A fringe of tentacles thrusts food into the cavity and it can gape enough to accommodate large prey items. Food passes first into a pharynx and digestion occurs extracellularly in the gastrovascular cavity. Annelids have simple tube-like gets and the possession of an anus allows them to separate the digestion of their foodstuffs from the absorption of the nutrients. Many molluscs have a radula, used to scrape microscopic particles off surfaces. In invertebrates with hard exoskeletons, various mouthparts may be involved in feeding behaviour. Insects have a range of mouthparts suited to their mode of feeding.
These include mandibles and labium and can be modified into suitable appendages for chewing, piercing and sucking. Decapods have six pairs of mouth appendages, one pair of mandibles, two pairs of maxillae and three of maxillipeds. Sea urchins have a set of five sharp calcareous plates which are used as jaws and are known as Aristotle's lantern. In vertebrates, the first part of the digestive system is the buccal cavity known as the mouth; the buccal cavity of a fish is separated from the opercular cavity by the gills. Water flows in through passes over the gills and exits via the operculum or gill slits. Nearly all fish have jaws and may seize food with them but most feed by opening their jaws, expanding their pharynx and sucking in food items; the food may be held or chewed by teeth located in the jaws, on the roof of the mouth, on the pharynx or on the gill arches. Nearly all amphibians are carnivorous as adults. Many catch their prey by flicking out an elongated tongue with a sticky tip and drawing it back into the mouth where they hold the prey with their jaws.
They swallow their food whole without much chewing. They have many small hinged pedicellate teeth, the bases of which are attached to the jaws while the crowns break off at intervals and are replaced. Most amphibians have one or two rows of teeth in both jaws but some frogs lack teeth in the lower jaw. In many amphibians there are vomerine teeth attached to the bone in the roof of the mouth; the mouths of reptiles are similar to those of mammals. The crocodilians are the only reptiles to have teeth anchored in sockets in their jaws, they are able to replace each of their 80 teeth up to 50 times during their lives. Most reptiles are either carnivorous or insectivorous but turtles are herbivorous. Lacking teeth that are suitable for efficiently chewing of their food, turtles have gastroliths in their stomach to further grind the plant material. Snakes have a flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, numerous other joints in their skull; these modifications allow them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole if it is wider than they are.
Birds do not have teeth, macerating their food. Their beaks have a range of sizes and shapes according to their diet and are compose
The Leo Petroglyph is a sandstone petroglyph containing 37 images of humans and other animals as well as footprints of each. The petroglyph is located near the small village of Leo, Ohio and is thought to have been created by the Fort Ancient peoples; the area in which the sandstone petroglyph was found is on the edge of an unglaciated Mississippian sandstone cliff 20–65 feet high. To this day, the meanings of the drawings are unknown. On November 10, 1970, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the site is maintained by the Ohio History Connection. "Leo Petroglyphs & Nature Preserve". Ohio Historical Society. Labadie, John. "The Rock Art of Ohio: A Look into the Past and an Agenda for the Future". Ohio Archaeologist. 42: 10–5. Hdl:1811/55903. Koch, Arthur Richard. Floristics and ecology of algae on sandstone cliffs in east- central and southeastern Ohio. Ohio State University. OCLC 973336298