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Stigmata, in Christianity, are the appearance of bodily wounds and pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands and feet. An individual bearing the wounds of stigmata is a stigmatic. In Galatians 6:17, Saint Paul says: Τοῦ λοιποῦ κόπους μοι μηδεὶς παρεχέτω· ἐγὼ γὰρ τὰ στίγματα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματί μου βαστάζω. From henceforth let no man trouble me: for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. A stígma is a mark on the skin. Stigmata are associated with Roman Catholicism. Many reported stigmatics are members of Catholic religious orders. St. Francis of Assisi was the first recorded stigmatic. For over fifty years, St. Padre Pio of Pietrelcina of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin reported stigmata which were studied by several 20th-century physicians. Stigmata are notably foreign to the Eastern Orthodox Church, which professes no official view on the matter. A high percentage of all stigmatics are women. In his Stigmata: A Medieval Phenomenon in a Modern Age, Ted Harrison suggests that there is no single mechanism whereby the marks of stigmata were produced.

What is important is that the marks are recognised by others as of religious significance. Most cases of stigmata have been debunked as trickery; some cases have included reportings of a mysterious chalice in visions being given to stigmatics to drink from or the feeling of a sharp sword being driven into one's chest. Reported cases of stigmata take various forms. Many show some or all of five Holy Wounds that were, according to the Bible, inflicted on Jesus during his crucifixion: wounds in the wrists and feet, from nails; some stigmatics display wounds to the forehead similar to those caused by the Crown of Thorns. Stigmata as crown of thorns appearing in the 20th century, e.g. on Marie Rose Ferron, have been photographed. Other reported forms include tears of blood or sweating blood, wounds to the back as from scourging. Many stigmata show recurring bleeding that stops and starts, at times after receiving Holy Communion. A high percentage of stigmatics exhibit inedia, claiming to live with minimal food or water for long periods of time, except for the Holy Eucharist.

Some exhibit weight loss, closer investigation reveals evidence of fakery. Some stigmatics claim to feel the pain of wounds with no external marks; some stigmatics' wounds do not appear to clot, seem to stay fresh and uninfected. The blood from the wounds is said, in some cases, to have a pleasant, perfumed odor, known as the Odour of Sanctity. Individuals who have obtained the stigmata are many times described as ecstatics, overwhelmed with emotions upon receiving the stigmata. No case of stigmata is known to have occurred before the thirteenth century. In his paper Hospitality and Pain, Christian theologian Ivan Illich states: "Compassion with Christ... is faith so strong and so incarnate that it leads to the individual embodiment of the contemplated pain." His thesis is that stigmata result from exceptional poignancy of religious faith and desire to associate oneself with the suffering Messiah. St. Francis of Assisi is the first recorded stigmatic in Christian history. In 1224, two years before his death, he embarked on a journey to Mount La Verna for a forty-day fast.

The legend states that one morning, near the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, a six-winged angel appeared to Francis while he prayed. As the angel approached, Francis could see, he was humbled by the sight, his heart was filled with elation joined by pain and suffering. When the angel departed, Francis was left with wounds in his hands and side as if caused by the same lance that pierced Christ’s side; the image of nails appeared in his hands and feet, the wound in his side seeped blood. In traditional artistic depictions of the incident, Francis is accompanied by a Franciscan brother. St. Francis' first biographer, Thomas of Celano, reports the event as follows in his 1230 First Life of St. Francis: When the blessed servant of God saw these things he was filled with wonder, but he did not know what the vision meant, he rejoiced in the benign and gracious expression with which he saw himself regarded by the seraph, whose beauty was indescribable. Thus Francis rose, one might say and happy, joy and grief alternating in him.

He wondered anxiously what this vision could mean, his soul was uneasy as it searched for understanding. And as his understanding sought in vain for an explanation and his heart was filled with perplexity at the great novelty of this vision, the marks of nails began to appear in his hands and feet, just as he had seen them earlier in the crucified man above him, his wrists and feet seemed to be pierced by nails, with the heads of the nails appearing on his wrists and on the upper sides of his feet, the points appearing on the other side. The marks were round on the palm of each hand but elongated on the other side, small pieces of flesh jutting out from the rest took on the appearance of the nail-ends and driven back. In the same way the marks of nails were impressed on his feet and projected beyond the rest of the flesh. Moreover, his right side had a large wound as if it had been pierced with a spear, it bled so that his tunic and trousers were s

Over Bridge

Over Bridge known as Telford's Bridge, is a single span stone arch bridge spanning the canalised West Channel of the River Severn near Gloucester. It links Over to Alney Island. Although there was a crossing at Over recorded in the Domesday Book, this famous bridge was built by Thomas Telford between 1825 and 1828, to carry traffic east-west, it was opened in 1830 and remained in use for traffic until 1974. Until the Severn Bridge was built in the 1960s this was the lowest point downstream that the Severn could be crossed by road bridge; the arch spans 150 feet, was based on Jean-Rodolphe Perronet's 1774 design for a bridge over the River Seine at Neuilly. It combines both an elliptical profile over most of the soffit with a segmental profile at its faces; this feature is known as a corne de vache. When built, the arch sank by 2 inches when its timber centering was removed, another 8 inches due to settlement of the arch foundations. Today it is a pedestrian-only bridge, is in the guardianship of Historic England as a Scheduled Ancient Monument reference number 1015873.

Road traffic on the A40 crosses the Severn on a new bridge upstream of it. This is the last road bridge over the Severn before the Severn Crossings, was the most downstream free crossing until the Severn Bridge and Second Severn Crossing became free in December 2018, although the Severn Bridge had free access for pedestrians and mopeds and, as stated, there is no vehicular access to Over Bridge. Connected by Segregated Bicycle Paths around Alney Island, to Highnam and Gloucester; the Over Bridge can be seen on the train travelling from Gloucester on the way to Lydney or Chepstow on the South Wales Railway. Crossings of the River Severn Cragg, R. Civil Engineering Heritage: Wales & West Central England, Thomas Telford Publishing, 2nd edn. 1997 Witts, C. A Century of Bridges, River Severn Publications, 2nd edn. 1998 Over Bridge page at English Heritage Over Bridge on the BBC website

Robert Steele (politician)

Robert Steele was Commissioner and President Pro Tempore for the 2nd district of Cook County, covering the West Side of Chicago. As Cook County Board Commissioner, Steele voted to uphold a 1.5% 2008 Cook County sales tax increase, remaining the highest in the nation which led the Chicago Tribune to encourage voters to vote against him in the 2010 elections. Until his death in 2017, Steele was chairman of board of Frazier Preparatory Academy, he was born in Cook County Hospital, Illinois on June 29, 1961, to Robert and Bobbie L. Steele, his mother had been both Cook County Commissioner and Board President. Steele is a graduate of the Morgan State University in Maryland. Steele died on June 2017 due to complications related to diabetes. Cook County Board of Commissioners profile

Brittle–ductile transition zone

The brittle-ductile transition zone is the strongest part of the Earth's crust. For quartz and feldspar rich rocks in continental crust this occurs at an approximate depth of 13–18 km. At this depth rock becomes less to fracture, more to deform ductilely by creep; this happens because the brittle strength of a material is increased by the confining pressure, whilst the ductile strength of a material decreases with increasing temperature. The transition zone occurs at the level in the crust where the downwards increasing brittle strength equals the upwards increasing ductile strength, giving a characteristic "saw-tooth" crustal strength profile; this zone is, the strongest part of the crust and the depth at which many earthquakes occur. The level of the transition zone depends on both strain rate and temperature gradient, being shallower for slow deformation and/or high heat flow and deeper for fast deformation and/or low heat flow. Crustal composition will affect the depth at which this zone occurs.

Sections of fault zones once active in the transition zone, now exposed at the surface have a complex overprinting of brittle and ductile rock types. Cataclasites or pseudotachylite breccias with mylonite clasts are common, as are ductilely deformed cataclasites and pseudotachylites. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature in materials science – Material ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture Seismogenic layer A. G. Duba; the Brittle-Ductile Transition in Rocks: The Heard Volume. American Geophysical Union. ISBN 978-0-87590-025-4. Rolandone, F.. "The evolution of the seismic-aseismic transition during the earthquake cycle: Constraints from the time-dependent depth distribution of aftershocks", Geophysical Research Letters, 31: L23610, Bibcode:2004GeoRL..3123610R, doi:10.1029/2004GL021379

James Rosapepe

James Carew Rosapepe is an American politician from Maryland and a member of the Democratic Party. He is serving in his third four-year term in the Maryland State Senate, representing Maryland's District 21 in Prince George's and Anne Arundel Counties. From 1998 to 2001, he served as the United States Ambassador to Romania. Rosapepe was born in Italy, he was first elected to the Maryland House of Delegates in 1986, serving 2 full and one partial terms before being appointed as Ambassador to Romania in early 1998 during the Clinton administration. An internal State Department report was critical of Rosapepe's leadership and management during this ambassadorial service, while crediting him with several accomplishments. Upon his recall from Romania, Rosapepe was appointed to serve on the Board of Regents of the University System of Maryland, he left that board to run against incumbent Senator John Giannetti in District 21. Rosapepe defeated the incumbent senator, John Giannetti, in the 2006 election for Maryland State Senator in District 21.

Giannetti had been accused of being too conservative by many Democrats for his position against an assault weapons ban in Maryland. After his defeat in the primary election, Giannetti switched parties to run against Rosapepe as a Republican, was again defeated. Rosapepe was criticized in the 2006 campaign for overstating his fundraising success by over $30,000. Rosapepe sits on the Education and Environmental Affairs Committee and serves as a Deputy Majority Whip, he was unopposed in the 2014 elections. "Maryland Manual Online". Maryland State Archives. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-08. Jim Rosapepe is co-author of "Dracula is Dead: How Romanians Survived Communism, Ended it, Emerged as the New Italy Since 1989". Retrieved 2009-08-25

Head of the Family

Head of the Family is a 1996 b movie black comedy released by Full Moon Features. It concerns a Southern couple who blackmail a family of mutants to get revenge. Howard is the meanest nastiest thug in a Harley riding criminal with a hot wife Loretta. Loretta's problem is she's having an affair with Lance, owner of the town diner and Howard's getting suspicious. Driving back from one of their nightly flings, Lance witnesses the local family of weirdos, the Stackpools, dragging a man from his truck and into their house. Seeing this as an opportunity, Lance discovers the Stackpools terrible secret, they are quintuplets but instead of being born as a normal human, they each have one of the traits of one human being: One is strong. The whole family is run by the one who has super intelligence, the'head of the family' from the title, Myron. Little more than a giant head with hands in a wheelchair, Myron psychically controls his other siblings, but seeks more; when idiotic locals fall for his trap, he experiments on their brains, trying to find a normal body to house his superior intellect.

Lance blackmails the Stackpools with their secret, getting them to kill Howard and demanding $2,000 a week in cash. Myron tires of Lance's bottom-feeding, captures him and Loretta, to get them to destroy the evidence of their secret. To force Lance's hand, he puts Loretta in a mock play of Joan of Arc in the basement, complete with a burning at the stake; the dumb strong one, seeing the'pretty girl' in trouble, carries her off before she can be hurt, burns the house down. With the Stackpools and Lance dead, the scheming Loretta realizes that the big dumb one is the heir to the family riches, she marries him inheriting all the Stackpool fortunes. The ending, suggests that Myron is still alive and is controlling the dumb one again.... On June 25, 2008, director Charles Band announced that he would be making a sequel entitled Bride of the Head of the Family; the sequel had been intended to be made in the late 1990s, but the plans for the film fell through. This version never came into fruition. Head of the Family on IMDb