click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stilt

Stilt is a common name for several species of birds in the family Recurvirostridae, which includes those known as avocets. They are found in saline wetlands in warm or hot climates, they have long legs, hence the group name, long thin bills. Stilts feed on aquatic insects and other small creatures and nest on the ground surface in loose colonies. Most sources recognize 6 species in 2 genera, although the white-backed and Hawaiian stilts are considered subspecies of the black-necked stilt; the genus Charadrius was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 with the black-winged stilt as the type species. The generic name Himantopus comes from the Ancient Greek meaning "strap-leg"; the genus Himantopus contains five species: Black-winged stilt, Himantopus himantopus White-backed stilt, Himantopus melanurus Pied stilt, Himantopus leucocephalus Black-necked stilt, Himantopus mexicanus Hawaiian stilt or aeʻo, Himantopus mexicanus knudseni Black stilt, Himantopus novaezelandiaeThe genus Cladorhynchus is monotypic and contains a single species: Banded stilt, Cladorhynchus leucocephalusA fossil stilt has been described by Bickart, 1990, as Himantopus olsoni, based on remains recovered in the Late Miocene Big Sandy Formation of Wickieup, United States.

Media related to Stilt at Wikimedia Commons

Pushback

In aviation, pushback is an airport procedure during which an aircraft is pushed backwards away from an airport gate by external power. Pushbacks are carried out by low-profile vehicles called pushback tractors or tugs. Although many aircraft are capable of moving themselves backwards on the ground using reverse thrust, the resulting jet blast or prop wash might cause damage to the terminal building or equipment. Engines close to the ground may blow sand and debris forward and suck them into the engine, causing damage to the engine. A pushback is therefore the preferred method to move the aircraft away from the gate. Pushbacks at busy aerodromes are subject to ground control clearance to facilitate ground movement on taxiways. Once clearance is obtained, the pilot will communicate with the tractor driver to start the pushback. To communicate, a headset may be connected near the nose gear. Since the pilots cannot see what is behind the aircraft, steering is done by the pushback tractor driver and not by the pilots.

Depending on the aircraft type and airline procedure, a bypass pin may be temporarily installed into the nose gear to disconnect it from the aircraft's normal steering mechanism. Once the pushback is completed, the towbar is disconnected, any bypass pin removed; the ground handler will show the bypass pin to the pilots to make it clear. The pushback is complete, the aircraft can taxi forward under its own power. Small airplanes may be moved by human power alone; the airplane may be pushed or pulled by landing gear, wing struts, or the propeller blades, since they're known to be strong enough to drag the airplane through the air. To allow for turns, a person may either pick up or push down on the tail to raise either the nose wheel or tail wheel off the ground rotate the airplane by hand. A less cumbersome method involves attaching a short tow bar to either the nose wheel or tail wheel, which provides a solid handhold and leverage to steer with, as well as eliminates the danger of handling the propeller.

These tow bars are a lightweight aluminum alloy construction which allows them to be carried on board the airplane. Other small tow bars have a powered wheel to help move the airplane, with power sources as diverse as lawnmower engines or battery-operated electric drills. However, powered tow bars are too large and heavy to be carried on small airplanes. Large aircraft must have a tractor or tug. Pushback tractors use a low profile design to fit under the aircraft nose. For sufficient traction the tractor must be heavy, most models can have extra ballast added. A typical tractor for large aircraft weighs up to 54 tonnes and has a drawbar pull of 334 kN; the driver's cabin can be raised for increased visibility when reversing and lowered to fit under aircraft. There are two types of pushback tractors: towbarless. Conventional tugs use a tow bar to connect the tug to the nose landing gear of the aircraft; the tow bar is fixed laterally at the nose landing gear, but may move vertically for height adjustment.

At the end that attaches to the tug, the tow bar may pivot laterally and vertically. In this manner the tow bar acts as a large lever to rotate the nose landing gear; each aircraft type has a unique tow fitting so the towbar acts as an adapter between the standard-sized tow pin on the tug and the type-specific fitting on the aircraft's landing gear. The tow bar must be long enough to place the tug far away enough to avoid hitting the aircraft and to provide sufficient leverage to facilitate turns. On heavy tow bars for large aircraft the towbar rides on its own wheels when not connected to an aircraft; the wheels are attached to a hydraulic jacking mechanism which can lift the towbar to the correct height to mate to both the airplane and the tug, once this is accomplished the same mechanism is used in reverse to raise the tow bar wheels from the ground during the pushback process. The tow bar can be connected at the front or the rear of the tractor, depending on whether the aircraft will be pushed or pulled.

The towbar has a shear pin. Towbarless tractors do not use a towbar; this avoids the time penalty of connecting/disconnecting a towbar, removes the cost/complexity of maintaining towbars on the ramp. The tug itself does not need to be massive - the aircraft's nosewheel weight provides the necessary downward force. Lastly, a TBL tug is much shorter and has one only a single pivot point instead of one at either end of the towbar, so it has much simpler and precise control of the aircraft; this is useful in general aviation settings with a wider variety of aircraft in more confined spaces than their airline counterparts. Manufacturers of electric TBL tugs offer models capable of moving any aircraft from the smallest single-engine type to narrow-body airliners, military cargo and airline-sized business jets. Just as specialized towbars are required for a wide range of aircraft, many TBL tugs use adapters which enable the movement of many unique aircraft; the majority of aircraft do not require adapters and can be moved without any special adjustments to the tug.

This is in contrast to conventional tugs which use so-called "universal" towbars which must be adjustable to suit many aircraft types. Electric TBL tugs ar

On the Independence of Ukraine

On the Independence of Ukraine is a controversial poem by Joseph Brodsky written in the early 1990s, on the occasion of the 1991 Declaration of Independence of Ukraine and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union. In the poem, Brodsky, in angry and insulting words expressed his feelings about the breach between the Ukrainian and Russian peoples; the poem was never published. Known only from private manuscripts, it received publicity after it was published by Ukrainian nationalists as a demonstration of Brodsky's Russian nationalist views. For quite some time, the authorship of the poem was disputed due to striking differences in style, e.g. by human rights activist Alexander Daniel, though Daniel admitted his mistake. A video of Brodsky's public reading of the poem in the Palo Alto Jewish community center on October 30, 1992 was published online by a Boris Vladimirsky

Wuqiu Lighthouse

The Wuqiu Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Daqiu Village, Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Fujian Province, Republic of China. The lighthouse was constructed by the Netherlands in 1874 with engineer David Marr Henderson and deputy engineer John Ropinald to serve as navigation aid for ships sailing between Fuzhou and Xiamen; the lighthouse lost its top structure during World War II and was repaired afterwards to become a lower black lighthouse in 1947. However, the lighthouse became inactive in 1951 as part of military strategy due to the tension with People's Liberation Army. In 1960-1975, works were made to improve the lighthouse, such as concreting the wall, increasing its height, adding house inside the wall and creating a connecting tunnel. In 2001, the lighthouse was closed after it was placed under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China Armed Forces. On 23 July 2017, the Maritime and Port Bureau signed an agreement with the armed forces to take over the lighthouse; the Wuqiu Township government is trying to register the lighthouse to be a national historic site.

The lighthouse tower is a cylindrical tower with gallery. It is located on the highest point of Daqiu Island; this manned-lighthouse focal plane is 87 meters. 1885 - C. M. Peterson and J. Chapman List of tourist attractions in Taiwan List of lighthouses in Taiwan Maritime and Port Bureau MOTC Picture of Wuqiu Lighthouse

Milena Rudnytska

Milena Rudnytska was a Ukrainian educator, women's activist and writer. One of the most influential voices in the interwar period of the Galician women's movement leadership, she published articles in various periodicals; as a member of the Polish Sejm between 1928 and 1935, she brought issues of suppression by government authorities to the world stage, including the Polish regime's efforts to repress the culture of minority Ukrainians and the Soviet regime's denial of starvation in Ukraine during the famine of 1932-1933. With the Soviet and Nazi occupations of Ukraine, Rudnytska fled the country and remained an exile for the remainder of her days, publishing books and articles as she moved throughout Europe and the United States. Milena Rudnytska was born on 15 July 1892 in Zboriv, Galicia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire to Olga and Ivan Rudnytsky; the third child and only daughter in the family of intellectuals. Rudnytska's father descended from the Ukrainian gentry and after finishing a law degree at Lviv University, worked as a notary in western Ukraine.

Her mother, was from a Galician Jewish family of merchants. Their union had been opposed by both of their families and the couple delayed marrying for a decade, because one could not marry before age twenty-four without parental consent; when Ida left home, converted to Christianity and changed her name to Olga, the two married and subsequently had five children: Myhailo, a philologist. Rudnytska's family spoke Polish at home and her mother never gained a proficiency with Ukrainian, though she raised her children as Ukraininan nationals. Close to her father, Rudnytska was profoundly affected by his death in 1906, which precipitated the family move to Lviv, she undertook her primary lessons at home, but attended the Classical Gymnasium of Lviv and in 1910 entered Lviv University to study philosophy graduating with a teaching degree in philosophy and mathematics. During World War I the family lived in Vienna, where Rudnytska studied at the University of Vienna until 1917 receiving a degree in pedagogy and though she began work on a doctoral program, she did not complete it.

Rudnytska began working as a journalist on the biweekly editorial Наша Мета in 1918. The following year, she married Pavlo Lysiak a lawyer politician who had studied at Lviv and was living in Austria. By the end of the year, the couple had their only child and their home became a gathering place for leaders of the Ukrainian intellectual community living in Vienna. Back home in Galicia the Polish–Ukrainian War had resulted in a territorial transfer to the Polish state and adoption of policies to suppress minority populations. Though Rudnytska supported the Ukrainian national movement, she felt that women had been assigned inferior roles, she began to focus her attention on organizing women and involving them in raising the civic consciousness of a Ukrainian Nation. Returning to Lviv in 1920, Rudnytska and her husband soon separated, her son, raised among her family, subsequently adopted her surname as his own. Rudnytska became one of the leading activists of the Ukrainian Women's Union, which she helped found in 1920 and along with other members of the leadership, including Olena Fedak Sheparovych, Iryna Sichynska, Olga Tsipanovska and others, organized women's journals and cooperatives.

Around the same time, in 1921 she began working in the Teacher's Seminary and worked at the Higher Pedagogical Institute, both in Lviv, but in 1928, she stopped teaching and turned her focus to social and political issues. Having joined the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, Rudnytska was elected to serve in the Polish Sejm in 1928 as a party representative, serving through 1935; that same year, she was elected as president of the Woman's Union and served in that capacity until 1939. Until 1939, she continued her journalistic endeavors as well publishing with several feminist journals like, Woman-citizen, Ukrainian Woman and edited the woman's page of the Ukrainian daily newspaper Action. In Parliament, Rudnytska was a staunch advocate for Ukraine and criticized the Polish authorities for suppressing Ukrainian culture including their schools and religious institutions. Serving on committees for education and foreign affairs, she gave many speeches and was known as a charismatic orator.

In 1931, she was one of three delegates from Ukraine to present the case against the Polish officials to the League of Nations, calling the suppression a "pacification campaign" to silence the Ukrainian minority population. She was invited to speak on the issue at the British House Of Commons. During the 1932-1933 famine she was elected vice chair of the Public Rescue Committee, organized meetings including politicians and educators to address the issue and provide famine relief. Through her international ties with women's organizations, Rudnytska was selected to seek international aid support and bring the situation to the attention of the League of Nations. On 29 September 1933, in Geneva 14 countries met and Rudnytska along with the other members of the Ukrainian delegation presented their findings about the famine and the need for international assistance. After several hours, the League decision was that the famine was an internal problem of the USSR, not a member of the League and therefore no help would be forthcoming.

The delegation turned toward the International Committee of the Red Cross

A Long Way Home

A Long Way Home is the ninth studio album of new recordings by Dwight Yoakam. It reached No. 11 on the Billboard Country Album, with two of its tracks charting on the Hot Country Singles chart. "Things Change" reached No. 17, while "These Arms" peaked at No. 57. Yoakam wrote all the songs on the album himself. All songs written by Dwight Yoakam. "Same Fool" – 3:03 "The Curse" – 2:33 "Things Change" – 3:45 "Yet to Succeed" – 3:19 "I Wouldn't Put It Past Me" – 2:38 "These Arms" – 3:31 "That's Okay" – 2:26 "Only Want You More" – 3:22 "I'll Just Take These" – 2:49 "A Long Way Home" – 2:55 "Listen" – 3:47 "Traveler's Lantern" – 3:25 "Maybe You Like It, Maybe You Don't" – 4:20 Dwight Yoakam – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Beth Andersen – background vocals Pete Anderson – hand claps, finger snaps, electric guitar, lap steel guitar, acoustic guitar Jim Christie – drums Chuck Domanico – upright bass Skip Edwards – keyboards, Hammond B-3 organ, Wurlitzer Tommy Funderburk – background vocals Carl Jackson – background vocals Scott Jossfiddle Jim Lauderdale – background vocals Dean Parks – acoustic guitar Taras Prodaniuk – bass guitar Marty Rifkin – Dobro, pedal steel guitar Bonnie Bramlett Sheridan – background vocals Ralph Stanleybanjo, background vocals "Tempo" – percussionStrings conducted by Murray Adler and conducted by Jimmy Boyd