Tanzania–United States relations
Tanzania – United States relations are bilateral relations between Tanzania and the United States. Much of the relationship between Tanzania and the United States has been framed first by the Cold War, more in the context of US policies toward Africa and development. At times relations between the two countries have been tense, though in recent years the two countries have established a growing partnership. Much early tension in the relationship is rooted in Tanzania's interests in promoting anti-colonial liberation forces in southern Africa, the United States interests in protecting markets and business interests in Africa; these interests were in conflict between 1961, the late 1980s. Since the late 1980s, relations between the United States and Tanzania have improved as a result of mutual interests in debt relief, successive refugee crises, the liberation of southern African countries, an improving Tanzanian economy. Terrorists associated with Al Qaeda bombed the U. S. Embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi, Kenya, on August 7, 1998.
This act horrified Tanzanians and Americans alike and drew condemnation from around the world. In the aftermath of the bombing, Tanzania began to receive financial aide from the US for anti-terrorist efforts and police training. President Benjamin Mkapa visited the U. S. in September 1999 with a delegation of business executives, reflecting the increased level of cooperation on trade and investment issues and Tanzania's commitment to economic liberalization. President Jakaya Kikwete, elected in 2005, visited the U. S. in May 2006, meeting with Secretary of State Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney, President George W. Bush, he met President Bush in a private meeting in September 2006 In New York. Kikwete sought to broaden Tanzanian ties to the U. S. across all spheres, including political and military. The U. S. Government provides assistance to Tanzania to support programs in the areas of health, environment and development of the private sector; the U. S. Agency for International Development's program in Tanzania averages about $20 million per year, a small amount.
The Peace Corps program, which discontinued in Tanzania due to objections to the United States involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s, was re-established in 1979, provides assistance in education through the provision of teachers. Peace Corps is assisting in health and environment sectors. About 147 volunteers are serving in Tanzania. First Lady Laura Bush visited Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar in mid-July 2005. Principal U. S. Officials include: Ambassador--Alfonso E. Lenhardt Director, USAID--Pamela WhiteThe U. S. Embassy in Tanzania is located in Dar es Salaam; the consulate on Zanzibar was closed on June 15, 1979. Foreign relations of Tanzania Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Tanzania - U. S. relations Waters, Tony. Markets and Morality: America's Relations with Tanzania. African Studies Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 3
Somalia–United States relations
Somalia–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Federal Republic of Somalia and the United States of America. Somalia has an embassy in Washington, D. C. while the United States is represented through its embassy in Nairobi, due to the security situation in Somalia. Somalia had historic relations with the United States under the Geledi Sultanate. In 1776, the Geledi Sultanate was the first independent state in Africa to recognise the United States, diplomatic relations were established in 1777 with the Geledi sharing naval intelligence with the American naval forces. In 1897, the Geledi Sultanate sent a high-profile delegation to New York under their foreign minister Khalid Aden Mohammed and signed the Indian Ocean Naval Treaty to combat Zanzibar slave trading. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Somalia's socialist government abandoned alliances with its former partner the Soviet Union due to fallout over the Ogaden War; because the Soviet Union had close relations with both the Somali government and Ethiopia's new communist Dergue regime, they were forced to choose one side to commit to.
The Soviet shift in support to Ethiopia motivated the Siad Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It settled on the Soviet Unions' Cold War rival, the United States; the US had been courting the Somali government for some time on account of Somalia's strategic position at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and military support by the United States enabled it to build the largest army on the continent. After the collapse of the Barre government and the start of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s, the United States embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed down. However, the American government never formally severed diplomatic ties with Somalia, leading the UN-sanctioned multinational Unified Task Force in southern Somalia. Following the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, the U. S. acknowledged and supported the internationally recognized TFG as the country's national governing body.
It engaged Somalia's regional administrations, such as Puntland and Somaliland, to ensure broad-based inclusion in the peace process. The Federal Government of Somalia was established on August 20, 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate, it represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. On September 10, 2012, the new Federal Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the incumbent President of Somalia; the election was welcomed by the U. S. authorities, who re-affirmed United States' continued support for Somalia's government, its territorial integrity and sovereignty. In January 2013, the U. S. announced that it was set to exchange diplomatic notes with the new central government of Somalia, re-establishing official ties with the country for the first time in 20 years. According to the Department of State, the decision was made in recognition of the significant progress that the Somali authorities had achieved on both the political and war fronts.
The move is expected to grant the Somali government access to new sources of development funds from American agencies as well as international bodies like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, thereby facilitating the ongoing reconstruction process. At the behest of the Somali and American federal governments, among other international actors, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia; the endorsement lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles and cannons. On April 9, 2013, the U. S. government approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government. At the request of the Somali authorities and AMISOM, the U. S. military in late 2013 established a small team of advisers in Mogadishu to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces.
On 5 May 2015, President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, other senior Somali government officials met with US Secretary of State John Kerry in Mogadishu. The bilateral meeting was the first visit to Somalia by an incumbent US Secretary of State, it served as a symbol of the ameliorated political and security situation in the country. The officials focused on the benchmarks enshrined within Somalia's Vision 2016 political roadmap, as well as cooperation in the security sector. In January 2017 after President Donald Trump took office, Somali citizens were temporary banned from entering the United States by the executive order "Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States." This includes Somali refugees who are willing to resettle in the United States through the US refugee admissions program. After the election of Somali-American dual citizen Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed as the next Somali President, US Secretary Of State Rex Tillerson congratulated the president-elect and is looking forward to strengthen the relationship between Somalia and the United States and that the recent elections marks an important milestone in Somalia’s ongoing transition to peace and prosperity.
The United States has continued to be one of the main suppliers of armaments to the Somali National Army. In June 2009, the reconstituted SNA received 40 tonnes worth of arms and ammunition from the U. S. government to assist it in com
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria. On 18 September 1931, Lt. Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Unit detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway line owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway near Mukden; the explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the track, a train passed over it minutes later. The Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later; the deception was soon exposed by the Lytton Report of 1932, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March 1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations. The bombing act is known as the Liutiaohu Incident, the entire episode of events is known in Japan as the Manchurian Incident and in China as the September 18 Incident.
Japanese economic presence and political interest in Manchuria had been growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese War. The Treaty of Portsmouth that ended the war had granted Japan the lease of the South Manchuria Railway branch of the China Far East Railway; the Japanese government, claimed that this control included all the rights and privileges that China granted to Russia in the 1896 Li–Lobanov Treaty, as enlarged by the Kwantung Lease Agreement of 1898. This included exclusive administration within the South Manchuria Railway Zone. Japanese railway guards were stationed within the zone to provide security for the trains and tracks. There were many reports of raids on local Chinese villages by bored Japanese soldiers, all complaints from the Chinese government were ignored. Meanwhile, the newly formed Chinese government was trying to recover the rights of nation, they started to claim that treaties between Japan were invalid. China announced new acts, so the Japanese people who settled frontier lands, opened stores or built their own houses in China were expelled without any compensation.
Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin tried to deprive Japanese concessions too, but he was assassinated by the Japanese Kwantung Army. Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Zuolin's son and successor, joined the Nanjing Government led by Chiang Kai-shek from anti-Japanese sentiment. Official Japanese objections to the oppression against Japanese nationals within China were rejected by the Chinese authorities; the 1929 Sino-Soviet conflict over the Chinese Eastern Railroad further increased the tensions in the Northeast that would lead to the Mukden Incident. The Soviet Red Army victory over Zhang Xueiliang's forces not only reasserted Soviet control over the CER in Manchuria but revealed Chinese military weaknesses that Japanese Kwantung Army officers were quick to note; the Soviet Red Army performance stunned Japanese officials. Manchuria was central to Japan's East Asia policy. Both the 1921 and 1927 Imperial Eastern Region Conferences reconfirmed Japan's commitment to be the dominant power in Manchuria; the 1929 Red Army victory reopened the Manchurian problem.
By 1930, the Kwantung Army realized they faced a Red Army, only growing stronger. The time to act was drawing Japanese plans to conquer the Northeast were accelerated. In Nanjing in April 1931, a national leadership conference of China was held between Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang, they agreed to assert China's sovereignty in Manchuria strongly. On the other hand, some officers of the Kwantung Army began to plot to invade Manchuria secretly. There were other officers. Believing that a conflict in Manchuria would be in the best interests of Japan, acting in the spirit of the Japanese concept of gekokujō, Kwantung Army Colonel Seishirō Itagaki and Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara independently devised a plan to prompt Japan to invade Manchuria by provoking an incident from Chinese forces stationed nearby. However, after the Japanese Minister of War Jirō Minami dispatched Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to Manchuria for the specific purpose of curbing the insubordination and militarist behavior of the Kwantung Army and Ishiwara knew that they no longer had the luxury of waiting for the Chinese to respond to provocations, but had to stage their own.
Itagaki and Ishiwara chose to sabotage the rail section in an area near Liutiao Lake. The area had no official name and was not militarily important, but it was only eight hundred metres away from the Chinese garrison of Beidaying, where troops under the command of the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang were stationed; the Japanese plan was to attract Chinese troops by an explosion and blame them for having caused the disturbance in order to provide a pretext for a formal Japanese invasion. In addition, they intended to make the sabotage appear more convincing as a calculated Chinese attack on an essential target, thereby making the expected Japanese reaction appear as a legitimate measure to protect a vital railway of industrial and economic importance; the Japanese press labeled the site "Liǔtiáo Ditch" or "Liǔtiáo Bridge", when in reality, the site was a small railway section laid on an area of fla
Benjamin Sumner Welles was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1936 to 1943, during FDR's presidency. Born in New York City to a well-connected political family, Welles graduated from Harvard in 1914 and soon entered the Foreign Service at the advice of Roosevelt, a family friend, he became an expert on Latin American diplomatic affairs, served several posts in the U. S. and Latin America. After a personal conflict with President Calvin Coolidge caused him to leave public service, he spent time in quiet retirement, penning a book on the history of the Dominican Republic; when Roosevelt was elected President in 1932, he installed Welles as Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, in which role he was involved in negotiations that removed Cuban president Gerardo Machado from power and replaced him with rival Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada.
He was promoted to Under Secretary of State, in which role he continued to be active in Latin American issues, but expanded into European affairs as World War II began in Europe. In 1940, he issued the Welles Declaration which condemned Soviet occupation of the Baltic states and proved to be a minor point of contention among the Soviets and their Western allies once the U. S. entered the war. Welles was forced out of government service. Returning to private life, he continued to author books on foreign relations and became an advisor to media organizations, he was a target of the House Un-American Activities Committee during the post-war "red scare", though he was never formally sanctioned. He died in New Jersey in 1961, survived by several children. Benjamin Sumner Welles was born in New York City, the son of Benjamin Sumner Welles Jr. and Frances Wyeth Swan. He preferred to be called Sumner after his famous relative Charles Sumner, a leading Senator from Massachusetts during the Civil War and Reconstruction.
His family was connected to the era's most prominent families. He was a grandnephew of Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor, known as "the Mrs. Astor". Among his ancestors were Thomas Welles, a colonial Governor of Connecticut, Increase Sumner, Governor of Massachusetts from 1797 to 1799; the Welles family was connected to the Roosevelts. A cousin of Sumner Welles married James "Rosy" Roosevelt, Jr. half brother of future President Franklin D. Roosevelt. At the age of 10, Welles was entered in Miss Kearny's Day School for Boys in New York City. In September 1904, he entered Groton School in Massachusetts. There he roomed with the brother of Eleanor Roosevelt. At the age of 12 served as a page at Franklin D. Roosevelt's wedding to Eleanor in March 1905. Welles attended Harvard College where he studied "economics, Iberian literature and culture", graduated after three years in 1914. After graduating from Harvard, Welles followed the advice of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and entered into the Foreign Service.
A New York Times profile described him at the time he joined the foreign service: "Tall, slender and always tailored, he concealed a natural shyness under an appearance of dignified firmness. Although intolerant of inefficiency, he brought to bear unusual tact and a self-imposed patience." He secured an assignment to Tokyo. Welles soon became a specialist in Latin American affairs, he became fluent in Spanish. In 1921, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes appointed him to head the Division of Latin American Affairs. In March 1922, Welles resigned from the State Department, he was unsympathetic to the view held by American diplomacy that military might was meant to protect the overseas interests of American business. Hughes brought, his particular assignment was to oversee the withdrawal of American forces and to negotiate protection for overseas investors in the Dominican Republic's debt. Welles remained in that post for three years and his work was accomplished after his departure in a 1924 treaty.
In 1924, President Coolidge sent Welles to act as mediator between disputing parties in Honduras. The country had lacked a legitimate government since the election of 1923 failed to produce a majority for any candidate and the legislature had failed to exercise its power to appoint a new president. Negotiations managed by Welles from April 23 to 28 produced an interim government under General Vicente Tosta, who promised to appoint a cabinet representing all factions and to schedule a presidential election as soon as possible in which he would not be a candidate. Negotiations ended with the signing of an agreement aboard the USS Milwaukee in the port of Amapala. Coolidge, disapproved of Welles' 1925 marriage to Mathilde Scott Townsend, who had only divorced the President's friend, Senator Peter Gerry of Rhode Island, he promptly ended Welles' diplomatic career. Welles retired to his estate at Oxon Hill, Maryland, he devoted himself to writing and his two-volume history of the Dominican Republic, Naboth's Vineyard: The Dominican Republic, 1844–1924 appeared in 1928.
Time described the work as "a ponderous, two-volume work, technically a history of Santo Domingo a careful indictment of U. S. foreign policy in the Hemisphere". James Reston summarized its thesis: "we should keep in our own back yard and stop claiming rights for oursel
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls within the People's Republic of China or a larger region divided between China and Russia. "Manchuria" is used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei and Jurchen peoples, who built several states within the area historically; the definition of Manchuria can be any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest: Northeast China: consisting of Heilongjiang and Liaoning; this is the area referred to as "Manchuria" in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. Inner Manchuria: the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia, plus Chengde; the above, plus Outer Manchuria: the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan. In Russian administrative terms, Ussuri krai, southern Harbin oblast', Primorskiy kray.
These were part of the Qing dynasty China according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk that defined the border in the region between China and Russia, but were ceded to Russia by the unequal treaties of the Treaty of Aigun and the Treaty of Peking. The above, plus Sakhalin Island, included on Qing dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk; the island was included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate and Russian Empire. Despite lines on maps and empires' political claims, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced an evacuation policy after 1945. Three centuries and a half must now pass away before entering upon the next act of the Manchu drama; the Nü-chêns had been scotched, but not killed, by their Mongol conquerors, one hundred and thirty-four years were themselves driven out of China, a pure native dynasty being re-established under the style of Ming, "Bright." During the ensuing two hundred years the Nü-chêns were scarcely heard of, the House of Ming being busily occupied in other directions.
Their warlike spirit, found scope and nourishment in the expeditions organised against Japan and Tan-lo, or Quelpart, as named by the Dutch, a large island to the south of the Korean peninsula. It may be noted here that "Manchuria" is unknown to the Chinese or to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression; the present extensive home of the Manchus is spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, Shêngking, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung and Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar. – Herbert A. Giles and the Manchus, 1912 "Manchuria" is a translation of the Japanese word Manshū, which dates from the 19th century; the name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group. According to the Japanese scholar Junko Miyawaki-Okada, the Japanese geographer Takahashi Kageyasu was the first to use the term "満州" as a place name in 1809 in the Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu, it was from that work that Westerners adopted the name. According to Mark C. Elliott, Katsuragawa Hoshū's 1794 work, the "Hokusa bunryaku", was where "満州" first appeared as a place name was in two maps included in the work, "Ashia zenzu" and "Chikyū hankyū sōzu" which were created by Katsuragawa.
"満州" began to appear as a place names in more maps created by Japanese like Kondi Jūzō, Takahashi Kageyasu, Baba Sadayoshi and Yamada Ren, these maps were brought to Europe by the Dutch Philipp von Siebold. According to Nakami Tatsuo, Philip Franz von Siebold was the one who brought the usage of the term Manchuria to Europeans after borrowing it from the Japanese, who were the first to use it in a geographic manner in the eighteenth century although neither the Manchu nor Chinese languages had a term in their own language equivalent to "Manchuria" as a geographic place name; the Manchu and Chinese languages had no such word as "Manchuria" and the word has imperialist connotations. According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location and it is "not a genuine geographic term"; the historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G. Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning" since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as a geographic name to promote its separation from China at the time they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria. The historian Norman Smith wrote that "The term'Manchuria' is controversial". Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she "should use the term in quotation marks" when referring to Manchuria. In his 2012 dissertation on the Jurchen peo