SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stimulant

Stimulants is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects. Stimulants are used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs; the most prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine and amphetamine. It is estimated that the percentage of the population that has used amphetamine-type stimulants and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%. Stimulants in therapeutic doses, such as those given to patients with ADHD, increases ability to focus, sociability and may elevate mood. However, in higher doses stimulants may decrease the ability to focus, a principle of the Yerkes-Dodson Law. In higher doses stimulants may produce euphoria and decrease need for sleep. Many, but not all, stimulants have ergogenic effects. Drugs such as ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methylphenidate have well documented ergogenic effects, while cocaine has the opposite effect.

Neurocognitive enhancing effects of stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate have been documented in healthy adolescents, is a cited reason among illicit drug users for use among college students in the context of studying. In some cases psychiatric phenomenon may emerge such as stimulant psychosis and suicidal ideation. Acute toxicity has been associated with a homicide, aggressive behavior, motor dysfunction, punding; the violent and aggressive behavior associated with acute stimulant toxicity may be driven by paranoia. Most drugs classified as stimulants are sympathomimetics, they stimulate the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system; this leads to effects such as mydriasis, increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature. When these changes become pathological, they are called arrhythmia and hyperthermia, may lead to rhabdomyolysis, cardiac arrest, or seizures. However, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie these fatal outcomes of acute stimulant toxicity, it is impossible to determine what dose may be lethal.

Assessment of the effects of stimulants is relevant given the large population taking stimulants. A systematic review of cardiovascular effects of prescription stimulants found no association in children, but found a correlation between prescription stimulant use and ischemic heart attacks. A review over a four-year period found that there were few negative effects of stimulant treatment, but stressed the need for longer term studies. A review of a year long period of prescription stimulant use in those with ADHD found that cardiovascular side effects were limited to transient increases in blood pressure only. Initiation of stimulant treatment in those with ADHD in early childhood appears to carry benefits into adulthood with regard to social and cognitive functioning, appears to be safe. Abuse of prescription stimulants or of illicit stimulants carries many negative health risks. Abuse of cocaine, depending upon route of administration, increases risk of cardiorespiratory disease and sepsis.

Some effects are dependent upon the route of administration, with intravenous use associated with the transmission of many disease such as Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and potential medical emergencies such as infection, thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, while inhalation may be associated with increased lower respiratory tract infection, lung cancer, pathological restricting of lung tissue. Cocaine may increase risk for autoimmune disease and damage nasal cartilage. Abuse of methamphetamine produces similar effects as well as marked degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. Stimulants have been used in medicine for many conditions including obesity, sleep disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, nasal congestion and as anesthetics. Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and include drugs that follow the general definition of a stimulant, but other drugs such as CB1 receptor antagonists exist in this class too. Drugs used to treat sleep disorders such as excessive daytime sleepiness are called eugeroics and include notable stimulants such as modafinil.

Stimulants are used in impulse control disorders such as ADHD and off-label in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder to increase energy and elevate mood. Stimulants such as epinephrine and salbutamol orally have been used to treat asthma, but inhaled adrenergic drugs are now preferred due to less systemic side effects. Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal or sinus congestion caused by the common cold, hay fever and other respiratory allergies. Classifying stimulants is difficult, because of the large number of classes the drugs occupy, the fact that they may belong to multiple classes; when referring to stimulants, the parent drug will always be expressed in the singular. Major stimulant classes include phenethylamines and their daughter class substituted a

Chief of the Defence Staff (Nigeria)

The Chief of Defence Staff is the highest ranking military officer of the Nigerian Armed Forces. It is occupied by the most senior commissioned officer appointed by the President of Nigeria; the position was established for the first time under Nigeria's 1979 constitution. The Chief of Defence Staff reports to the commander-in-Chief with administrative supervision of the Honourable Minister of Defence, it is the duty and responsibility of the CDS to formulate and execute policies, programmes towards the highest attainment of National Security and operational competence of the Armed Forces namely. The CDS is assisted by the other Service Chiefs: Chief of Army Staff Chief of Naval Staff Chief of the Air Staff

Clevedon United F.C.

Clevedon United Football Club is a football club based in Clevedon, England. Affiliated to the Somerset County FA, the club are members of the Somerset County League Premier Division and play at Coleridge Vale. Clevedon United was formed in the early 1970s as a merger between Clevedon Sports AFC and Tickenham United. After years in the Somerset County League, they achieved promotion to the Western Football League Division One after a 3rd-place finish in the 2002–03 season. In their four completed seasons in the Western League, they always finished in the middle third of the table, remained members of Division One until 2010. Since their move to share Clevedon Town's Hand Stadium, they have become eligible to compete in national competitions — their best performances being a run to the Second Round Qualifying of the FA Cup in 2003–04, reaching the Second Round Proper of the FA Vase in 2000–01. After enjoying spells under the managerial guidance of ex- Bristol City F. C. defender Andrew Llewellyn, more playing duo Mark Selway and Andrew Woodlands, Clevedon United appointed Alan Smith as first team manager.

In 2010 changes in usage charges meant that the team were no longer able to play at the Hands Stadium. Clevedon United play their home games at Coleridge Vale, Somerset, BS21 6HG. Somerset Senior LeagueWinners: 1998–99 Runners Up: 1987–88, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1997–98 Highest League Position 9th in Western League Division One: 2004–05 Best FA Cup Performance Second Qualifying Round: 2003–04 Best FA Vase Performance Second Round: 2000–01 Jack Butland Jantzen Derrick Chris Garland Club website Clevedon United at the Football Club History Database