click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stir frying

For the 2018 song by Migos, see Stir Fry. Stir frying is a Chinese cooking technique in which ingredients are fried in a small amount of hot oil while being stirred in a wok; the technique originated in China and in recent centuries has spread into other parts of Asia and the West. Scholars think that wok frying may have been used as early as the Han dynasty for drying grain, not for cooking, but it was not until the Ming dynasty that the wok reached its modern shape and allowed quick cooking in hot oil. Well into the 20th century, while restaurants and affluent families could afford the oil and fuel needed for stir fry, the most used cooking techniques remained boiling and steaming. Stir fry cooking came to predominate over the course of the century as more people could afford oil and fuel, in the West spread beyond Chinese communities. Stir frying and Chinese food have been recommended as both healthy and appealing for their skillful use of vegetables and fish which are moderate in their fat content and sauces which are not overly rich, provided calories are kept at a reasonable level.

The English language term "stir-fry" was coined by Y. R. Chao in Buwei Yang Chao's book How to Eat in Chinese, to describe the chǎo technique; the Chinese character "炒" is attested in inscriptions on bronze vessels from the Eastern Zhou period, but not in the sense of stir frying. Dry stirring was used in the Han dynasty to parch grain. Although there are no surviving records of Han dynasty stir frying, archaeological evidence of woks and the tendency to slice food thinly indicate that the technique was used for cooking; the term chao appears for the first time in the sense of "stir frying" in the Qimin Yaoshu, a sixth-century agricultural manual, including in a recipe for scrambled eggs. In sources from the Tang dynasty, chao refers not to a cooking technique, but to a method for roasting tea leaves, it reappears as a cooking method in a dozen recipes from the Song dynasty. The Song period is; until vegetable oil had been used chiefly in lamps. Stir frying was not as important a technique as boiling or steaming, since the oil needed for stir frying was expensive.

The technique became popular in the late Ming dynasty, in part because the wood and charcoal used to fire stoves were becoming expensive near urban centers, stir-frying could cook food without wasting fuel. "The commercial nature of city life" in the late Ming and Qing periods favored speedy methods. But as stir frying became an important method in Chinese cuisine, it did not replace other cooking techniques. For instance, "only five or six of over 100 recipes recorded in the sixteenth-century novel Jin Ping Mei are stir fry recipes and wok dishes accounted for only 16 percent of the recipes in the most famous eighteenth century recipe book, the Suiyuan shidan". By the late Qing, most Chinese kitchens were equipped with a wok range convenient for stir-frying because it had a large hole in the middle to insert the bottom of a wok into the flames. Stir frying was brought to America by early Chinese immigrants, has been used in non-Asian cuisine; the term "stir fry" as a translation for "chao" was coined in the 1945 book How To Cook and Eat in Chinese, by the linguist Yuen Ren Chao.

The book told the reader Roughly speaking, ch'ao may be defined as a big-fire-shallow-fat-continual-stirring-quick-frying of cut-up material with wet seasoning. We shall call it'stir-fry' or'stir' for short; the nearest to this in western cooking is sauté.... Because stir-frying has such critical timing and is done so it can be called'blitz-cooking.'"In the West, stir fry spread from Chinese family and restaurant kitchens into general use. One popular cookbook noted that in the "health-conscious 1970s" it seemed that "everyone was buying a wok, stir frying remained popular because it was quick." Many families had difficulty fitting a family dinner into their crowded schedules but found that stir fry could be prepared in as little as fifteen minutes. Broadly speaking, there are two primary techniques: bao. Both techniques use high heat, but chao adds a liquid and the ingredients are softer, where as bao stir fries are more crispy because of the Maillard reaction; the chao technique is similar to the Western technique of sautéing.

There are regional variations in the amount and type of oil, the ratio of oil to other liquids, the combinations of ingredients, the use of hot peppers, such, but the same basic procedure is followed in all parts of the country. First the wok is heated to a high temperature, just as or before it smokes, a small amount of cooking oil is added down the side of the wok, followed by dry seasonings such as ginger, scallions, or shallots; the seasonings are tossed with a spatula until they are fragrant other ingredients are added, beginning with the ones taking the longest to cook, such as meat or tofu. When the meat and vegetables are nearly cooked, combinations of soy sauce, wine, salt, or sugar may be added, along with thickeners such as cornstarch, water chestnut flour, or arrowroot. A single ingredient a vegetable, may be stir-fried without the step of adding another ingredient, or two or more ingredients may be stir-fried to make a single dish. Although large leaf vegetables, such as cabbage or spinach, do not need to be cut into small pieces, for dishes which combine ingredients, they should all be cut to the same size and s

Mercedes McCambridge

Carlotta Mercedes Agnes McCambridge was an American actress of radio, stage and television. Orson Welles called her "the world's greatest living radio actress." She won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for All the King's Men and was nominated in the same category for Giant. She provided the voice of the demon Pazuzu in The Exorcist. McCambridge was born in Joliet, the daughter of Irish-American Roman Catholic parents Marie and John Patrick McCambridge, a farmer, she graduated from Mundelein College in Chicago before embarking on a career. McCambridge began her career as a radio actor during the 1930s while performing on Broadway. In 1941, she played Judy's girlfriend in A Date with Judy, she had the title role in Defense Attorney, a crime drama broadcast on ABC in 1951-52. Her other work on radio included: episodes of Lights Out episodes of Inner Sanctum episodes of the Bulldog Drummond radio series episodes of Gang Busters episodes of Murder at Midnight episodes of Studio One Episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents as Dr. Constance Peterson in Spellbound episodes of Screen Directors Playhouse episodes of Ford Theater Rosemary Levy on Abie's Irish Rose Peggy King Martinson on This is Nora Drake various characters on the radio series I Love A Mystery in both its West Coast and East Coast incarnations She did feature roles on the CBS Radio Mystery Theater, was an original cast member on Guiding Light.

She starred in her own show, Defense Attorney on ABC 1951–52, as Martha Ellis Bryan. From June 22, 1953, to March 5, 1954, McCambridge starred in the soap opera Family Skeleton on CBS. McCambridge played Katherine Wells in Wire Service, a drama series that aired on ABC during 1956-7, produced by Desilu Productions; the series starred McCambridge, George Brent, Dane Clark as reporters for the fictional Trans Globe Wire Service. In an episode of Bewitched entitled "Darrin Gone! and Forgotten," which first aired on ABC on 17 October 1968, McCambridge played a powerful witch named Carlotta, a frenemy of Endora. Endora and Carlotta had made a pact "at the turn of the century" that their first-born children would one day marry. When, according to the terms pact, certain celestial phenomena signaled it was time for the marriage Carlotta disappeared Darrin and pushed for Samantha to marry her coddled son Juke. McCambridge's film career took off when she was cast as Sadie Burke opposite Broderick Crawford in All the King's Men.

McCambridge won the 1949 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role, while the film won Best Picture for that year. McCambridge won the Golden Globe Awards for Best Supporting Actress and New Star of the Year - Actress for her performance. In 1954, the actress co-starred with Joan Crawford and Sterling Hayden in the offbeat western drama, Johnny Guitar, now regarded as a cult classic. McCambridge and Hayden publicly declared their dislike of Crawford, with McCambridge labeling the film's star "a mean, powerful, rotten-egg lady." McCambridge claimed that one morning on the set, she awoke to find her entire movie wardrobe on the ground in shreds. She was nominated for another Academy Award as Best Supporting Actress but lost to Dorothy Malone in Written on the Wind. In 1959, McCambridge appeared opposite Katharine Hepburn, Montgomery Clift and Elizabeth Taylor in the Joseph L. Mankiewicz film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' Suddenly, Last Summer. McCambridge provided the dubbed voice of Pazuzu, the demon possessing the young girl Regan in The Exorcist.

To sound as disturbing as possible, McCambridge insisted on swallowing raw eggs, chain smoking and drinking whiskey to make her voice harsh and her performance aggressive. Director William Friedkin arranged for her to be bound to a chair during recordings, so that the demon seemed to be struggling against its restraints. Friedkin claimed that she requested no credit for the film—fearing it would take away from the attention of Blair's performance—but complained about her absence of credit during the film's premiere, her dispute with Friedkin and the Warner Bros. over her exclusion ended when, with the help of the Screen Actors Guild, she was properly credited for her vocal work in the film. In the 1970s, she toured in a road company production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof as Big Mama, opposite John Carradine as Big Daddy, she appeared as a guest artist in college Productions: In May of 1977, Miss McCambridge helped dedicate the Theater Building of El Centro College by starring in the Title Role in the production of The Madwoman of Chaillot.

Director Ed

Proto-Indo-Aryan language

Proto-Indo-Aryan is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Proto-Indo-Aryans, it is descended from Proto-Indo-Iranian and thus from Proto-Indo-European. It is a Satem language. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan, directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Indeed and Mitanni-Aryan are close to Proto-Indo-Aryan; some of the Prakrits display a few minor features derived from Proto-Indo-Aryan that had disappeared in Vedic Sanskrit. Today, several Modern Indo-Aryan languages are extant. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic. One of these is the representation of Proto-Indo-European * * r. Vedic merge both as /r/. However, some instances of Indo-European /l/ again surface in Classical Sanskrit, indicating that the contrast survived in an early Indo-Aryan dialect parallel to Vedic.. The common consonant cluster kṣ /kʂ/ of Vedic and Sanskrit has a wide range of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Indo-Iranian sources, which remain distinct in Indo-Aryan languages: PIE *ks, *kʷs, *gs, *gʷs > PII *kš > Middle Indo-Aryan kh-, -kkh- PIE *dʰgʷʰ, *gʰs, *gʷʰs > PII *gʱžʱ > Middle Indo-Aryan gh-, -ggh- PIE *tḱ.

Three (Joel Plaskett album)

Three is the third solo album by Canadian indie rock musician Joel Plaskett, released on March 24, 2009. Plaskett produced and recorded the album himself at his own Scotland Yard studio in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. In addition to being released as a triple album, the number three is reflected in several other aspects of the album; each disc has nine songs on it, many of which are titled with a single word or phrase repeated three times. The album's release date of 3/24/09 consists of numbers divisible by three, the cover features an image of Plaskett holding three fingers up, preorders through MapleMusic were distributed with access to exclusive tickets, priced at $66, which would entitle the purchaser to a seat in the first twelve rows of Plaskett's concert at Toronto's Massey Hall the night before the album's release. According to Plaskett, the discs tell a story of "going away, being alone and coming home", with each disc representing one of those three themes. Guest musicians on the album include singers Ana Egge and Rose Cousins, who were at the Folk Alliance festival in Memphis in 2007.

The three of them tried jamming at Easley McCain Recording in Memphis, Plaskett decided he wanted to have them on his new album and write parts for them. Plaskett's father Bill was a significant contributor to the album, offering songwriting and arranging and playing bouzouki, acoustic guitar, tenor guitar, piano; the album was shortlisted for the 2009 Polaris Music Prize. It won Contemporary Album of the Year at the 2009 Canadian Folk Music Awards. In June 2009, Plaskett released a follow-up EP, entitled Three More, which contained three songs not featured on the original album. In 2010, Plaskett released a condensed version of Three called Three to One for the non-Canadian market. All tracks are written by Joel Plaskett, except where noted

Amygdala hijack

An amygdala hijack refers to a personal, emotional response, immediate and out of measure with the actual stimulus because it has triggered a much more significant emotional threat. The term was coined by Daniel Goleman in his 1996 book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ; the output of sense organs is first received by the thalamus. Part of the thalamus' stimuli goes directly to the amygdala or "emotional/irrational brain", while other parts are sent to the neocortex or "thinking/rational brain". If the amygdala perceives a match to the stimulus, i.e. if the record of experiences in the hippocampus tells the amygdala that it is a fight, flight or freeze situation the amygdala triggers the HPA axis and hijacks the rational brain. This emotional brain activity processes information milliseconds earlier than the rational brain, so in case of a match, the amygdala acts before any possible direction from the neocortex can be received. If, the amygdala does not find any match to the stimulus received with its recorded threatening situations it acts according to the directions received from the neocortex.

When the amygdala perceives a threat, it can lead that person to react irrationally and destructively. Goleman states that emotions "make us pay attention right now—this is urgent—and gives us an immediate action plan without having to think twice; the emotional component evolved early: Do I eat it, or does it eat me?" The emotional response "can take over the rest of the brain in a millisecond if threatened." An amygdala hijack exhibits three signs: strong emotional reaction, sudden onset, post-episode realization if the reaction was inappropriate. Goleman emphasized that "self-control is crucial...when facing someone, in the throes of an amygdala hijack" so as to avoid a complementary hijacking—whether in work situations, or in private life. Thus for example'one key marital competence is for partners to learn to soothe their own distressed feelings...nothing gets resolved positively when husband or wife is in the midst of an emotional hijacking.' The danger is that "when our partner becomes, in effect, our enemy, we are in the grip of an'amygdala hijack' in which our emotional memory, lodged in the limbic center of our brain, rules our reactions without the benefit of logic or reason...which causes our bodies to go into a'fight or flight' response."

Goleman points out that". When a joke strikes someone as so uproarious that their laughter is explosive, too, is a limbic response, it is at work in moments of intense joy."He cites the case of a man strolling by a canal when he saw a girl staring petrified at the water. "efore he knew quite why, he had jumped into the water -- in his tie. Only once he was in the water did he realize that the girl was staring in shock at a toddler who had fallen in—whom he was able to rescue." Joseph E. LeDoux was positive about the possibility of learning to control the amygdala's hair-trigger role in emotional outbursts. "Once your emotional system learns something, it seems. What therapy does is teach you how to control it—it teaches your neocortex how to inhibit your amygdala; the propensity to act is suppressed, while your basic emotion about it remains in a subdued form." Amygdala Emotional intelligence Stress Pseudobulbar affect

Orb Swarm

Orb Swarm is a kinetic art work consisting of six semi-autonomous spherical robots. It was created in 2007 by a group of engineers and artists including Michael Prados, Jon Foote, Lee Sonko, many others. Orb Swarm was inspired by previous work in robotics and kinetic art, seeks to emulate swarm behavior in nature and human dancing. Nearly all of the hardware and software in the project is open source, others are encouraged to build upon the project's efforts; each orb is driven by one for drive and one for steering. The shell is made of welded, water jet cut aluminum, it moves by pushing against the weight of the batteries inside. For guidance and control, there is a GPS module, an IMU, dead reckoning, a computer running Linux; each orb has several banks of full color LEDs and a sound system that are controlled programmatically. Orb Swarm first appeared at Burning Man in 2007. Other performances have included Maker Faire, the California Academy of Sciences Nightlife and the Techkriti festival in Kanpur, India.

Orb Swarm Wiki