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Stock character

A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or a film who audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition. Stock characters are archetypal; as a result, they tend to be criticized as clichés. The presence of a particular array of stock characters is a key component of many genres; the point of the stock character is to move the story along by allowing the audience to understand the character. The study of the Character, as it is now known, was conceived by Aristotle's student Theophrastus. In The Characters, Theophrastus introduced the "character sketch", which became the core of "the Character as a genre", it included 30 character types. Each type is said to be an illustration of an individual who represents a group, characterized by his most prominent trait; the Theophrastan types are as follows: It is unclear from where Theophrastus derived these types, but many resemble those from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

Despite the fact that Theophrastus sought to portray character types and not individuals, some of the sketches may have been drawn from observations of actual persons in Athenian public life. Although the preface of the work implies the intention to catalogue "human nature, associate with all sorts and conditions of men and contrast in minute detail the good and bad among them", many other possible types are left unrepresented; these omissions are noticeable because each of the thirty characters represents a negative trait. This preface, however, is fictitious, i.e. added in times, cannot therefore be a source of any allegation. Nowadays many scholars believe that the definitions found in the beginning of each sketch are additions. New Comedy was the first theatrical form to have access to Theophrastus' Characters. Menander was said to be a student of Theophrastus, has been remembered for his prototypical cooks, merchants and slave characters. Although we have few extant works of the New Comedy, the titles of Menander's plays alone have a "Theophrastan ring": The Fisherman, The Farmer, The Superstitious Man, The Peevish Man, The Promiser, The Heiress, The Priestess, The False Accuser, The Misogynist, The Hated Man, The Shipmaster, The Slave, The Concubine, The Soldiers, The Widow, The Noise-Shy Man.

Another early form that illustrates the beginnings of the Character is the mime. Greco-Roman mimic playlets told the stock story of the fat, stupid husband who returned home to find his wife in bed with a lover, stock characters in themselves. Although the mimes were not confined to playing stock characters, the mimus calvus was an early reappearing character. Mimus calvus the buffoon from the Atellan Farce; the Atellan Farce is significant in the study of the Character because it contained the first true stock characters. The Atellan Farce employed four fool types. In addition to Maccus, the glutton, the naïve old man, Dossennus, the cunning hunchback. A fifth type, in the form of the additional character Manducus, the chattering jawed pimp may have appeared in the Atellan Farce out of an adaptation of Dossennus; the Roman mime, as well, was a stock fool related to the Atellan fools. The Roman playwright Plautus drew from Atellan Farce as well as the Greek New Comedy, he expanded the four types of Atellan Farce to eight: Old man a miser – senex iratus Young man in love the miser's son, who rebels against authority – adulescens amator Clever or cunning slave – servus callidus Stupid slave – servus stultus Hanger-on or flatterer – parasitus Courtesanmeretrix Slave dealer or pimp – leno Braggart soldier – Miles Gloriosus note.

In revision of Theophrastus, Diogenes Laërtius published Ethical Characters, sparking interest in two lines of study. The first is that of the character book. Imitators of Theophrastus including Satyrus Atheneus, Heracleides Ponticus and Rutilius Lupus wrote their own character sketches. Circa 212 BC, Ariston's discourse on morality included several proud Character types and mimicked the Theophrastan style. Following Philodemus of Gadara's work on "Self seeking Affability" and Ariston's characters, evidence of acquaintance with the genre is present, however popularity of the portrait over the generalized stock figures in increasing; this may explain the gap of time from the beginning of the Common Era to the 16th century marked by an absence of character sketching. The second field is the study of nomenclature; as the Character rose as a literary genre, many terms were coined in attempt to place labels on the new subject. The translation Theophrastus' title is based on the terms charassein and Charakter, associated with the stamping of an impression.

Rhetorica ad Herennium, attributed to Cicero, split the character up into two qualities: effictio, the description of physical appearance, notation, the nature of man. In his De Inventione, Cicero divided the character, or conformation as he called it, into eleven points: name, way of life, physical appearance, interests, reasons for doing things, one's deeds, what happens to one, one's discourses. Seneca, played a part in providing labels for the new genre in his Epistulae Morale, using t

Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems

Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering management and conservation issues related to freshwater ecosystems. The journal publishes articles, short communications, reviews and replies, it is published by EDP Sciences and the editor-in-chief is Daniel Gerdeaux. The journal was established in 1928 as Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture and obtained its current title in 2008. An editorial published in 2002 by the outgoing editor Erick Vigneux, celebrates the 75 year anniversary of the journal. In this celebratory editorial it is explained that'Knowledge and management of aquatic ecosystems' was introduced as a subtitle for the journal name in 1996; the journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 1.525. New species have been first described in this journal. For example: The freshwater goby Stiphodon julieni was first described from specimens collected on Rapa in French Polynesia, in this journal in 2002.

The freshwater goby Lentipes kaaea was first described in this journal in 2002. The characiform fish Tometes lebaili was first described in this journal in 2002; the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium feunteuni was first described in this journal in 2002. Official website

Giuseppe Borello

Giuseppe Borello is an Italian football player. He plays for Cesena on loan from Crotone, he made his Serie A debut for Crotone on 28 May 2017 in a game against Lazio as an added-time substitute for Diego Falcinelli. On 16 August 2018, Borello was signed by Serie C side Cuneo on a season-long loan deal. On 17 September he made his Serie C debut for Cuneo in a 1–0 away defeat against Pisa, he was replaced by Giorgio Spizzichino in the 78th minute. Three week on 14 October, he scored his first professional goal in the 43rd minute of a 1–0 home win over Olbia. On 25 November he scored his second goal, as a substitute, in the 86th minute of a 3–0 away win over Alessandria. In January 2019, Borello was returned to Crotone leaving Cuneo with 15 appearances, 2 goals and 1 assist, but he never played any entire match. On 8 January 2019, Borello was loaned to Serie C club Rende on a 6-month loan deal. On 20 January he made his debut for Rende in a 3–0 away defeat against Catanzaro, he played the entire match.

Three days he scored his first goal for the team in the 46th minute of a 4–2 home defeat against Monopoli. He became Rende's first-choice in the second part of the season. On 28 April he scored twice in a 3–1 away win over Viterbese Castrense. Borello ended his 6-month loan to Rende with 17 appearances, including 16 as a starter, 3 goals and 2 assists. On 18 July 2019, Borello was loaned to newly Serie C side Cesena on a season-long loan deal. On 25 August, Borello made his debut and he scored his first goal for the club in the 43rd minute of a 4–1 away defeat against Carpi, he played the entire match. On 15 September he scored his second goal in the 66th minute of a 3–2 home win over Triestina. Four weeks on 13 October, he scored his third goal in the 62nd minute of a 3–1 home defeat against Sambenedettese, he became Cesena's first-choice early in the season. Borello rapresented Italy only at Under 18 level. On 11 November 2016, Borello made his international debut as a substitute replacing Christian Capone in the 80th minute of a 1–0 home win over Austria U-18 in an international friendly.

As of 3 February 2020 Torino Primavera Coppa Italia Primavera: 2017–18 Giuseppe Borello at Soccerway

Flora Cross

Flora Cross is a French-American actress. Cross was born in France, her father, Joseph Cross, is a journalist. Flora is Jewish, she has traveled extensively with her family, most back to France to finish her degree. She graduated from La Sorbonne, she resides in Jacmel, Haiti where she is a teacher. Her two brothers are actors. Cross attended French schools since childhood, speaks French and English fluently. During high school, she switched to the American school system and attended a private school in Los Angeles' Westside, she graduated from New Roads School in 2012. Cross played the lead role of Eliza in the 2005 film Bee Season, opposite Richard Gere, Juliette Binoche and Max Minghella, she auditioned for the part shortly before moving to Argentina, where she was living when offered the role. "My manager sent the tape in, I was called in for an audition, long and tiring," recalls the actor. "It went on for five hours. Two weeks I was told I got the part", her next role was playing the eccentric daughter of Jennifer Jason Leigh's character in director Noah Baumbach's Margot at the Wedding.

She worked alongside actors such as Nicole Kidman, Jack Black, John Turturro, fellow teen actor Zane Pais. Cross plays the co-starring role of Cynthia in the film Chlorine and directed by Jay Alaimo; the film stars Kyra Sedgwick and Vincent D'Onofrio as Cynthia's troubled parents, Ryan Donowho as her eccentric brother. Flora Cross on IMDb Margot at the Wedding

Pierre-Joseph Desault

Pierre-Joseph Desault was a French anatomist and surgeon. Pierre-Joseph Desault was born in Vouhenans, Franche-Comté, he was destined for a career in the Church, but his own inclination was towards the study of medicine. Going to Paris at about twenty years of age, he opened a school of anatomy there in the winter of 1766, the success of which excited the jealousy of the established teachers and professors, who tried to make him give up his lectures. In 1776 he was admitted as a member of the Corps of Surgeons. In 1784, Desault moved to the Hôtel-Dieu to participate in a major ancien régime experiments in surgical education. Within a few years he was recognized as one of the leading surgeons of France; the clinical school of surgery which he instituted at the Hôtel-Dieu attracted great numbers of students, not only from every part of France but from other countries. In fact, it was praised by Xavier Bichat as the best surgical school in Europe. Desault introduced many improvements to the practice of surgery, as well as to the construction of surgical instruments.

In 1791 he established a Journal de chirurgerie, edited by his pupils, a record of the most interesting cases that had occurred in his clinical school, with the remarks which he had made upon them in the course of his lectures. In the midst of his labors, however, he became obnoxious to some of the Revolutionary authorities, he was, on some frivolous charge, denounced to the government. After being twice examined, he was seized on 28 May 1793, in the midst of delivering a lecture, carried away from his surgical theatre, committed to prison in the Luxembourg. In three days, however, he was liberated, permitted to resume his functions. On 31 May 1795 he was summoned to attend to the young Louis XVII by the latter's prisonguards, due to his severe illness. Desault died the next day; the rumour that his death was caused by poisoning during this summons was disproved by the autopsy carried out by his pupil, Bichat. A pension was settled on his widow by the Republic. Together with François Chopart, he published Traité des maladies chirurgicales, Bichat published a digest of his surgical doctrines in OEuvres chirurgicales de Desault.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Desault, Pierre Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Pierre-Joseph Desault at Internet Archive

The Wife (Seinfeld)

"The Wife" is the 81st episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. The 17th episode of the fifth season, it was broadcast on March 17, 1994. For the syndicated repeats, this episode is just one in a few this season to keep Jerry's opening stand-up routine intact. Jerry and his girlfriend Meryl pose as husband and wife so that she can receive a 25% off family discount on dry cleaning. Elaine is attracted to Greg, a man at the health club, but is confused by his mixed signals, such as giving her an open lipped kiss but wiping off her water bottle when she gives him a drink. Meanwhile, Kramer is losing sleep because Jerry took his favorite quilt to the cleaner, so that he could get the family discount too. Jerry and Meryl enjoy pretending to be married, keeping up the act when they are alone, they start to bicker and promptly make up afterwards as if they were a long time married couple. He "cheats" on Meryl by taking another woman's laundry to the cleaner. Meryl finds out when she sees unfamiliar lingerie mixed in.

She confronts Jerry, who tells her he wants a "divorce" so that the other woman can pretend to be his wife and get the discount. Jerry and Meryl amicably break up. Greg sees George urinating in the shower at the health club; when he tells Elaine he intends to report George chiefly as an excuse to talk to the manager, who he is acutely interested in, she helps George by threatening to report Greg for not wiping off his sweat from the machines. Jerry points out that Kramer is looking pale from lack of sleep, so Kramer goes to a tanning salon because he is going to meet with the parents of his girlfriend Anna, he falls asleep on the tanning bed and becomes dark. When Kramer arrives to meet Anna's African-American family, they are horrified, thinking he is in blackface. After filming, the producers belatedly decided that they wanted the character of Paula to be more exotic, so they hired a voice actress to dub over all of Rebecca Glenn's speech, reciting all the same dialogue in a French accent. "The Wife" on IMDb "The Wife" at