The Mass Transit Railway is a major public transport network serving Hong Kong. Operated by the MTR Corporation Limited, it consists of heavy rail, light rail, feeder bus service centred on an 11-line rapid transit network serving the urbanised areas of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories; the system includes 218.2 km of rail with 159 stations, including 91 heavy rail stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR is one of the most profitable metro systems in the world. Under the government's rail-led transport policy, the MTR system is a common mode of public transport in Hong Kong, with over five million trips made in an average weekday, it achieves a 99.9 per cent on-time rate on its train journeys. As of 2014, the MTR has a 48.1 per cent market share of the franchised public transport market, making it the most popular transport option in Hong Kong. The integration of the Octopus smart card fare-payment technology into the MTR system in September 1997 has further enhanced the ease of commuting on the MTR.
Construction of the MTR was prompted by a study, released in 1967, commissioned by the Hong Kong Government in order to find solutions to the increasing road congestion problem caused by the territory's fast-growing economy. Construction started soon after the release of the study, the first line opened in 1979; the MTR was popular with residents of Hong Kong. There are continual debates regarding where to expand the MTR network; as a successful railway operation, the MTR has served as a model for other newly built systems in the world urban rail transit in China. During the 1960s, the government of Hong Kong saw a need to accommodate increasing road traffic as Hong Kong's economy continued to grow strongly. In 1966, British transportation consultants Freeman, Wilbur Smith & Associates were appointed to study the transportation system of Hong Kong; the study was based on the projection of the population of Hong Kong for 1986, estimated at 6,868,000. On 1 September 1967, the consultants submitted the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study to the government, which recommended the construction of a 40-mile rapid transit rail system in Hong Kong.
The study suggested that four rail lines be developed in six stages, with a completion date set between December 1973 and December 1984. Detailed positions of lines and stations were presented in the study; these four lines were the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, Shatin line. The study was submitted to the Legislative Council on 14 February 1968; the consultants received new data from the 1966 by-census on 6 March 1968. A short supplementary report was submitted on 22 March 1968 and amended in June 1968; the by-census indicated that the projected 1986 population was reduced by more than one million from the previous estimate to 5,647,000. The dramatic reduction affected town planning; the population distribution was different from the original study. The projected 1986 populations of Castle Peak New Town, Sha Tin New Town, and, to a lesser extent, Tsuen Wan New Town, were revised downward, the plan of a new town in Tseung Kwan O was shelved. In this updated scenario, the consultants reduced the scale of the recommended system.
The supplementary report stated that the suggested four tracks between Admiralty station and Mong Kok station should be reduced to two, only parts of the Island line, Tsuen Wan line, Kwun Tong line should be constructed for the initial system. The other lines would be placed in the list of extensions; this report led to the final study in 1970. In 1970, a system with four lines was laid out and planned as part of the British consultants' new report, Hong Kong Mass Transit: Further Studies; the four lines were to be the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, East Kowloon line. However, the lines that were constructed were somewhat different compared to the lines that were proposed by the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study. In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorised construction of the Initial System, a 20-kilometre system that translates to today's Kwun Tong line between Kwun Tong and Prince Edward, Tsuen Wan line between Prince Edward and Admiralty, Island line between Sheung Wan and Admiralty.
The Mass Transit Steering Committee, chaired by the Financial Secretary Philip Haddon-Cave, began negotiations with four major construction consortia in 1973. The government's intention was to tender the entire project, based on the British design, as a single tender at a fixed price. A consortium from Japan, led by Mitsubishi, submitted the only proposal within the government's $5 billion price ceiling, they signed an agreement to construct the system in early 1974, but in December of the same year, pulled out of the agreement for reasons stemming from fears of the oil crisis. Several weeks in early 1975, the Mass Transit Steering Group was replaced by the Mass Transport Provisional Authority, which held more executive powers, it announced that the Initial System would be reduced to 15.6 kilometres and renamed the "Modified Initial System". Plans for a single contract were abandoned in favour of 25 engineering contracts and 10 electrical and mechanical contracts. On 7 May 1975 the Legislative Council passed legislation setting up the government-owned Mass Transit Railway Corporation to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority.
Construction of the Modified Initial System (now part of
Vasagatan is a major street in central Stockholm named after King Gustav Vasa. In its southern end it is connected to the old town Gamla Stan by the bridge Vasabron, from where it stretches north to the public square Norra Bantorget, it is intercepted by Kungsgatan. Central Post Office Building Stockholm Central Station Geography of Stockholm
Western Main Line
The Western Main Line is the main state-owned railway line between Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden and it began construction in 1856 and opened for service in 1862. Maintained by the Swedish Transport Administration, the Western Main Line is electrified and consists of double track, except the four-track sections between Gothenburg Central Station and Olskroken, in Järna, south of Stockholm, between Flemingsberg and Stockholm South Station, about 14 km; the last section between Stockholm South Station and Stockholm Central Station runs on a two-track bridge. Before the Stockholm City Line was opened in 2017, the bridge was a serious bottleneck, as all trains had to use the same tracks; the maximum speed on the line is 200 km/h. This speed is only attained by the SJ 2000 tilting some regional trains; the InterCity trains are limited to 160 km/h due to the rolling stock. A section of the line, between Skövde and Töreboda, is the longest straight section of railway in Sweden, with 40 km of track without a curve, used in speed trials.
The current Swedish speed record of 303 km/h was achieved here by a X50 "Regina" EMU. The line has always been known for its high speeds; as early as the 1950s, the Rapid engines travelled the route at 150 km/h. There are plans to build a high-speed line between Stockholm and Gothenburg, south of lake Vättern, Götalandsbanan; the route would be operational somewhere around the mid 21st century, capable of speeds of more than 300 km/h. However, this would only cut the travel time by about 40 minutes, but connect more large cities to the Stockholm–Gothenburg line. Southern Main Line Järnväg.net page on Västra stambanan
Arlanda Express is an airport rail link connecting Stockholm Central Station with the Stockholm-Arlanda Airport outside Stockholm, Sweden. Operated by A-Train AB, the trip takes 20 minutes and runs four to six times per hour using seven X3 electric multiple units; the services operate over the East Coast Line and the Arlanda Line and call at Stockholm Central Station, Arlanda North Station and Arlanda South Station. The service was used by 2.7 million passengers in 2007 and by 3.3 million passengers in 2012. Planning of the airport link started in the 1980s. In 1993 the Government of Sweden issued a tender for a public–private partnership to build the Arlanda Line; the construction of the line was subsidized with a combination of some state grants and large state loans. The successful tenderer would receive a monopoly on traffic between the airport and Stockholm until 2040; the line and the services were inaugurated on 25 November 1999. The PPP contract has since been criticized for being unclear, uneconomical for the state and leading to a low utilization of the service.
The Arlanda Express connects the city center of Stockholm, at Stockholm Central Station, to the Stockholm-Arlanda Airport. At the airport, the train serves two stations: Arlanda South Station, which serves terminals 2, 3 and 4, Arlanda North Station, which serves terminal 5. From Stockholm to Rosersberg, the train follows the East Coast Line, from there to the airport, the Arlanda Line; the train operates four times per hour. As of August 2016, the standard price for a one-way ticket is SEK 280, although discounts are offered for children, seniors, on special travel days and for return trips under certain conditions; the Arlanda Express is operated by A-Train, a subsidiary of Macquarie Group, which built the Arlanda Line as part of a public–private partnership. The company holds an exclusive concession to operate any train service between Stockholm and the airport. In addition, the company is free to charge other train operators that use the Arlanda Line and stop at Arlanda Central Station; the Arlanda Express is operated by seven four-car X3 electric multiple units.
The units were built by Alstom's Birmingham plant in 1998 and 1999. The train consists of two non-powered center cars; the trains have a maximum power output of 2,240 kilowatts. They weigh 187 tonnes; each car has two doors on each side, the train has seating for 190 passengers. There is a baggage area beside each door, seating for people with a disability and a toilet in the middle of the train; the Arlanda Express' three stations have a special platform height that allows level access to the trains from the platforms. In 2006, the trains were renovated and received new interiors in three different color schemes, green and blue, designed by the former Swedish tennis player Björn Borg's eponymous fashion label. Plans for an airport rail link from the central business district of Stockholm and the airport was launched in the early 1980s; the goal was to reduce road congestion and emissions while allowing Arlanda to keep increasing passenger numbers. The Swedish Rail Administration made a specific plan in the late 1980s which involved the construction of a branch from the existing East Coast Line.
This resulted in a project plan, launched in 1990, which suggested Rosersberg and Odensala as the intersections with the existing line. The political decision to build the line was taken in 1993. Estimates at the time gave a ridership of 5.1 million passengers per year in 2005. The Swedish Rail Administration had proposed that the line was to be built with the government agency as owner and with either SJ or private railway companies as train operators. However, the Cabinet of Carl Bildt wanted private sector involvement in the construction and operation of the line. In 1993, the Government put in place a public tender to operate the line. In 1994, Arlanda Link Consortium was chosen, consisting of the Nordic Construction Company, SIAB, Vattenfall, GEC Alsthom and Mowlem. A-Banan Projekt AB was established as a limited company in 1994 to oversee the project; the consortium established A-Train AB to be the project developer and operate the Arlanda Express until 2040. The legal responsibility for the project was transferred from the consortium to A-Train in 1995.
As part of the agreement, A-Train received from the Swedish Government 850 million Swedish krona in a grant and SEK 1 billion in a loan to help finance the project. The company was allowed to operate a shuttle service from Stockholm C to Arlanda and charge a non-discriminating fee for all other trains using the line. Total investment costs for the project were SEK 6 billion, of which SEK 2 billion was financed through state grants to the Swedish Rail Administration who built the quadruple track along the East Coast Line; the public–private partnership part of the project involved two new tracks at Stockholm C and the Arlanda Line, costing SEK 4.1 billion. Of this, SEK 2.4 billion was financed by the state. In addition, the state held a financial guarantee to Nordea for the X3 trains, should A-Train fail to meets its financial obligations to the bank. A-Train was granted an interest-free deferral on the payment of the fees at Stockholm C and Arlanda, costing the state SEK 90 million. Of A-Train's capital loan for SEK 2.2 billion, SEK 1.8 billion was borrowed from three state-owned financial institutions: the Swedish National Debt Office, the Swedish Export Credit Corporation and the Nordic Investment Bank.
In addition, 20% of the share capital was secured through Vattenfall's equity in the company. The Arlanda Line and the Arlan
Stockholm commuter rail
Stockholm commuter rail is the commuter rail system in Stockholm County, Sweden. The system is an important part of the public transport in Stockholm, is controlled by Storstockholms Lokaltrafik; the tracks are state-owned and administered by the Swedish Transport Administration, while the operation of the Stockholm commuter rail services itself has been contracted to MTR Nordic since December 2016. Local trains have been operated on the mainline railways around Stockholm since the late nineteenth century. At the beginning, local rail services were part of the Swedish State Railways, but in the late-1960s, the responsibility for these services was transferred to Stockholm County, which incorporated it with the ticketing system of Stockholm Transport. New trains were bought, stations were modernised, the Stockholm commuter rail network was developed with an aim of making it more metro-like; the system was branded as SL förortståg, as SL lokaltåg. Only in the 1980s did the system became known as Stockholms pendeltåg.
In its first year of operation there was only one route which went from Södertälje södra to Kungsängen via Stockholm Central Station. On 1 June 1969, the system was extended to Märsta via a branch located after Karlberg Station and a new service was created in which trains on the Kungsängen branch terminated at Stockholm C instead. In 1975 another branch line opened to Västerhaninge, with a single-track shuttle service to Nynäshamn. Trains on the Kungsängen branch now terminated at Västerhaninge instead of Stockholm C and which now forms part of the modern line 35. From 1986 until 1996, important improvements were made to the railways around Stockholm. Single-track stretches were upgraded to double tracks, some double-track stretches were upgraded to four-track, allowing the commuter trains to run with less interference from other rail services; the service frequency was increased, from 2001 most stations on the network are served by trains at regular 15-minute intervals, with additional trains during rush hours.
In 2001, the northwestern arm of the network was extended from Kungsängen to Bålsta. A southern infill station at Årstaberg was inaugurated in 2006, in order to connect with the new Tvärbanan light rail system. A new station at Gröndalsviken opened on the southeastern Västerhaninge-Nynäshamn shuttle on 18 August 2008. Since 9 December 2012, it has been possible for Stockholm commuter rail trains to stop at Stockholm Arlanda Airport. Journeys take 38 minutes from Arlanda C station to Stockholm C, 18 minutes from Arlanda C to Uppsala C. Discussions on the expansion began in December 2007; the airport has had express service from Stockholm Central through Arlanda Express since 1999, was reachable by bus from Märsta station. The implementation required negotiations between Stockholm Transport and Arlanda Express, who had operating rights for the tracks. A rail tunnel underneath central Stockholm began construction in 2008 and opened on 10 July 2017; this new tunnel, known as Stockholm City Line, is intended for the exclusive use of the Pendeltåg system, will split commuter traffic onto separate tracks from long-distance trains while travelling through the city.
This would ease the rail systems' congestion problems, permit Stockholm Transport to schedule more frequent service. It will allow more frequent service for other trains, increasing the capacity for large parts of the Swedish rail network since many trains go to and from Stockholm. Two new underground stations, Stockholm City Station and Stockholm Odenplan Station were built as part of the Citybanan project. Operation of the Stockholm commuter rail lines has been contracted to private companies since 2000; the first franchise holder was Citypendeln, which operated the Stockholm commuter rail from 2000 until 17 June 2006. From 18 June 2006 until 10 December 2016, the network was operated by Stockholmståg, a subsidiary of SJ AB, the former Swedish State Railways company. Since 11 December 2016, MTR Nordic has operated the services on a ten-year contract with an option to extend for a further four. After the rerouting of December 2017, there are two lines on most railways, with different destinations.
On top of this, some trains are from this time quick skip-stop trains, 41X and 42X and 43X, which skip around four stops per tour. There are two main branches across the county which run through central Stockholm: line 43 runs from Nynäshamn in the southeast to Bålsta in the northwest and line 44 runs the same route but only betven Älvsjö and Kallhäll, line 41 connects Södertälje in the southwest with Märsta in the north while line 42 runs from Nynäshamn to Märsta; the shorter line 48 in the southwest connects Gnesta to Södertälje. Line 40 connects Uppsala C in the north to Södertälje in the southwest via Arlanda C, Upplands Väsby and Stockholm City Station, this branch from Uppsala C to Upplands Väsby used by Line 40 utilises the existing infrastructure of the Arlanda Line and a part of the East Coast Line sharing tracks and platforms with regional and long distance trains; the line to Nynäshamn beyond Västerhaninge is single track with passing loops. Short platforms and limited passing places meant that a change of train had to be made in Västerhaninge, but as of 2013 the line has been improved with longer platforms and additional loops, all services are now run through to Stockholm and Bålsta.
Trains operate ev
Cityterminalen is the central bus station of Stockholm. It is situated in the Norrmalm city district, is connected by a tunnel to the Stockholm Central Station. Most long range bus lines have a stop in Cityterminalen. Construction started on July 3, 1985, the station opened for traffic on January 20, 1989; the station is adjacent to the Stockholm World Trade Center. T-Centralen Media related to Cityterminalen at Wikimedia Commons Official website