Södermalm shortened to “Söder”, is a district and island in central Stockholm. The district covers the large island of the same name. Although Södermalm is considered an island, water to both its north and south does not flow but passes through locks. Södermalm is connected to its surrounding areas by a number of bridges, it connects to Gamla stan to the north by Slussen, a grid of road and rail and a lock that separates the lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea, to Långholmen to the northwest by one of the city's larger bridges, Västerbron, to the islet Reimersholme to the west, to Liljeholmen to the southwest by the bridge Liljeholmsbron, to Årsta by Årstabron and Skansbron, to Johanneshov by Johanneshovsbron and Skanstullsbron to the south, to Södra Hammarbyhamnen to the east by Danvikstull Bridge. Administratively, Södermalm is part of Stockholm Municipality, it constitutes, together with Gamla stan and some other districts, from 2007 the administrative district Södermalms stadsdelsområde translated as Södermalm borough.
The name Södermalm is first mentioned in 1288 in a letter from Bishop Anund of Strängnäs. Until the early 17th century Södermalm was a rural, agricultural area, its first urban areas were planned and built in the mid 17th century, comprising a mixture of working class housing, such as the little red cottages of which a few can still be seen in northeastern Södermalm, the summer houses and pavilions of wealthier families, such as Emanuel Swedenborg's pavilion, now in the outdoor museum Skansen. During this time, it was the location of the first theatre in Scandinavia, Björngårdsteatern. Södermalm is poetically named “Söders höjder”, which reflects its topography of sheer cliffs and rocky hills. Indeed, the hills of Södermalm provide remarkable views of Stockholm's skyline. In the 18th century, the working-class cottages that clung to Mariaberget, the steep cliffs facing Riddarfjärden, were replaced by the large buildings that are still present today, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that urbanisation grasped the entire width of Södermalm, today parts of Södermalm have a rural feeling to them, as for instance the landscape of tiny allotments that climb the slopes of Eriksdal.
Södermalm was once known as the "slum" area of Stockholm. However today, Södermalm is known as the home of bohemian, alternative culture and a broad range of cultural amenities. Meanwhile, the growing demand of housing, as well as an increasing gentrification of Stockholm's central parts, makes apartments in Södermalm more and more difficult or expensive to come by, thus what was. There are four parishes of the Church of Sweden on the island: Högalid, partitioned from the parish of Maria Magdalena in 1925. Maria Magdalena, partitioned from the Stockholm Cathedral parish in 1591, subsequently divided into the modern parishes. Katarina, partitioned from Maria Magdalena in 1654. Sofia, partitioned from Katarina in 1917 and includes parts of the mainland south of Södermalm. Södermalm is divided into the following neighbourhoods: Högalid: Bergsund Drakenberg Heleneborg Tantolunden Zinkensdamm Maria Magdalena: Mariaberget Mariatorget Slussen Södra stationsområdet Åsö: Eriksdal Helgalund Medborgarplatsen Rosenlund Skanstull Katarina-Sofia: Blecktornsområdet Danvikstull Ersta Norra Hammarbyhamnen Nytorget Mosebacke Göta LejonHögalid Church Karl Johanslussen Katarina Elevator Katarina Church Maria Magdalena Church Medborgarhuset Stockholm Mosque St. Eric's Cathedral Skatteskrapan Slussen Södra teatern Sofia kyrka Stockholm South Station Söder Torn Nytorget The songs and poems of the popular 18th century poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman are filled with recurring references to names of places bars and meadhalls, on Södermalm.
The celebrated first paragraph of August Strindberg's satirical novel The Red Room describes Stockholm as seen from Mosebacke on Södermalm, where much of the story takes place. City of My Dreams, the first in a series of books by Per Anders Fogelström telling the story of several generations of Stockholmers, follows the young worker Henning's life on Södermalm. Lisbeth Salander and other characters in the Millennium Trilogy by Stieg Larsson live and work on Södermalm. Much of the action in those books takes place in that district. Greta Garbo grew up in the area. Mojang, a video game developer and publisher best known for the creation of the popular game Minecraft, has their main offices located on Södermalm. Egalia SoFo Söder tea
Klara is a part of lower Norrmalm in the central part of Stockholm. It has its name from Klara Church. Today the name, though not used in daily speech, has become synonymous with the old city that once occupied lower Norrmalm. Arvfurstens palats Sagerska Palatset Klara Church Kulturhuset Sergels torg During the 1950s and 1960s Klara went through an extensive urban renewal project. Over 450 buildings were torn down and most of the existing houses in this area were rebuilt during the early 19th century. Before the demolitions the area was characterized by workshops; the new buildings on the other hand were office buildings. Many writers and journalists have condemned the demolitions. History of Stockholm
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Marieberg is a district in Kungsholmen borough in Stockholm, Sweden
Gärdet is a part of Stockholm and northeast of Östermalm. Its official name is Ladugårdsgärdet, it is renowned for its large number of modernist apartments. Gärdet is one of the largest residential districts built in Stockholm during the 1930s, built from 1929 until around 1950, houses about 10,000 people. All the buildings around Tessinparken were built between 1932 and 1937. Gärdet metro station Housing prototypes page with description of housing
Djurgården or, more Kungliga Djurgården is an island in central Stockholm, Sweden. Djurgården is home to historical buildings and monuments, galleries, the amusement park Gröna Lund, the open-air museum Skansen, the small residential area Djurgårdsstaden, yacht harbours, extensive stretches of forest and meadows, it is one of the Stockholmers' favorite recreation areas and tourist destinations alike, attracting over 10 million visitors per year, of which some 5 million come to visit the museums and amusement park. The island belongs to the National City park founded in 1995. Since the 15th century the Swedish monarch has owned or held the right of disposition of Royal Djurgården. Today, this right is exercised by the Royal Djurgården Administration, a part of the Royal Court of Sweden. A larger area of the city, separated from Djurgården proper by Djurgårdsbrunnsviken is Norra Djurgården, including Gärdet. Djurgården was until the 16th century known as Valmundsö and this name is still preserved in locations such as Waldemarsudde.
Though several proposals to explain this name have been put forward, no authoritative explanation is accepted. While the name of King Valdemar was associated with the old name during the 17th century, the separate elements of the original variations of the name might be interpreted as etymologically related to either Walm-und-ö - if walm is linked to the Anglo-Saxon words wielm, this would mean the original name should be interpreted as "The island outside of which the waves grow large" - or Wal-mund-ö - which could be interpreted as walder and mun, i.e. "the grounds next to the mouth of Lake Mälaren". The present name, Djurgården, stems from the game park of King John III, which he declared the intention to realize in February 1579 to keep deer and elk. In the 17th century a baiting arena was built at the location. In 1667, a few cottages intended for "paralysed and crippled seafarers" were built forming what was to become Djurgårdsstaden; the Swedish Navy moved to Karlskrona during the 1680s however, the neighbourhood was instead populated by a diverse crowd.
Plans to demolish the "insignificant shacks" in front of the World Fair in 1897, for a planned expansion of the naval shipyard in 1918, never were accomplished and the area is today protected as a historical monument. During the late 18th century, Djurgården transformed into more of a popular recreational area than a Royal game park. King Charles XIV John's creation of the Rosendal Palace in the 1820s marked the beginning of Djurgården's development as a stately residential area, paired with the creation of several entertainment establishments in the late 19th century, including Gröna Lund 1883, Skansen 1891. At a café just south of Skansen, in block Alberget, sports club Djurgårdens IF was founded on 12 March 1891; the western waterfront of the island was a small scale shipyard during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, after which the Navy erected some 30 sheds for the winter quarters of galleys in the area. The operations expanded during the 1870s. Plans to relocate the shipyard in the beginning of the 20th century were interrupted by World War II, which meant the activities grew instead, culminating in 1945 when 1,280 people were employed.
In 1969, the Navy moved to Muskö, in the early 1970s the area was transformed into the recreation area it is today. Many structures on the western part of Djurgården date back to the Stockholm World's Fair of 1897, including Djurgårdsbron, the main bridge to the island. One of the most prominent buildings of the exposition, a 16,820 m² exposition hall in wood, design by the architect Ferdinand Boberg and featuring a 100 metres tall cupola and 4 minarets, was demolished after the exposition however, together with many other pavilions built in non-permanent materials. In what is today the southern part of the amusement park Gröna Lund and east of it, a private shipyard was developed from 1735 by the merchant Efraim Lothsack, who had several new residential buildings built; the activities grew during the 19th century under the managership of John Burgman and Adolf Fredholm, of which the former had the church, Djurgårdskyrkan, the school, Djurgårdsskolan, built. The shipyard was sold to the city in 1863 and moved to Södra Hammarbyhamnen in 1979.
Another shipyard for pinnaces, built in the strait between Djurgården and Beckholmen in 1868, is still in operation. The southern portion of the area hosted the Stockholm International Exhibition. Besides the list below, a big portion of Djurgården consists of green areas offering footpaths and water front promenades among present or historical upper class residences and old institutional buildings, many of which are regarded as historical monuments of national interest. ABBA: The Museum Aquaria Water Museum - A small museum displaying a salmon ladder, an artificial rainforest and Nordic environments. Beckholmen - historical maritime environment including several dry docks and historical buildings. Biological Museum - Built in 1893, displaying stuffed animals in artificial environments representing various typical Swedish landscapes. Cirkus - Originally a circus, it today offers concerts and mus
Östermalm is a 2.56 km² large district in central Stockholm, Sweden. With 71,802 inhabitants it is one of the most populous districts in Stockholm. It's an expensive area, having the highest housing prices in Sweden. During the reign of the ruler of all of Scandinavia, king Eric of Pomerania in the early 15th century, a royal cowshed/barn was erected on the lands of the village Vädla. Since the town of Stockholm had grown and started to encroach on the borders of that village, there were lots of complaints about animals causing damage in the town. In the 17th century, the inhabitants of Stockholm were allowed to keep their cattle there. In 1639, parts of the allocated land for the cowshed/barn were put up for development. In 1672 the eastern part became a military exercise field. During the following 200 years, it was the home of some higher officers but the majority of the inhabitants were poor. A new town plan presented around 1880 implied a grid of streets and avenues, to become lined with elegant houses, with 4–6 floors.
With this plan implemented it put an end to the rustic appearance of the district. The old official name "Ladugårdslandet" was replaced with "Östermalm". Since the Crown had been the owner of parts of the district for centuries a number of official buildings and higher public educational institutions were located in this area. In the 20th century, a large number of embassies, including those of America, France, Poland, Thailand and Malaysia were established in Östermalm; the Berwaldhallen, home of both the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Swedish Radio Choir, is situated on Dag Hammarskjölds väg, Östermalm. Diplomatstaden Eriksberg Lärkstaden Nedre Östermalm Villastaden Övre Östermalm Karlaplan: metro 13 Stadion: metro 14 Stockholm Östra/Tekniska Högskolan: suburban railway 27, 28, 29 and metro 14 Östermalmstorg: metro 13, 14 Stureparken Geography of Stockholm