Vasastaden, or colloquially Vasastan, is a 3.00 km² large city district in central Stockholm, being a part of Norrmalm borough. With 58,458 inhabitants it is the third most populous, the second most densely populated district in Stockholm; the major parks in Vasastaden are Vasaparken and Observatorielunden near the centre and Vanadislunden and Bellevueparken in the north. The city district, most named after the street Vasagatan, in its turn named after King Gustav Vasa in 1885, was still a peripheral part of the city in the early 1880s. Before the end of that decade, some 150 buildings had been built and only the properties along Odengatan remained vacant; the expansion was preceded by a city plan established in 1879, a more modest edition of the 1866 intentions of city planner Albert Lindhagen, in its turn a continuation north of an original 17th-century plan. Like the Baroque plan, the new plan took little or no account of local topographic variations, where the two failed to reconcile, sites were set aside as parks or for major structures such as the Sabbatsberg Hospital.
Compared to central Stockholm, streets were widened to 18 metres, except for the main east-west-bound street Odengatan, made 30 metres wide and adorned with plantings after continental prototypes. In accordance with construction charters from the 1870s, building corners where filleted and building heights adopted to street width and limited to five floors — embellishing proportions intended to bring light and air into the urban space; the Neo-Renaissance plaster architecture of the middle class residential buildings in southern Vasastaden is reminiscent of the Ringstraße in Vienna. Architects failed to appreciate these Neo-Renaissance buildings and freed many of them of most of their decorations; the north-eastern part of the district is called Sibirien. The area borders Östermalm but has been a stronghold for the working class; the origin of the name Sibirien originates from a time when the area was inhabited by the poor, who could not afford heating. People started to say, hence the nickname.
In the north-western corner of the district are eight blocks forming Birkastaden, named after the 9th century settlement Birka, sometimes called Rörstrandsområdet which forms the compact northern frontier of Stockholm's historical city centre. As described above, Lindhagen's original intentions for the elevated area was to keep it as a park featuring the 17th century avenue of Karlberg Palace. In the city plan of 1879, the area was divided into two large blocks, which on a request from the local landowner, porcelain factory Rörstrand, in 1886 were split up into smaller properties; this resulted in a new city plan, adopted to local topographic variations and therefore features non-perpendicular street crossings. Few buildings were constructed before the start of the 20th century, but construction work soon boomed to culminate in 1905–06, speculation causing many buildings to change owners several times before their completion. All the buildings in Birkastaden are Art Nouveau, a result of both the brief construction period and the fact that some 50 buildings were designed by architects Dorph & Höög, at the time the largest architectural practice in Northern Europe.
The buildings of Birkastan features oriel windows, towers on the corners, rounded pediments and bright, plain plaster façades with thrifty decorations. As a result of speculation, the backyards are narrow, many flats shadowy. From the start, Birkastan was a mixed area shared by both low and high income earners. Röda bergen, the hilly area just north of Birkastan, was unsuitable for the regular and perpendicular street pattern envisaged for Vasastaden, but proved excellent for the new city planning ideals where the terrain was allowed to govern city plans; the plan for Röda Bergen was designed by P O Hallman, who during the 1910s produced similar plans for Lärkstaden inspired by the ideas of Austrian architect Camillo Sitte. His plan for Röda Bergen was adopted in 1909, but because of World War I most of these plans remained unrealised until the 1920s. In 1923 the plan modified by Sigurd Lewerentz, was established; the buildings facing the surrounding blocks are traditional 5–6 floors residential buildings forming a wall around Röda Bergen.
From the monumental eastern entrance, an avenue leads west to a round elevated space where a church was planned. Perpendicular to this avenue, the trafficked Torsgatan cuts through the area; the blocks within Röda Bergen are limited to 2–3 floors and most of the backyards are open in one end, which allows for plenty of sun light and series of spaces appealing to the eye. Hallman's design was a sharp break with the contemporary narrow and filthy backyards. In contrast to them, the involved architects — including Björn Hedwall, Paul Hedqvist, Sven Wallander — detailed the façades and gables facing the interior with simple classical ornaments and warm red and yellow colours. Of the 2.500 flats in the area, many included novelties such as warm and cold water, WC, bath tubes, but most of them were small — half of them was a single room with a kitchen or less. The area next to the Sankt Eriksbron bridge was until the turn of century 1900 a industrial district; the Atlas Area, east of the bridge and named after industrial company Atlas AB whose workshops used to
Södermalm shortened to “Söder”, is a district and island in central Stockholm. The district covers the large island of the same name. Although Södermalm is considered an island, water to both its north and south does not flow but passes through locks. Södermalm is connected to its surrounding areas by a number of bridges, it connects to Gamla stan to the north by Slussen, a grid of road and rail and a lock that separates the lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea, to Långholmen to the northwest by one of the city's larger bridges, Västerbron, to the islet Reimersholme to the west, to Liljeholmen to the southwest by the bridge Liljeholmsbron, to Årsta by Årstabron and Skansbron, to Johanneshov by Johanneshovsbron and Skanstullsbron to the south, to Södra Hammarbyhamnen to the east by Danvikstull Bridge. Administratively, Södermalm is part of Stockholm Municipality, it constitutes, together with Gamla stan and some other districts, from 2007 the administrative district Södermalms stadsdelsområde translated as Södermalm borough.
The name Södermalm is first mentioned in 1288 in a letter from Bishop Anund of Strängnäs. Until the early 17th century Södermalm was a rural, agricultural area, its first urban areas were planned and built in the mid 17th century, comprising a mixture of working class housing, such as the little red cottages of which a few can still be seen in northeastern Södermalm, the summer houses and pavilions of wealthier families, such as Emanuel Swedenborg's pavilion, now in the outdoor museum Skansen. During this time, it was the location of the first theatre in Scandinavia, Björngårdsteatern. Södermalm is poetically named “Söders höjder”, which reflects its topography of sheer cliffs and rocky hills. Indeed, the hills of Södermalm provide remarkable views of Stockholm's skyline. In the 18th century, the working-class cottages that clung to Mariaberget, the steep cliffs facing Riddarfjärden, were replaced by the large buildings that are still present today, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that urbanisation grasped the entire width of Södermalm, today parts of Södermalm have a rural feeling to them, as for instance the landscape of tiny allotments that climb the slopes of Eriksdal.
Södermalm was once known as the "slum" area of Stockholm. However today, Södermalm is known as the home of bohemian, alternative culture and a broad range of cultural amenities. Meanwhile, the growing demand of housing, as well as an increasing gentrification of Stockholm's central parts, makes apartments in Södermalm more and more difficult or expensive to come by, thus what was. There are four parishes of the Church of Sweden on the island: Högalid, partitioned from the parish of Maria Magdalena in 1925. Maria Magdalena, partitioned from the Stockholm Cathedral parish in 1591, subsequently divided into the modern parishes. Katarina, partitioned from Maria Magdalena in 1654. Sofia, partitioned from Katarina in 1917 and includes parts of the mainland south of Södermalm. Södermalm is divided into the following neighbourhoods: Högalid: Bergsund Drakenberg Heleneborg Tantolunden Zinkensdamm Maria Magdalena: Mariaberget Mariatorget Slussen Södra stationsområdet Åsö: Eriksdal Helgalund Medborgarplatsen Rosenlund Skanstull Katarina-Sofia: Blecktornsområdet Danvikstull Ersta Norra Hammarbyhamnen Nytorget Mosebacke Göta LejonHögalid Church Karl Johanslussen Katarina Elevator Katarina Church Maria Magdalena Church Medborgarhuset Stockholm Mosque St. Eric's Cathedral Skatteskrapan Slussen Södra teatern Sofia kyrka Stockholm South Station Söder Torn Nytorget The songs and poems of the popular 18th century poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman are filled with recurring references to names of places bars and meadhalls, on Södermalm.
The celebrated first paragraph of August Strindberg's satirical novel The Red Room describes Stockholm as seen from Mosebacke on Södermalm, where much of the story takes place. City of My Dreams, the first in a series of books by Per Anders Fogelström telling the story of several generations of Stockholmers, follows the young worker Henning's life on Södermalm. Lisbeth Salander and other characters in the Millennium Trilogy by Stieg Larsson live and work on Södermalm. Much of the action in those books takes place in that district. Greta Garbo grew up in the area. Mojang, a video game developer and publisher best known for the creation of the popular game Minecraft, has their main offices located on Södermalm. Egalia SoFo Söder tea
Automatic train control
Automatic train control is a general class of train protection systems for railways that involves a speed control mechanism in response to external inputs. ATC systems tend to integrate various cab signalling technologies and they use more granular deceleration patterns in lieu of the rigid stops encountered with the older automatic train stop technology. ATC can be used with automatic train operation and is considered to be the safety-critical part of the system. Over time, there have been many different safety systems labeled as "automatic train control"; the first was used from 1906 by the Great Western Railway, although it would now be referred to as an AWS. The term is common in Japan, where ATC is used on all Shinkansen lines and on some conventional rail lines as a replacement for ATS; the accident report for the 2006 Qalyoub accident mentions an ATC system. In 2017, Huawei was contracted to install GSM-R to provide communication services to automatic train protection systems. ATC-1 is used on the Tōkaidō and Sanyō Shinkansen since 1964.
The system used on the Tōkaido Shinkansen is classified as ATC-1A and ATC-1B on the Sanyō Shinkansen. Utilizing trackside speed limits of 0, 30, 70, 110, 160 and 210 km/h, it was upgraded to utilize speed limits of 0, 30, 70, 120, 170, 220, 230, 255, 270, 275, 285 and 300 km/h with the introduction of new rolling stock on both lines. Variants include ATC-1D and ATC-1W, the latter being used on the Sanyō Shinkansen. Since 2006, the Tōkaidō Shinkansen's ATC-1A system has been superseded by ATC-NS. Used on the Tōhoku, Jōetsu and Nagano Shinkansen routes, it utilized 0, 30, 70, 110, 160, 210 and 240 km/h trackside speed limits. In recent years, ATC-2 has been superseded by DS-ATC; the Japanese ATC-2 system is not to be confused with the Ansaldo L10000 ATC system, similar to the EBICAB ATC system, as well as the ATC-2 system used in Sweden. The first implementation of ATC in Japan, it was first used on Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line in 1961 and on the Tokyo Metro Tōzai Line. Stands for Wayside-ATC. Both lines converted to New CS-ATC in 2007 respectively.
WS-ATC is used on 5 Osaka Municipal Subway lines. First used on the Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line in 1971, CS-ATC, is an analogue ATC technology using ground-based control, like all ATC systems, used cab signalling. CS-ATC uses trackside speed limits of 0, 40, 55, 75 and 90 km/h, its use has extended to include the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line, Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line, most the Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line. It is used on all Nagoya Municipal Subway lines and 3 Osaka Municipal Subway lines. Introduced on the Sōbu Line and the Yokosuka Line from 1972 to 1976, it utilized trackside speed limits of 0, 25, 45, 65, 75 and 90 km/h. ATC-5 was deactivated on both lines in 2004 in favour of ATS-P. Introduced in 1972, used on the Saikyō Line and Keihin-Tōhoku Line and Yamanote Line; some freight trains were fitted with ATC-6 as well. In 2003 and 2006, the Keihin-Tōhoku and Yamanote Lines replaced their ATC-6 systems with D-ATC. Used on the Chikuhi Line in Kyushu. Developed from ATC-4, ATC-10 can be compatible with D-ATC and compatible with the older CS-ATC technology.
ATC-10 can be seen as a hybrid of analogue and digital technology, although ATC-10 is not recommended for use with D-ATC because of poor performance of the full-service brake during trial tests. It is used on the Tokyo Metro Hanzomon Line, Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line, Tōkyū Den-en-toshi Line, Tōkyū Tōyoko Line and Tsukuba Express. Used on the Kaikyō Line along with Automatic Train Stop since 1988. Digital ATC is a digitized form of automatic train control in use on a few Japan Railway lines; the following forms of Digital ATC are in existence. Used on non-high speed lines on some East Japan Railway Company lines. Stands for Digital ATC, its main difference from the older analog ATC technology is the shift from ground-based control to train-based control, allowing braking to reflect each train's ability, improving comfort and safety. The fact that it can increase speeds and provide for denser timetables is important for Japan's busy railways. First D-ATC was enabled on the section of track from Tsurumi Station to Minami-Urawa Station on the Keihin-Tohoku Line on 21 December 2003 following the conversion of the 209 series trains there to support D-ATC.
The Yamanote Line was D-ATC enabled in April 2005, following the replacement of all old 205 series rolling stock to the new, D-ATC enabled E231 series trains. There are plans to D-ATC enable the rest of the Keihin-Tohoku line and the Negishi line, pending conversion of onboard and ground-based systems; the ATC system on the Toei Shinjuku Line in use from 14 May 2005 is similar to D-ATC. Since 18 March 2006, Digital ATC has been enabled for Tōkaidō Shinkansen, the original Shinkansen owned by Central Japan Railway Company, replacing the old analog ATC system. D-ATC is used with the Taiwan High Speed 700T train built for the Taiwan High Speed Rail, which opened in early January 2007. Implemented on Shinkansen lines operated by JR East. Stands for Digital communication & control for Shi
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Riddarholmen is a small islet in central Stockholm, Sweden. The island forms part of Gamla Stan, the old town, houses a number of private palaces dating back to the 17th century; the main landmark is the church Riddarholmskyrkan, used as Sweden's royal burial church from the 17th century to 1950, where a number of earlier Swedish monarchs lie buried. The western end of the island gives a magnificent panoramic and photogenic view of the bay Riddarfjärden used by TV journalists with Stockholm City Hall in the background. A statue of Birger Jarl, traditionally considered the founder of Stockholm, stands on a pillar in front of the Bonde Palace, north of Riddarholm Church. Other notable buildings include the Old Parliament Building in the south-eastern corner, the Old National Archive on the eastern shore, the Norstedt Building, the old printing house of the publisher Norstedts, the tower roof of, a well-known silhouette on the city's skyline. While the Riddarholm Church dates back to the Middle Ages, is one of Stockholm's oldest buildings, most of the present structures on Riddarholmen were built during the 17th century when the island was an aristocratic setting that gave the islet its present name.
Three of the palaces are gathered around the central public square, Birger Jarls Torg centred on the 19th-century statue of Birger Jarl: The Wrangel Palace on the west side, the most impressive, incorporates a medieval defensive tower and a portal designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. North of the square, the two 19th-century wings of the Palace of Schering Rosenhane reach the rustic main building, which dates from the 17th century. Wrangel Palace, the palaces of Hessenstein, Schering Rosenhane are today used by Svea Hovrätt, the appellate court for Svealand, while the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court reside in the palaces of Bonde and Stenbock respectively; some of the older Swedish Government Agencies, like the Legal and Administrative Services Agency and the Chancellor of Justice, are located on the island. According to a Swedish guide book, these anonymous institutions, together with the motorway Centralbron that isolates the island from the rest of the city, make the island as a whole a lifeless and dull environment, despite ambitious restorations during the 1990s.
The island is first mentioned as Kidaskär in the Eric Chronicles from around 1325, which recounts how King Magnus Ladulås had a Greyfriars monastery built on the island about 1270, asking in his will that he be buried in it in 1285. During the Middle Ages, the original name disappeared from historical records, replaced by Gråbrödraholm, Gråmunkeholm, the latter most used until the 17th century; the monastery, closed following the Protestant Reformation and was subsequently converted into a church. As consequence, the name changed in the 1630s, the island being referred to as Riddarholmen, för detta Gråmunkeholm kallad in 1638; the old name did persist however, so while Charles XI preferred the new name, his youngest daughter Ulrika Eleonora remained faithful to the old. C. K. G. Billings's yacht Vanadis is now anchored at Riddarholmen, is used as a hotel known as Mälardrottningen with the ship rechristened as Lady Hutton. History of Stockholm Geography of Stockholm List of streets and squares in Gamla stan Riddarholmsbron Hebbes Bro Birger Jarls torn Media related to Riddarholmen at Wikimedia Commons
Odenplan metro station
Odenplan metro station is a station on the green line of the Stockholm metro, next Odenplan in Vasastaden, Stockholm, in the city centre. The station was inaugurated on 26 October 1952, it is 3.4 km from Slussen. As part of the Stockholm City Line, the station was connected to the Pendeltåg network in July 2017. Piano stairs at Odenplan Images of Odenplan
Centralbron is one of the major traffic routes in central Stockholm, connecting the northern district Norrmalm to the southern Södermalm. It is 1,200 metres long and consists of two viaducts passing over Söderström and Riddarfjärden close to Norrström with an interjacent elevated section traversing Riddarholmskanalen and the adjacent eastern waterfront of Riddarholmen. Centralbron has a capacity for 130,000 cars per day, it is paralleled by the bridges and the tunnel of a two-track railway used by the commuter and freight trains. Centralbron does go on top of the Metro which opened on this stretch 1957 and planned together with the bridge. Over the years, Centralbron together with a suggested additional railway track have been much criticized and debated because of their unwieldy and rumbling presence in a delicate historical setting; the construction of a tunnel to replace them has been suggested. The cost of such a tunnel, several billion kronor, has put this on hold without any time set. A new metro tunnel has been suggested because the metro goes below and parallel to Centralbron, making it a total of seven rail tracks and six road lanes crossing the water south of Gamla Stan on bridges.
A new railway tunnel costing 15 billion kronor was finished in 2017 but the existing railway was kept. The older railway is being upgraded during eight weeks each summer until 2020. Nearby bridges include Riddarholmsbron, Strömsborgsbron, Hebbes Bro. Since the first decade of the 20th century, numerous proposals labelled "Centralbron" had been produced and more than 20 of them scrapped before the elaboration of the general plan of 1928. During the 1930s the need for a "central bridge" crossing Gamla stan, the old city, declined due to the realization of the plans for a western traffic route, Västerbron, the clover-shaped traffic junction at Slussen, both inaugurated in 1935. In 1930 plans for a Centralbron was therefore substituted by a temporary solution, by its customers dubbed Slingerbultsleden, criss-crossing the western streets of Gamla stan using two temporary bridges crossing Riddarholmskanalen to open out on Vasabron. While the metro system and Centralbron were being constructed Slingerbultsleden had to be scrapped, in 1953 it was substituted by a 240-metre-long pontoon bridge connecting the northern end of the now non-existent Riddarholmskajen to Klara strand.
Its 7 metres wide roadway had a maximum capacity of 20,000 cars per day and remained in use until the completion of the northern bridge in 1967. WW2 further delayed any attempts to elaborate a permanent solution, but in 1947 a decision to build a southern bridge crossing Söderström was taken, work begun in 1950; the 189-metre-long and 21.3-metre-wide bridge stretches over six spans with a maximum span of 33.7 metres. The continuous steel girders of the roadway are resting on concrete pillars anchored to the soil by numerous poles. To the south, another two spans are stretching some 46 metres over Söder Mälarstrand before three smaller spans hands the roadway over to Söderledstunneln. To the north, the bridge is continuous with a 173-metre-long viaduct passing over the Gamla stan metro station, opened 1957; the viaduct is made of a concrete roadway resting on steel girders. The entire structure was completed and inaugurated June 16, 1959 and the name'Centralbron' made official by a naming committee that assumed a Österbron would be built, thus making Centralbron a truly'central' bridge.
An eastern route is as of 2008 not a timely topic, for several reasons but because of the Royal National City Park taking up most of the area east of the city, thus making such a route infeasible. There is however a Western Bridge; the realization of the northern bridge stretching over Norrström had to be postponed until the enlargement of the traffic junction at Tegelbacken was resolved in 1961. The bridge inaugurated September 3, 1967, is a 246-metre-long and 22.3-metre-wide reinforced concrete structure with an average span of 19 meters. To the north, it makes a sharp turn to the west where it extends over the railway, connects to Klarastrandsleden; the bridge over the railway replaced a level crossing nicknamed Tegelbackseländet, since it created long traffic jams as an effect of the 1960s traffic increase. List of bridges in Stockholm History of Stockholm