Linköping/Saab Airport, branded as Linköping City Airport, is situated in Linköping, Sweden. The airport is shared between Saab. List of the largest airports in the Nordic countries Media related to Linköping City Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for ESSL at NOAA/NWS Accident history for LPI at Aviation Safety Network
Stockholm Bromma Airport
Stockholm Bromma Airport is a Swedish domestic and minor international airport in Stockholm. It is located 4 NM west-northwest of downtown Stockholm and is the closest to the city compared to the other commercial passenger airports in the area around Stockholm. Bromma is Sweden's third-busiest airport by passenger traffic and take-offs and landings as of 2015. During the 1930s the need for a proper airport for Stockholm, the capital city of Sweden, became urgent; the airport was opened on 23 May 1936 by King Gustav V, was the first airport in Europe to have paved runways from the start. During World War II Swedish and British aircraft flew to the United Kingdom from Bromma Airport. Since these flights sometimes carried Norwegian and Danish refugees the airport became of interest for German spies, two Swedish Douglas DC-3 that had taken off from Bromma were shot down by the Germans during the war. After the war the airport flourished, two noted airlines that operated from the airport were Aktiebolaget Aerotransport which subsequently became the Swedish partner in Scandinavian Airlines System and Linjeflyg.
However the runway of Bromma was too short for the jet age and for intercontinental traffic in the 1960s, the capacity limit of Bromma could be foreseen, therefore the Stockholm Arlanda Airport was built. With the opening of the Arlanda Airport in 1960–62, all international traffic moved there, the domestic traffic followed in 1983. Bromma became the domain of business jets, general aviation and flight schools in addition to government use. Several of the old hangars were separated from the airport area and turned into shopping outlets adjacent to the airport. With the start of operations by Malmö Aviation with services to Gothenburg, Malmö and London City Airport the airport has experienced something of a renaissance. In 2002 a new control tower was put into use on Ranhammarshöjden and the terminal which had become rundown after years of neglect was renovated; the airport underwent further improvements in 2005 and is now capable of separating passengers arriving from within and outside of the Schengen area.
Sweden's first FBO, Grafair Jet Center, was built in 2004 at Bromma Airport. The Swedish CAA at the time, announced a bidding process in 2003 for a contract to build a General Aviation terminal at the airport in order to improve the ground services provided for the general aviation customers flying to Stockholm and Bromma Airport. Grafair won the contract and went on to build the FBO, finished 11 November 2004; the Grafair Jet Center was voted the 3rd best international FBO in May 2008 in AIN - Aviation International News. Expansion of the airport is limited by noise issues, a lack of space, the necessity to preserve the cultural heritage. With the completion of the third runway at Stockholm Arlanda Airport there is a capacity surplus at that airport, there are conflicting views on whether to use the land occupied by Bromma Airport for residential and commercial purposes. Bromma's main advantage over the much larger Arlanda Airport is its proximity to the centre of Stockholm. However, Arlanda's fast rail link, completed in 1999, means that Bromma's competitive edge in this respect is somewhat lost.
Both airports are now 20 minutes from Stockholm Central railway station. Since far from all passengers using Arlanda go there by train, Bromma still has a location advantage. For Bromma Airport there has been discussion about a future light railway to pass by; the light railway Tvärbanan extension has been inaugurated in 2013, but the nearest stop is 1 km away at Karlsbodavägen. A branch line of Tvärbanan with a stop at the airport is planned to be in operation by 2021; when the airport opened in 1936 the surrounding area was rural, however as the city has expanded noise has become an issue. Therefore, certain measures have been put in place, such as limiting airport operations to the daytime, limiting the type of commercial aircraft which are allowed to operate from the airport and soundproofing residential homes near the airport. There has been a suggestion of denying general aviation and flight schools use of the airport, in order to lessen the impact on the surrounding community. In late 2014 the Red-Green alliance won control of both Stockholm city and the government in the general election.
They have plans to shut down the airport and build apartments instead. There is however a contract between the city and Swedavia allowing usage of the airport area until 2038; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights at Stockholm-Bromma: Bromma Airport is home of two flight clubs, as well as a flight school. Airport coaches travel directly between the City Terminal. Buses 110 and 152 of the Stockholm Transit system stop at the airport or have a bus stop close to the airport. Travel time to central Stockholm is 30 minutes, via Alvik or Sundbyberg. SL bus tickets must be purchased before boarding. There is a taxi stand at the airport, the proximity to central Stockholm ensures that the availability is sufficient at most times. There is parking at the terminal, short-term and long-term parking lots. Terminal parking costs 45 Swedish kronor/h and is limited to one hour, while short-term and long-term parking is less expensive depending on the length of time; the parking lots are managed by the airport authority Luftfartsverket.
On 18 February 1951, a RAF Vickers Valetta with 22 passengers and crew on a military fl
Luleå Airport is located about 7 km south-southeast of Luleå, near the village of Kallax. The airport had a total of 1,177,443 passengers in 2015, is thus Sweden's fifth largest airport, it is the largest airport in northern Sweden. The runway is used by the Norrbotten Air Force Wing; the airport began as the military airfield Norrbotten Air Force Wing in 1941 and opened up to civilian traffic to Stockholm on September 11, 1944. Winter operations began in 1948 when a hangar was built and runway lights were operational. International tourist charters started in 1969; the present terminal building was opened in 1984. The number of passengers increased a lot in the 1980s and decreased much in the 1990s, both here and in all of Sweden, reached one million at Luleå in 1991, a figure, reached again 2011; the passenger figures have still been steady at Luleå since other transport modes and other airports are less attractive when going to Luleå. In 1999 the runway at Luleå Airport was extended to 3,350 meters for cargo flights, but that has not led to an increase in traffic.
List of the largest airports in the Nordic countries Media related to Luleå Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Airport information for ESPA at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks; the lower part of each leaf encloses the stem. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. Grasses are an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands and tundra; the Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, rice and millet as well as forage, building materials and fuel.
Though they are called "grasses", seagrasses and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales; the name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, they became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, fossilized dinosaur dung have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and intertidal habitats, are the most widespread plant type. A cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets: Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago.
Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. Wu, You & Li described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation; the authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, therefore all other continents at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses must have existed before late Aptian. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probableThe relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more related to each other than to Oryzoideae; this separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years.
According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. King argued that this was the result of more acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in more soil creep. Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs with the following characteristics: The stems of grasses, called culms, are cylindrical and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous, have parallel veins; each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging a blade with entire margins. The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in each having one or more florets.
The spikelets are further grouped into spikes. The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at called glumes, followed by one or more florets. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea; the flowers are hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects play a role. The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; this complex structure can be seen in the image on the right. The fruit of grasses is a caryopsis. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips; this low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown without severe damage to the plant. Three general classifications of growth habit present in g
Kristianstad Airport is situated outside Kristianstad in Scania, Sweden. In 2016, Kristianstad Airport AB was owned by Kristianstads kommun, Hässleholms kommun, Bromölla kommun and Östra Göinge kommun, it employed 24 people. Since scheduled operations commenced, Stockholm has been by far the most important route out of Kristianstad and is the only one. In the past, several other destinations were served out of Kristianstad from time to time; the airport was built during the 1940s for military usage. A paved runway was taken into use by 1953. Following a cooperation between Kristianstad and further communities in Northeastern Skåne, scheduled flights commenced out of Kristianstad in April 1961 to Stockholm Bromma with Linjeflyg. Linjeflyg offered two weekdaily roundtrips using a Couglas DC-3. Flyglinjen upgraded the service to Convair Metropolitan until introducing much larger jet-engined Fokker F28 on the route. From 1983, Linjeflyg withdrew flights to Bromma in favor of Stockholm-Arlanda. In 1988, the airport saw its first international route.
Flights were operated by Muk Air. The flights were discontinued in 2000 following the opening of the Öresund bridge, drastically shortining travel time on land from Kristianstad to Copenhagen. Further international flights were introduced in 1993, when Air Lithuania started flights to Kaunas and Palanga; the airline flew in Kristianstad for ten years. In 1993, Linjeflyg was integrated into SAS Scandinavian Airlines, meaning that flights to Stockholm Arlanda now were operated and marketed by SAS. Between 1998 and 2001, Ryanair flew between Kristianstad and London-Stansted using its Boeing 737 fleet; the service was cancelled despite having a contractual obligation to run flights until 2003. The closure was predominantly caused by reintroduced Ryanair flights from London to Malmö-Sturup, located close to Kristianstad. In April 2002, SAS Scandinavian Airlines announced that it would close down flights from Kristianstad to Stockholm-Arlanda by the end of October alongside with other destinations. At the time of closure, SAS made five daily return flights.
Two airlines subsequently assumed the route: Skyways using Fokker 50 aircraft to Stockholm-Arlanda and Malmö Aviation with jet aircraft to Stockholm-Bromma. The competitors offered a total of 10 daily frequencies to Stockholm when they both commenced their flights out of Kristianstad on 28 October 2002; the two carriers were in stiff competition for passengers as the market was not huge enough for two carriers offering multiple-daily flights. Malmö Aviation therefore withdrew their flights in late March 2003, half a year after they had started, leaving Skyways as the only carrier on the Stockholm route. Furthermore Air Lithuania cancelled its Kaunas/Palangs service in March 2003; the route was subsequently taken over by Direktflyg, offering flights from Gothenburg via Kristianstad to Palanga and vice versa. The service lasted for about one year. In 2006, the airport entered a contract with Gothenburg-based City Airline over new twice-daily flights to Stockholm-Bromma. City Airline was given a minimum revenue guarantee of 4m SEK per months.
Should its revenues out of Kristianstad fall below, the airport would pay the difference. The flights were to the mishap of incumbent carrier Skyways. Skyways went to court; the court confirmed Skyways' position in December 2006, when the airport had paid 5.6 mSEK to City Airline. City Airline closed subsequently closed the route in April 2007. Due to the cancellation of the revenue guarantee, it lacked 15 mSek. In 2009, it agreed with the airport. Skyways itself required 17m SEK compensation, it settled the case with the airport in 2008. In 2011, Skyways commenced international flights from Kristanstad to Berlin Tegel; the three-weekly flights started on 2 May but were dropped three weeks on 27 May. Skyways ceased all operations due to financial reasons on 22 May 2012 without prior notice. Kristianstad thereby was left without any scheduled flights. Following the bankruptcy of Skyways, the airport was left without scheduled flights since May 2012. However, it lasted until August 20; the new operator was young and small virtual carrier "Flyglinjen".
As the company lacked an own licence, it deployed a Saab 340 chartered from Sky Taxi on the route and offered up to three daily flights. The Polish Saab 340 was replaced by a larger Fokker 50 chartered from Greek Minoan Air in October; the Fokker itself was again replaced in August 2013 by an Embraer 145 jet aircraft operated by bmi regional. Despite now having a new carrier in place, the passenger numbers declined as Fliglinjen just offered a much smaller capacity than Skyways once did. In 2014, the airport handled around 39500 passengers; the airport accepted several charter flights to Antalya in Turkey as well to a few more destinations. Furthermore, Flyglinjen continued its operations to Stockholm but changed its name to Sparrow Aviation in August. Kristianstad Airport AB revenues totalled 4,692 mSEK while it made a loss of 14.000 SEK. In 2016, the number of passengers dropped by 5000 to 30000; this was due to the fact, that not a single charter flight to Turkey took place and a reduced number of flights by Sparrow Aviation.
Furthermore, the airport and the virtual carrier agreed a new contract for future operations. Despite having a turnover of 8,05 mSEK, Kristianstad Airport AB lost 6,282 mSEK that year. Media related to Kristianstad Österlen Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official Website Curr
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Ryanair DAC is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports. It forms the largest part of the Ryanair Holdings family of airlines, has Ryanair UK, Ryanair Sun and Lauda as sister airlines. In 2016, Ryanair was the largest European budget airline by scheduled passengers flown, carried more international passengers than any other airline. Ryanair operates more than 400 Boeing 737-800 aircraft, with a single 737-700 used as a charter aircraft, but as a backup and for pilot training; the airline has been characterised by its rapid expansion, a result of the deregulation of the aviation industry in Europe in 1997 and the success of its low-cost business model. Ryanair's route network serves 37 countries in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East. Since its establishment in 1984, Ryanair has grown from a small airline, flying the short journey from Waterford to London Gatwick, into Europe's largest carrier.
Ryanair now has over 13,000 people working for the company. Most employees are contracted by multiple agencies to fly on Ryanair aircraft. Or, as is the case for pilots, the vast majority are either agency employed or self-employed, their services are contracted to Ryanair. After the growing airline went public in 1997, the money raised was used to expand the airline into a pan-European carrier. Revenues have risen from €231 million in 1998 to €1,843 million in 2003 and to €3,013 million in 2010. Net profits have increased from €48 million to €339 million over the same period. Ryanair was founded in 1984 as "Danren Enterprises" by Christopher Ryan, Liam Lonergan, Irish businessman Tony Ryan, founder of Guinness Peat Aviation; the airline was shortly thereafter renamed "Ryanair". It began operations in 1985 flying a 15-seat Embraer Bandeirante turboprop aircraft between Waterford and Gatwick Airport with the aim of breaking the duopoly on London-Ireland flights at that time held by British Airways and Aer Lingus.
In 1986, the company added a second route–flying Dublin to Luton, thus directly competing with the Aer Lingus/British Airways duopoly for the first time. Under partial EU deregulation, airlines could begin new international intra-EU services, as long as one of the two governments gave approval; the Irish government at the time refused its approval to protect Aer Lingus, but Britain–under Margaret Thatcher's deregulating Conservative government–approved the service. With two routes and two planes, the fledgling airline carried 82K passengers in one year. In 1986, the directors of Ryanair took an 85% stake in London European Airways. From 1987, this provided a connection with the Luton Ryanair service onward to Amsterdam and Brussels. In 1987, Ryan hired Michael O'Leary as his personal financial and tax advisor. In 1988, London European operated as Ryanair Europe and began to operate charter services. Ryanair passenger numbers continued to increase, but the airline ran at a loss and, by 1991, was in need of restructuring, including the closure of Ryanair Europe/London European.
O´Leary was charged with the task of making the airline profitable. O'Leary decided that the keys to profitability were low fares, quick turn-around times for aircraft, "no frills", no business class, operating a single model of aircraft. In 1989, a Short Sandringham was operated with Ryanair sponsorship titles but never flew revenue-generating services for the airline. O'Leary returned from a visit to U. S. Southwest Airlines convinced that Ryanair could make huge inroads into the European air market, at that time dominated by national carriers, which were subsidised to various degrees by their parent countries, he competed with the major airlines by providing a "no-frills", low-cost service. Flights were scheduled into regional airports, which offered lower landing and handling charges than larger established international airports. O'Leary as Chief Executive took part in a publicity stunt where he helped out with baggage handling on Ryanair flights at Dublin Airport. By 1995, after the consistent pursuit of its low-cost business model, Ryanair celebrated its 10th birthday by carrying 2.25 million passengers.
In 1992, the European Union's deregulation of the air industry in Europe gave carriers from one EU country the right to operate scheduled services between other EU states and represented a major opportunity for Ryanair. After a successful flotation on the Dublin Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ Stock exchanges, the airline launched services to Stockholm, Sandefjord Airport, Beauvais–Tillé and Charleroi near Brussels. In 1998, flush with new capital, the airline placed a massive US$2 billion order for 45 new Boeing 737-800 series aircraft; the airline launched its website in 2000, with online booking said to be a small and unimportant part of the software supporting the site. The online booking contributed to the aim of cutting flight prices by selling directly to passengers and excluding the costs imposed by travel agents. Within a year, the website was handling three-quarters of all bookings. Ryanair launched a new base of operation in Charleroi Airport in 2001; that year, the airline ordered 155 new 737-800 aircraft from Boeing at what was believed to be a substantial discount, to be delivered over eight years from 2002 to 2010.
100 of these aircraft had been delivered by the end of 2005, although there were slight delays in late 2005 caused by production disruptions arising from a Boeing machinists' strike. In April 2003, Ryanair acquired its ailing competitor Buzz from KLM. During 2004, Michael O'Leary warne