Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in underwater to specified depths. Water resistant and waterproof refer to penetration of water in its liquid state and under pressure, whereas damp proof refers to resistance to humidity or dampness. Permeation of water vapor through a material or structure is reported as a moisture vapor transmission rate; the hulls of boats and ships were once waterproofed by applying pitch. Modern items may be waterproofed by applying water-repellent coatings or by sealing seams with gaskets or o-rings. Waterproofing is used in reference to building structures, canvas, electronic devices and paper packaging. In construction, a building or structure is waterproofed with the use of membranes and coatings to protect contents, structural integrity; the waterproofing of the building envelope in construction specifications is listed under 07 - Thermal and Moisture Protection within MasterFormat 2004, by the Construction Specifications Institute, includes roofing and waterproofing materials.
In building construction, waterproofing is a fundamental aspect of creating a building envelope, a controlled environment. The roof covering materials, siding and all of the various penetrations through these surfaces must be water-resistant and sometimes waterproof. Roofing materials are designed to be water-resistant and shed water from a sloping roof, but in some conditions, such as ice damming and on flat roofs, the roofing must be waterproof. Many types of waterproof membrane systems are available, including felt paper or tar paper with asphalt or tar to make a built-up roof, other bituminous waterproofing, ethylene propylene diene monomer EPDM rubber, polyvinyl chloride, liquid roofing, more. Walls are not subjected to standing water, the water-resistant membranes used as housewraps are designed to be porous enough to let moisture escape. Walls have vapor barriers or air barriers. Damp proofing is another aspect of waterproofing. Masonry walls are built with a damp-proof course to prevent rising damp, the concrete in foundations needs to be damp-proofed or waterproofed with a liquid coating, basement waterproofing membrane, or an additive to the concrete.
Within the waterproofing industry, below-ground waterproofing is divided into two areas: Tanking: This is waterproofing used where the below-ground structure will be sitting in the water table continuously or periodically. This causes hydrostatic pressure on both the membrane and structure, requires full encapsulation of the basement structure in a tanking membrane, under slab and walls. Damp proofing: This is waterproofing used where the water table is lower than the structure and there is good free-draining fill; the membrane deals with shedding of water and the ingress of water vapor only, with no hydrostatic pressure. This incorporates a damp proof membrane to the walls with a polythene DPM under slab. With higher grade DPM, some protection from short-term Hydrostatic pressure can be gained by transitioning the higher quality wall DPM to the slab polythene under footing, rather than at the footing face. In buildings using earth sheltering, a potential problem is too much humidity, so waterproofing is critical.
Water seepage can lead to mold growth, causing significant air quality issues. Properly waterproofing foundation walls is required to prevent seepage. Another specialized area of waterproofing is roof top balconies. Waterproofing systems have become quite sophisticated and are a specialized area. Failed waterproof decks, polymer or tile, are one of the leading causes of water damage to building structures, of personal injury when they fail. Where major problems occur in the construction industry is when improper products are used for the wrong application. While the term waterproof is used for many products, each of them has a specific area of application, when manufacturer specifications and installation procedures are not followed, the consequences can be severe. Another factor, is the impact of contraction on waterproofing systems for decks. Decks move with changes in temperatures, putting stress on the waterproofing systems. One of the leading causes of waterproof deck system failures is the movement of underlying substrates that cause too much stress on the membranes resulting in a failure of the system.
While beyond the scope of this reference document, waterproofing of decks and balconies is a complex of many complimentary elements. These include the waterproofing membrane used, adequate slope-drainage, proper flashing details, proper construction materials; the penetrations through a building envelope must be built in a way such that water does not enter the building, such as using flashing and special fittings for pipes, wires, etc. Some caulkings are durable. Many types of geomembranes are available to control water, gases, or pollution. From the late 1990s to the 2010s, the construction industry has had technological advances in waterproofing materials, including integral waterproofing systems and more advanced membrane materials. Integral systems such as hycrete work within the matrix of a concrete structure, giving the concrete itself a waterproof quality. There are two main types of integral waterproofing systems: the hydrophilic
Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lime mortars. About 6,000 years ago, they used lime to plaster the pyramids at Giza. In addition, the Egyptians incorporated various limes into their religious temples as well as their homes. Indian traditional structures built with lime mortar, which are more than 4,000 years old like Mohenjo-daro is still a heritage monument of Indus valley civilization in Pakistan, it is one of the oldest known types of mortar used in ancient Rome and Greece, when it replaced the clay and gypsum mortars common to ancient Egyptian construction. With the introduction of Portland cement during the 19th century, the use of lime mortar in new constructions declined; this was due to the ease of use of Portland cement, its quick setting, high compressive strength. However, the soft and porous properties of lime mortar provide certain advantages when working with softer building materials such as natural stone and terracotta.
For this reason, while Portland cement continues to be used in new constructions of brick and concrete construction, in the repair and restoration of brick and stone-built structures built using lime mortar, the use of Portland cement is not recommended. Despite its enduring utility over many centuries, lime mortar's effectiveness as a building material has not been well understood. Only during the last few decades has empirical testing provided a scientific understanding of its remarkable durability. Lime comes from Old English lim "sticky substance, mortar, gluten", is related to Latin limus "slime, mire", linere "to smear". Mortar comes from Old French mortier "builder's mortar, plaster. Lime is a cement, a binder or glue which holds things together but cement is reserved for Portland cement. Lime mortar today is used in the conservation of buildings built using lime mortar, but may be used as an alternative to ordinary portland cement, it is made principally of water and an aggregate such as sand.
Portland cement has proven to be incompatible with lime mortar because it is harder, less flexible, impermeable. These qualities lead to premature deterioration of soft, historic bricks so the traditionally, low temperature fired, lime mortars are recommended for use with existing mortar of a similar type or reconstruction of buildings using correct methods. In the past, lime mortar tended to be mixed on site. Since the sand influences the colour of the lime mortar, colours of pointing mortar can vary from district to district. Hydraulic lime sets by hydration. Non-hydraulic lime sets by carbonatation and so needs exposure to carbon dioxide in the air and cannot set under water or inside a thick wall. For natural hydraulic lime mortars, the lime is obtained from limestone containing a sufficient percentage of silica and/or alumina. Artificial hydraulic lime is produced by introducing specific types and quantities of additives to the source of lime during the burning process, or adding a pozzolan to non-hydraulic lime.
Non-hydraulic lime is produced from a high purity source of calcium carbonate such as chalk, limestone or oyster shells. Non-hydraulic lime is composed of calcium hydroxide, Ca2. Non-hydraulic lime is produced by first heating sufficiently pure calcium carbonate to between 954° and 1066 °C, driving off carbon dioxide to produce quicklime; this is done in a lime kiln. The quicklime is slaked: hydrated by being mixed with enough water to form a slurry, or with less water to produce dry powder; this hydrated lime turns back into calcium carbonate by reacting with carbon dioxide in the air, the entire process being called the lime cycle. The slaking process involved in creating a lime putty is an exothermic reaction which creates a liquid of a creamy consistency; this is matured for 2 to 3 months—depending upon environmental conditions—to allow time for it to condense and mature into a lime putty. A matured lime putty is thixotropic, meaning that when a lime putty is agitated it changes from a putty into a more liquid state.
This aids its use for mortars. If left to stand following agitation a lime putty will revert from a thick liquid to a putty state; as well as calcium-based limestone, dolomitic limes can be produced which are based on calcium magnesium carbonate. A frequent source of confusion regarding lime mortar stems from the similarity of the terms hydraulic and hydrated. Hydrated lime is any lime other than quicklime, can refer to either hydraulic or non-hydraulic lime. Lime putty will keep indefinitely stored under water; as the name suggests, lime putty is in the form of a putty made from water. If the quicklime is slaked with an excess of water putty or slurry is produced. If just the right quantity of water is used, the result is a dry material; this is ground to make hydrated lime powder. Hydrated, non-hydraulic lime powder can be mixed with water to form lime putty. Before use putty is left in the absence of carbon dioxide to mature. Putty can be matured for as little
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester
There are 236 Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, England. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport; the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester is made up of 10 metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Manchester, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside and Wigan. The Grade II* buildings in each borough are listed separately. Manchester, the world's first industrialised city, has 77 of Greater Manchester's 238 Grade II* listed buildings, the highest number of any borough. Bury has the least, with only eight; the River Irwell forms the boundary between Salford and Trafford, so one listed structure, Barton Swing Aqueduct, has been listed under both Salford and Trafford. Most of Greater Manchester's listed buildings date from the Victorian and Edwardian periods.
According to an Association for Industrial Archaeology publication, Greater Manchester is "one of the classic areas of industrial and urban growth in Britain, the result of a combination of forces that came together in the 18th and 19th centuries: a phenomenal rise in population, the appearance of the specialist industrial town, a transport revolution, weak local lordship". Much of the region a part of Lancashire, was at the forefront of textile manufacturing from the early 19th century until the early 20th century, the county includes several former mill towns. Greater Manchester has a wealth of industrial heritage, represented by industrial architecture found throughout the county, but many of its Grade II* listed buildings have a municipal, ecclesiastic or other cultural heritage, it is uncertain. However, three of the 238 buildings date from the 13th century. Brandlesholme Old Hall in Bury was once an open-hall cruck-framed house, originating in the 13th century, although altered and extended in the 16th century and remodelled in 1849.
The Church of St Chad in Rochdale has a 13th-century tower. And Mab's Cross in Wigan, the stump of a boundary cross, is 13th century in origin; the newest Grade II* listed building in Greater Manchester is the Daily Express Building, designed by Sir Owen Williams in 1939. Due to the heavy impact of the Industrial Revolution on Greater Manchester, just under half of its Grade II* listed buildings were completed in the 19th century. Architecture of Manchester Conservation in the United Kingdom Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester Grade II listed buildings in Manchester List of tallest buildings in Manchester Scheduled Monuments in Greater Manchester