Dermott is a city in Chicot County, United States. The population was 2,889 at the 2010 census, Dermott was home to the Dermott Crawfish Festival. Dermott is located in the northwest corner of Chicot County at 33°31′43″N 91°26′16″W, bayou Bartholomew, a tributary of the Ouachita River, touches the southwest corner of the city. U. S. Route 165 passes southeast of the city center, leading north 9 miles to McGehee, Arkansas Highway 35 passes through the center of Dermott and leads northwest 23 miles to Monticello. According to the United States Census Bureau, Dermott has an area of 3.6 square miles, of which 3.6 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Dermott has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,889 people residing in the city. 77. 8% were African American,20. 2% White,0. 1% Native American,0. 7% Asian,0. 1% from some other race and 1. 0% from two or more races,1.
0% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 4865 people,1,216 households, the population density was 1,165.3 people per square mile. There were 1,404 housing units at a density of 497.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 25. 24% White,73. 27% Black or African American,0. 15% Native American,0. 30% Asian,0. 06% from other races,0. 76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28. 8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was out with 29. 0% under the age of 18,8. 7% from 18 to 24,24. 1% from 25 to 44,22. 5% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 81.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males, the median income for a household in the city was $17,857, and the median income for a family was $22,214. Males had an income of $21,134 versus $17,318 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $9,998, about 25. 9% of families and 32. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43. 0% of those under age 18 and 22. 4% of those age 65 or over. The Dermott Crawfish Festival was one of the oldest festivals in Arkansas, the festival was held annually on the third weekend in May and was sponsored by the Dermott Chamber of Commerce
Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum and private foundation presenting part of a historic district in the city of Williamsburg, United States. Colonial Williamsburgs 301-acre Historic Area includes buildings from the century, as well as 17th-century, 19th-century, Colonial Revival structures. The Historic Area is an interpretation of a colonial American city, with exhibits of dozens of restored or re-created buildings related to its colonial, Colonial Williamsburgs motto has been That the future may learn from the past. One of the largest history projects in the nation and a tourist attraction, it is part of the Historic Triangle of Virginia, the site was once used for conferences by world leaders and heads of state, including U. S. presidents. It was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1960, costumed employees work and dress as people did in the era, sometimes using colonial grammar and diction. Colonial Williamsburgs portion of the Historic Area begins east of the College of William & Marys College Yard, Colonial Williamsburg is a historical landmark and a living history museum.
Its core runs along Duke of Gloucester Street and the Palace Green that extends north and south perpendicular to it and this area is largely flat, with ravines and streams branching off on the periphery. Surviving colonial structures have been restored as close as possible to their 18th-century appearance, with traces of buildings, many of the missing colonial structures were reconstructed on their original sites beginning in the 1930s. Animals and dependencies add to the environment, four taverns have been reconstructed for use as restaurants and two for inns. There are craftsmens workshops for period trades, including a shop, a shoemakers, blacksmiths, a cooperage, a cabinetmaker, a gunsmiths, a wigmakers. There are merchants selling tourist souvenirs, reproduction toys, pottery, the Public Gaol served as a jail for the colonists. Former notorious inmates include the pirate Blackbeards crew who were kept in the jail while they awaited trial in 1704, Colonial Williamsburg operations extend to Merchants Square, a Colonial Revival commercial area designated a historic district in its own right.
Nearby are the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum and DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Museum, locals and employees frequently call Colonial Williamsburg CW. The Jamestown statehouse, housing Virginias government at the time, burned down on October 20,1698, the legislators consequently moved their meetings to the College of William and Mary in Virginia at Middle Plantation, putting an end to Jamestowns 92-year run as Virginias colonial capital. Interested Middle Plantation landowners donated some of their holdings to advance the plan, Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg by Governor Francis Nicholson, who was first among the proponents of the change, in honor of King William III of England. Nicholson said that at Williamsburg clear and crystal springs burst from the champagne soil, by champagne, he meant excellent or fertile. Nicholson had the city surveyed and a laid out by Theodorick Bland taking into consideration the brick College Building. The grid seems to have obliterated all but the remnants of a plan that laid out the streets in the monogram of King William and Queen Mary
Bramhall is an affluent suburb of the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. Historically part of Cheshire, it had a population of 17,436 at the 2011 Census, the manor of Bramall dates from the Anglo-Saxon period, when it was held as two separate estates by two Saxon freemen and Hacun. In 1070, William the Conqueror subdued the north-west of England, the manor of Bramale was given to Hamon de Massey, who eventually became the first Baron of Dunham Massey. De Masci received the manor as wasteland, since it had been devastated by William the Conquerors subdual, by the time of the Domesday survey, the land was recovering and cultivated again. In 1875 Bramhall was one of eight parishes of Cheshire to be included in the Stockport Rural rural sanitary district. The sanitary district became the Stockport Rural District in 1894, the parish was abolished in 1900 and its former area became part of the Hazel Grove and Bramhall civil parish and urban district. Bramhall is part of the constituency of Cheadle.
Mary Robinson, has been the local MP since 2015, Bramall Hall, situated in 26 hectares of parkland, is an example of a 14th-century Cheshire building. In 2016 an extensive programme of work was completed by a dedicated team. The Ladybrook flows through the park towards Cheadle and Bramall Hall, the war memorial commemorates the deaths of 89 men killed in the two world wars. The Church of England parish church of St Michael and All Angels in Robins Lane was consecrated in 1911 when Bramhall Parish was created and it replaced an earlier mission church opened in 1890. Vincent de Paul on Handley Road and Fords Lane Evangelical Church, there is a recreation centre linked with the High School. Bramhalls most notable sporting club is Bramhall Cricket Club, close to the Cheshire border to the south of the village. There are three lawn tennis clubs, Bramhall Queensgate LTC, to the north, Bramhall Lane LTC, close to the village, there are two golf clubs in Bramhall each with 18-hole courses, Bramhall Golf Club and Bramall Park Golf Club.
Bramhall railway station is on the line from Manchester to London via Macclesfield. Local stopping trains stop every hour during week days on their way to/from Manchester Piccadilly, buses link Bramhall to Manchester, Cheadle Hulme, Parrs Wood and Hazel Grove. Bramhall has a number of bars, cafes, clothes shops, beauty salons, charity shops, many of these are housed in Bramhalls village square, although some shops are in and around the main roads. There is a centre, a high school and several primary schools
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British.
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
Dromore, County Down
Dromore is a small market town and civil parish in County Down, Northern Ireland. It lies within the government area of Armagh City, Banbridge. It is 19 miles southwest of Belfast, on the A1 Belfast–Dublin road, the 2001 Census recorded a population of 4,968 people. An estimate for current population puts it at around 8000 as of October 2015, the towns centre is Market Square, which has a rare set of stocks. It is in the old manufacturing district. The name Dromore is an anglicisation of the Irish Druim Mór meaning large ridge, with historic anglicisations including Drumore and Drummor. The town features a well-preserved Norman motte and bailey that was constructed by John de Courcy in the early 13th century, known locally as the Mound, the fort occupies a prominent site to the east of the town centre and has views along the valley of the River Lagan. Dromore remained under Anglo-Norman control until it was captured and destroyed by Edward Bruce during the Irish-Bruce wars of 1315 and it was the seat of the diocese of Dromore, which grew out of an abbey of Canons Regular attributed to Saint Colman in the 6th century.
This was united in 1842 to the Diocese of Down and Connor, the diocese was divided in 1945, with the Diocese of Connor being independent, and the Diocese of Down and Dromore remaining united. The town and cathedral were destroyed during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, and the present church was built by Bishop Jeremy Taylor in 1661. Also buried in the cathedral is Thomas Percy, another bishop of the diocese. A monument to Thomas Percy stands in the Town Park, Jacobites under command of Richard Hamilton, and rival Williamites fought a battle here on 14 March 1689. The battle took place about a mile out of the town on the Milebush Road and was known as the Break of Dromore, the Jacobites routed the Williamites and they fled in disorder, leaving 400 dead. After this Break of Dromore the Jacobites did not meet any resistance while advancing northwards, Dromore had its own railway station from 1863 to 1956. The Banbridge and Belfast Junction Railway through Dromore opened in 1863 and its line was a branch that joined the Ulster Railway main line Knockmore Junction, giving Dromore a direct link to Lisburn and Belfast Great Victoria Street.
In 1876 the Ulster Railway became part of the new Great Northern Railway, in 1953 the railway was nationalised as the GNR Board, which closed the line through Dromore on 29 April 1956. For more information see The Troubles in Dromore, which includes a list of incidents in Dromore during the Troubles resulting in two or more fatalities. The Dromore Town Centre Development Plan, published in July 2003, outlined that of the 190 units within Dromore Town Centre and this is in spite of recent population growth in the town, a result of the proximity to the A1 road and resultant commuting access to Greater Belfast
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle, commonly known as Saint Paul, and known by his native name Saul of Tarsus was an apostle who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences, according to writings in the New Testament, Paul was dedicated to the persecution of the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem. He was struck blind but, after three days, his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus, and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah, approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Pauls life and works. Fourteen of the books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul. Seven of the epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews, but that view is now almost universally rejected by scholars. The other six are believed by scholars to have come from followers writing in his name. Other scholars argue that the idea of an author for the disputed epistles raises many problems. Today, Pauls epistles continue to be roots of the theology and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West. Augustine of Hippo developed Pauls idea that salvation is based on faith, martin Luthers interpretation of Pauls writings influenced Luthers doctrine of sola fide. The main source for information about Pauls life is the material found in his epistles, the epistles contain little information about Pauls past. The book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Pauls life out of its narrative, such as his probable, some scholars believe Acts contradicts Pauls epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Pauls visits to the church in Jerusalem.
It has been assumed that Sauls name was changed when he converted from Judaism to Christianity. His Jewish name was Saul, perhaps after the biblical King Saul, a fellow Benjamite, according to the Book of Acts, he inherited Roman citizenship from his father. As a Roman citizen, he bore the Latin name of Paul—in biblical Greek, Παῦλος. It was quite usual for the Jews of that time to have two names, one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek. Jesus called him Saul, Saul in the Hebrew tongue in the book of Acts, later, in a vision to Ananias of Damascus, the Lord referred to him as Saul, of Tarsus
Public humiliation is the dishonoring showcase of a person, usually an offender or a prisoner, especially in a public place. It was regularly used as a form of punishment in former times, in the United States it was common in the 19th century and fell out of common use in the 20th century, though it has seen a revival starting in the 1990s. Public humiliation could take a number of forms, most often a criminal was placed in the center of town and having the local populace enact a form of mob justice on the individual. The offender could alternatively be sentenced to remain exposed in a public place. In the Low Countries, the schandstoel, the kaak or schandpaal, the draaikooi were customary for adulteresses, and the schopstoel, a scaffolding from which one is kicked off to land in mud and dirt. In the more extreme cases being subjected to verbal and physical abuse from the crowd, some sentences actually prescribe additional humiliation, such as shaving, or combine it with painful corporal punishments, see below.
In Colonial America, common forms of humiliation were the stocks and pillory. Nearly every sizable town had such instruments of public humiliation, usually at the town square, historic public humiliation displays can still be seen in the historic Virginia town of Colonial Williamsburg. In pre–World War Japan, adulterers were publicly exposed purely to shame them, in Siam, an adulteress was paraded with a hibiscus behind the ear. Thieves were tattooed on the face, other criminals were paraded with a device made of woven cane on the forehead, or lengths of bamboo hung around the neck. Errant Brahmans had to wear a string of oversize beads, just like painful forms of corporal punishment, it has parallels in educational and other rather private punishments, in school or domestic disciplinary context, and as a rite of passage. Physical forms include being forced to some sign such as donkey ears, wearing a dunce cap, having to stand, kneel or bend over in a corner. Here different levels of discomfort can be added, such as having to hold heavy objects.
Like physical punishment and harsh hazing, these have become controversial in most modern societies, the exposure of bare feet often served as an indicator for imprisonment and slavery throughout ancient as well as modern history. Even today prisoners officially have to go barefoot in many countries of the world and are presented in court. Further means of public humiliation and degradation consist in forcing people to wear typifying clothes, presenting arrestees or prisoners to the public in restraints serves as a convenient method of public humiliation besides the primal security aspects. The effect is complemented by presenting the person in a uniform or similar clothing. Apart from specific methods essentially aiming at humiliation, several methods combine pain and humiliation or even death, in some cases, pain or at least discomfort is insignificant or rather secondary to the humiliation
Newbury /ˈnjuːbəri/ is a historic market town and the principal town in the west of Berkshire and has its own civil parish as well as the administrative headquarters of West Berkshire. It spans both sides of the River Kennet and the Kennet and Avon Canal, and has a town centre spread around its large market square. Newbury is famous for its racecourse, and as the headquarters of Vodafone UK, the town is located in the valley of the River Kennet,26 miles south of Oxford,25 miles north of Winchester,27 miles south east of Swindon and 20 miles west of Reading. Newbury lies on the edge of the picturesque Berkshire Downs, part of the North Wessex Downs Area of outstanding natural beauty and it lies in south central West Berkshire,3 miles north of the Hampshire/ West Berkshire county boundary. In the suburban village of Donnington lies the part-ruined Donnington Castle, to the south is a narrower range of hills including Walbury Hill and a few private landscape gardens and mansions such as Highclere Castle.
Together with the town of Thatcham,3 miles distant. There was a Mesolithic settlement at Newbury, artefacts were recovered from the Greenham Dairy Farm in 1963, and the Faraday Road site in 2002. Additional material was found in excavations along the route of the Newbury Bypass, Newbury was founded late in the 11th century following the Norman conquest as a new borough, hence its name. Although there are references to the borough that predate the Domesday Survey it is not mentioned by name in the survey. However, its existence within the manor of Ulvritone is evident from the rise in value of that manor at a time when most manors were worth less than in Saxon times. In 1086 the Domesday Book assesses the borough as having land for 12 ploughs,2 mills, woodland for 25 pigs,11 villeins,11 bordars, and 51 enclosures rendering 70s 7d. Doubt has been cast over the existence of Newbury Castle, but the town did have connections and was visited a number of times by King John. Historically, the economic foundation was the cloth trade.
This is reflected in the person of the 16th century cloth magnate, Jack of Newbury, the proprietor of what may well have been the first factory in England, and the tale of the Newbury Coat. The latter was the outcome of a bet as to whether a suit could be produced by the end of the day from wool taken from a sheeps back at the beginning. The local legend was immortalized in a humorous novel by Elizabethan writer Thomas Deloney. Newbury was the site of two battles during the English Civil War, the First Battle of Newbury in 1643, the nearby Donnington Castle was reduced to a ruin in the aftermath of the second battle. The disruption of trade during the war, compounded by a collapse of the local cloth trade in the late 16th century
Puritanism in this sense was founded as an activist movement within the Church of England. The founders, clergy exiled under Mary I, returned to England shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, Puritanism played a significant role in English history during the first half of the 17th century. One of the most effective stokers of anti-Catholic feeling was John Pym, Puritans were blocked from changing the established church from within and were severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion. They took on distinctive beliefs about clerical dress and in opposition to the episcopal system and they largely adopted Sabbatarianism in the 17th century, and were influenced by millennialism. Consequently, they became a political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War. Almost all Puritan clergy left the Church of England after the Restoration of 1660, the nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England.
Puritans by definition were dissatisfied with the extent of the English Reformation. They formed and identified with various groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal. Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in sense, were Calvinists. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favor of autonomous gathered churches. The Puritans were never a formally defined sect or religious division within Protestantism, the Congregationalist tradition, widely considered to be a part of the Reformed tradition, claims descent from the Puritans. Historically, the word Puritan was considered a term that characterized Protestant groups as extremists. According to Thomas Fuller in his Church History, the dates to 1564. Archbishop Matthew Parker of that used it and precisian with the sense of the modern stickler. In modern times, the word puritan is often used to mean against pleasure, in this sense, the term Puritan was coined in the 1560s, when it first appeared as a term of abuse for those who found the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559 inadequate.
The term Puritan, was not intended to refer to strict morality, a common modern misunderstanding, the word Puritan was applied unevenly to a number of Protestant churches from the late 16th century onwards. Puritans did not originally use the term for themselves, the practitioners knew themselves as members of particular churches or movements, and not by a single term. Precise men and Precisians were other early derogatory terms for Puritans, seventeenth century English Puritan preacher Thomas Watson used the godly to describe Puritans in the title of one of his more famous works The Godly Mans Picture
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person. It is most often used where there is a disparity of power between punisher and punished. Corporal punishment is commonly practiced on minors, especially in home and school settings, common methods in this regard often include spanking or paddling. It is however used on adults, particularly prisoners in some countries. In history most cultures have practiced corporal punishment on adults in settings of imprisonment or slavery, frequently employed methods are flagellation and caning. In some countries bastinado is still practiced on prisoners as well, official punishment for crime by inflicting pain or injury, including flogging and even mutilation, was practised in most civilizations since ancient times. However, with the growth of humanitarian ideals since the Enlightenment, by the late 20th century, corporal punishment had been eliminated from the legal systems of most developed countries.
The legality in the 21st century of corporal punishment in various settings differs by jurisdiction,52 countries, most of them in Europe and Latin America, have banned the practice as of April 2017. School corporal punishment—of students by teachers or school administrators—has been banned in countries, including Canada, South Africa, New Zealand. It remains legal, if increasingly less common, in the United States, judicial corporal punishment, as part of a criminal sentence ordered by a court of law, has long disappeared from European countries. However, it remains lawful in parts of Africa, closely related is prison corporal punishment or disciplinary corporal punishment, ordered by prison authorities or carried out directly by staff. Corporal punishment is allowed in some settings in a few jurisdictions. Other uses of corporal punishment have existed, for instance as once practised on apprentices by their masters, in many Western countries and human-rights organizations oppose corporal punishment of children.
Campaigns against corporal punishment have aimed to bring about legal reform to ban the use of punishment against minors in homes. Corporal punishment of children has traditionally used in the Western world by adults in authority roles. Withhold not correction from a child, for if thou strike him with the rod, thou shalt beat him with the rod, and deliver his soul from hell. It was certainly present in civilizations, being used in Greece, Rome. Some states gained a reputation for using such punishments cruelly, Sparta, in particular, used them as part of a disciplinary regime designed to build willpower, although the Spartan example was extreme, corporal punishment was possibly the most frequent type of punishment
The pillory is related to the stocks. The word is documented in English since 1274, and stems from Old French pellori, itself from medieval Latin pilloria, of origin, perhaps a diminutive of Latin pila pillar. Pillories were set up to people in marketplaces, crossroads. They were often placed on platforms to increase visibility of the person. Often a placard detailing the crime was placed nearby, these punishments generally lasted only a few hours, in being forced to bend forward and stick their head and hands out in front of them, offenders in the pillory would have been extremely uncomfortable during their punishment. However, the purpose in putting criminals in the pillory was to publicly humiliate them. On discovering that the pillory was occupied, people would gather in the marketplace to taunt, tease. Those who gathered to watch the punishment typically wanted to make the experience as unpleasant as possible. In addition to being jeered and mocked, those in the pillory might be pelted with food, offal, dead animals.
As a result, criminals were often very dirty by the end of their punishment, their faces, sometimes people were killed or maimed in the pillory because crowds could get too violent and pelt the offender with stones and other dangerous objects. However, when Daniel Defoe was sentenced to the pillory in 1703 for Seditious libel, after 1816, use of the pillory was restricted in England to punishment for perjury or subornation. The pillory was formally abolished as a form of punishment in England and Wales in 1837, the last person to be pilloried in England was Peter James Bossy, who was convicted of wilful and corrupt perjury in 1830. He was offered the choice of seven years penal transportation or one hour in the pillory, in France, time in the pilori was usually limited to two hours. It was replaced in 1789 by exposition, and abolished in 1832, two types of devices were used, The poteau was a simple post, often with a board around only the neck, and was synonymous with the mode of punishment.
This was the same as the schandpaal in Dutch, the carcan, an iron ring around the neck to tie a prisoner to such a post, was the name of a similar punishment that was abolished in 1832. Like other permanent apparatus for physical punishment, the pillory was placed prominently. It served as a symbol of the power of the judicial authorities, in Portugal, it is called Pelourinho, and there are monuments of great importance because they are known since the Roman times. Usually, they are located on the square of the town