Stolen base

In baseball, a stolen base occurs when a runner advances to a base to which he is not entitled and the official scorer rules that the advance should be credited to the action of the runner. The umpires determine whether the runner is safe or out at the next base, but the official scorer rules on the question of credit or blame for the advance under Rule 10. A stolen base most occurs when a base runner advances to the next base while the pitcher is pitching the ball to home plate. Successful base stealers have good baserunning instincts and timing. Ned Cuthbert, playing for the Philadelphia Keystones in either 1863 or 1865, was the first player to steal a base in a baseball game, although the term stolen base was not used until 1870. For a time in the 19th century, stolen bases were credited when a baserunner reached an extra base on a base hit from another player. For example, if a runner on first base reached third base on a single, it counted as a steal. In 1887, Hugh Nicol set a still-standing Major League record with 138 stolen bases, many of which would not have counted under modern rules.

Modern steal rules were implemented in 1898. Base stealing was popular in the game's early decades, with speedsters such as Ty Cobb and Clyde Milan stealing nearly 100 bases in a season, but the tactic fell into relative disuse after Babe Ruth introduced the era of the home run – in 1955, for example, no one in baseball stole more than 25 bases, Dom DiMaggio won the AL stolen base title in 1950 with just 15. However, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, base-stealing was brought back to prominence by Luis Aparicio and Maury Wills, who broke Cobb's modern single-season record by stealing 104 bases in 1962. Wills' record was broken in turn by Lou Brock in 1974, Rickey Henderson in 1982; the stolen base remained a popular tactic through the 1980s best exemplified by Vince Coleman and the St. Louis Cardinals, but began to decline again in the 1990s as the frequency of home runs reached record heights and the steal-friendly artificial turf ballparks began to disappear. Base stealing is an important characteristic of the "small ball" managing style.

Such managers emphasize "doing the little things" to advance runners and score runs relying on pitching and defense to keep games close. The Los Angeles Dodgers of the 1960s, led by pitcher Sandy Koufax and speedy shortstop Maury Wills, were a successful example of this style; the antithesis of this is reliance on power hitting, exemplified by the Baltimore Orioles of the 1970s, which aspired to score most of its runs via home runs. The "small ball" model is associated with the National League, while power hitting is associated with the American League. However, some successful recent American League teams, including the 2002 Anaheim Angels, the 2001 Seattle Mariners and the 2005 Chicago White Sox have excelled at "small ball." The Kansas City Royals have embodied this style leading the league in stolen bases but finishing last in home runs in 2013 and 2014. Successful teams combine both styles, with speedy runners complementing power hitters—such as the 2005 White Sox, who hit 200 home runs, fifth most in the majors, had 137 stolen bases, fourth.

Baseball's Rule 8 specifies the pitching procedure in detail. For example, in the Set Position, the pitcher must "com to a complete stop". A runner intending to "steal on the pitcher" breaks for the next base the moment the pitcher commits to pitch to home plate; the pitcher can not try to put the runner out. If the runner breaks too soon, the pitcher may throw to a base rather than pitch, the runner is picked off by being tagged out between the bases. Past this moment, any delay in the runner's break makes it more that the catcher, after receiving the pitch, will be able to throw the runner out at the destination base. Before the pitch, the runner takes a lead-off, walking several steps away from the base as a head start toward the next base. A runner who does not intend to steal takes a secondary lead of a few more steps, once the pitcher has committed to complete the pitch; the pitcher may, without limit, throw the ball to the runner's base. The runner must return to that risk being tagged out.

The more adept base stealers are proficient at reading the pickoff, meaning that they can detect certain tells in a pitcher's pre-pitch movements or mannerisms that indicate the pickoff attempt is or is not imminent. For example, one experienced base stealer noted that careless pitchers dig the toes on their back foot into the ground when they are about to pitch in order to get a better push off, but when they intend to turn and throw a pickoff, they do not. If a batted ball is caught on the fly, the runner must return to his original base. In this case, a runner trying to steal is more to be caught off his original base, resulting in a double play; this is a minor risk of a steal attempt. It is offset by the fact. In the hit-and-run play, coaches coordinate the actions of batter; the runner tries to steal and the batter swings at any pitch, if only to distract the catcher. If the batter makes contact, the runner has a greater chance of reaching the next base.

Entremont (oppidum)

Entremont is a 3.5 hectare archaeological site three kilometres from Aix-en-Provence at the extreme south of the Puyricard plateau. In antiquity, the oppidum at Entremont was the capital of the Celtic-Ligurian confederation of Salyes, it was settled between 180 and 170 B. C. somewhat than the inhabitation of other oppida, such as Saint-Blaise. The site was abandoned when it was taken by the Romans in 123 B. C. and replaced by Aquae Sextiae, a new Roman city founded at the foot of the plateau. By 90 B. C. the former oppidum was uninhabited. The site contains two distinct areas of settlement surrounded by ramparts. Archaeologist Fernand Benoit named the older area, on the summit, "Ville Haute", the lower "Ville Basse". Subsequently it was recognised that the latter was an enlargement of the former, they are now labelled "Habitat 1" and "Habitat 2", respectively. Finds from the site are displayed at Musée Granet and include statues, bas-reliefs and impressive severed heads

Jim Viox

James Harry Viox was a professional baseball player who played for five seasons in the National League from 1912 to 1916, all of them with the Pittsburgh Pirates. He played second base for much of his career, played in the middle infield with Honus Wagner during the latter's final seasons. Viox made his major league debut on May 9, 1912. In 33 games that season, he hit.186 while spending time in the field at third shortstop. The following season, in 1913, Viox became the team's regular second baseman, replacing Alex McCarthy at that position. In his first full season, he hit.317, setting a rookie record for batting average by a second baseman, not matched until 2007 when Dustin Pedroia hit.317. During the season, Viox finished in the top 10 in batting average, on-base percentage, slugging percentage, runs scored and sacrifice hits, his batting average fell over the next two seasons, to.265 in 1914 and.256 in 1915. He showed a good batting eye during those seasons, however, as in both years he was ranked among the top 10 in walks.

In his final season in the major leagues, he played in only 43 games and batted.250. After his playing days were over, he managed for a time in the minor leagues. During this time, he won two Virginia League championships in 1920 and 1921 while managing Portsmouth. Viox died on January 6, 1969 in Erlanger, Kentucky