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Stolon

In biology, stolons known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms. They may be part of the organism, or of its skeleton. In botany, stolons are stems which grow at the soil surface or just below ground that form adventitious roots at the nodes, new plants from the buds. Stolons are called runners. Rhizomes, in contrast, are root-like stems that may either grow horizontally at the soil surface or in other orientations underground. Thus, not all horizontal stems are called stolons. Plants with stolons are called stoloniferous. A stolon is a plant propagation strategy and the complex of individuals formed by a mother plant and all its clones produced from stolons form a single genetic individual, a genet. Stolons may not have long internodes; the leaves along the stolon are very small, but in a few cases such as Stachys sylvatica are normal in size. Stolons arise from the base of the plant. In strawberries the base is above the soil surface; the nodes of the stolons produce roots all around the node and hormones produced by the roots cause the stolon to initiate shoots with normal leaves.

After the formation of the new plant the stolon dies away in a year or two, while rhizomes persist for many years or for the life of the plant, adding more length each year to the ends with active growth. The horizontal growth of stolons results from the interplay of different hormones produced at the growing point and hormones from the main plant, with some studies showing that stolon and rhizome growth are affected by the amount of shady light the plant receives with increased production and branching from plants exposed to mixed shade and sun, while plants in all day sun or all shade produce fewer stolons. A number of plants have soil-level or above-ground rhizomes, including Iris species and many orchid species. T. Holm restricted the term rhizome to a horizontal subterranean, stem that produces roots from its lower surface and green leaves from its apex, developed directly from the plumule of the embryo, he recognized stolons as axillary, subterranean branches that do not bear green leaves but only membranaceous, scale-like ones.

In some Cyperus species the stolons end with the growth of tubers. Some species of crawling plants can sprout adventitious roots, but are not considered stoloniferous: a stolon is sprouted from an existing stem and can produce a full individual. Examples of plants that extend through stolons include some species from the genera Argentina, Cynodon and Pilosella, Zoysia japonica, Ranunculus repens. Other plants with stolons below the soil surface include many grasses, Ajuga and Stachys. Lily-of-the-valley has rhizomes that grow stolon-like stems called stoloniferous rhizomes or leptomorph rhizomes. A number of plants have stoloniferous rhizomes including Asters; these stolon-like rhizomes are long and thin, with long internodes and indeterminate growth with lateral buds at the node, which remain dormant. In potatoes, the stolons start to grow within 10 days of plants emerging above ground, with tubers beginning to form on the end of the stolons; the tubers are modified stolons. Since it is not a rhizome it does not generate roots, but the new stem growth that grows to the surface produces roots.

See BBCH-scale Hydrilla use stolons that produce tubers to spread themselves and to survive dry periods in aquatic habitats. Erythronium called Trout Lily, have white stolons growing from the bulb. Most run horizontally. A number of bulbous species produce stolons, such as Erythronium propullans. Flowering plants produce no stolons. Convolvulus arvensis is a weed species in agriculture that spreads by under ground stolons that produce rhizomes. In studies on grass species, with plants that produce stolons or rhizomes and plants that produce both stolons and rhizomes and physiological differences were noticed. Stolons have longer internodes and function as means of seeking out light and are used for propagation of the plant, while rhizomes are used as storage organs for carbohydrates and the maintenance of meristem tissue to keep the parent plant alive from one year to the next. In mycology, a stolon is defined as an septate hypha, which connects sporangiophores together. Root-like structures called rhizoids may appear on the stolon as well, anchoring the hyphae to the substrate.

The stolon is found in bread molds, are seen as horizontally expanding across the mold. Some bryozoans form colonies through connection of individual units by stolons. Other colonies include erect colonies; some colonial Cnidaria develop as stolons with interconnected medusoid structures that separate. Some worm-like animals, such as certain Polychaeta in the genus Myrianida, form stolons containing eggs or sperm which they trail behind the main body. Stolon based reproduction is thought to have been used by Rangeomorphs in the Ediacaran age. Offshoot Root Sprigging Vegetative reproduction

Faridpur Division

Faridpur Division, is a proposed administrative division within Bangladesh for the southern parts of the existing Dhaka Division, comprising Faridpur, Madaripur and Shariatpur Districts of Dhaka Division. The Greater Faridpur region was once under ancient Kingdom of Gangaridai, it was ruled by local Muslim sultans and Hindu rajas until the Mughal conquest of Bengal in the 16th century, after which many nobles and merchants from North India settled in the area. In 1582 in the reign of Emperor Akbar, the province of Bengal was formed into 33 sarkars or financial sub-divisions, Faridpur area appears to have been included within the sarkar of Muhammad Abud and was known as Fatehabad. In 1765 the British took over the financial administration of Faridpur, together with the rest of Bengal; the greater portion of Faridpur was comprised within Dhaka District. In 1811 Faridpur was separated from Dacca collectorate; the district was known as Fatehabad. Under British rule in 1860, the district was named as Faridpur after 12th-century Sufi saint, Shah Sheikh Fariduddin.

In 1984, with the Decentralization Program of the Bangladesh government, Faridpur district was reorganized into five separate districts: Rajbari, Madaripur and Faridpur. On 7 May 2017 Minister of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives Khandaker Mosharraf Hossain announced that the new Division will be renamed as Padma Division after Padma River, a major river in Bangladesh and main distributary of the Ganges, flowing northeast of the proposed division; the Division will be subdivided into five districts and thence into 30 sub-districts

Middle Gorge railway station

Middle Gorge railway station is a station on the Mernda line. The station serves the north-eastern Melbourne suburb of South Morang, is the only station on the extension, not elevated, it opened on 26 August 2018. The station was first announced as one of two new stations from the Mernda Rail project, an extension of the South Morang line along the former Whittlesea line right of way. Hawkstowe station was added to the plan after community pressure. From 26 August 2018, Comeng and X-Trapolis 100 trains began to operate on the Mernda line beyond South Morang. Platform 1: Mernda line: services to Flinders StreetPlatform 2: Mernda line: services to Mernda Dyson's Bus Services operate one route via Middle Gorge station 383: RMIT BundooraMill Park Lakes The station was to be named "Marymede", after the nearby Marymede Catholic College. However, this went against Victorian place-naming conventions; this caused public outrage for many reasons because its namesake is located over 2 km from the station site.

A letter sent from residents to the Victorian Government states that there was no consultation in the naming process, that it does not represent the station's location. Residents believe the station should be called "South Morang", as the original station at this site was called, whilst the current South Morang station be renamed to "Plenty Valley", in order to better reflect their locations. Middle Gorge railway station

Maxine McArthur

Maxine McArthur is an Australian writer of science fiction. McArthur spent 16 years living in Japan but returned to live in Canberra in 1996. In 1999 McArthur's first book was released in Australia, entitled Time Future, it finished ninth in 2000 Locus Awards for best first novel. In 2002 she released the sequel to her first novel entitled Time Past, a short-list nominee for the 2003 Ditmar Award for best Australian novel. In 2004 her third novel Less Than Human won the 2004 Aurealis Award for best science fiction novel, a short-list nominee for the 2005 Ditmar Award for best novel. In the 2005 Ditmar Awards McArthur and co-editor Donna Hanson were short-list nominees for best collected work with their anthology Encounters. Time Future Time Past Less Than Human Playing Possum in Nor of Human... An Anthology of Fantastic Creatures Remembering Bathys in Machinations: An Anthology of Ingenious Designs The Dragon Bell in Aurealis #30 Sword of Liberation in Elsewhere: An Anthology of Incredible Places Kappas in Andromeda Spaceways Inflight Magazine, Issue #13 Bakemono in The Outcast: An Anthology of Exiles and Strangers Breaking the Ice in Daikaiju!

2 Revenge of the Giant Monsters Encounters: An Anthology of Australian Speculative Fiction Historical Dictionary of Japanese Science and Technology

WWE Insurrextion

Insurrextion was an annual professional wrestling pay-per-view event that ran from 2000 to 2003. It was produced by the World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment for the United Kingdom. Insurrextion was aired on Viewers Choice pay-per-view in Canada as well, only the 2002 event was aired in the United States as part of WWE Fanatic Series, a pay-per-view "best of" program. From 2002 it was a Raw brand exclusive show. After the 2003 show, all-UK exclusive pay-per-view shows were stopped as WWE started to broadcast Raw and SmackDown from the UK in 2004. Triple H was featured in the main event of all four versions of the event. Insurrextion's theme song was a WWF Production Theme. Professional wrestling in the United Kingdom

Mark Gill

Mark Gill is an English screenwriter and film director. He is from Stretford in Manchester. Gill graduated from University of Central Lancashire in 2007, soon after he met his collaborator Baldwin Li. Gill has won numerous awards, including a Royal Television Society Award. In 2014 Gill and fellow producer Baldwin Li were nominated for an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for their film The Voorman Problem, as well as receiving a BAFTA Award for Best Short Film nomination in 2013 Gill co-wrote and directed England Is Mine, a biopic based on the early life of Morrissey, it premiered at the closing gala of the Edinburgh Film Festival on 2 July 2017, will go into wide release in the UK in August 2017. Mark Gill on IMDb