Black Sabbath were an English rock band, formed in Birmingham in 1968, by guitarist and main songwriter Tony Iommi and main lyricist Geezer Butler, drummer Bill Ward, singer Ozzy Osbourne. Black Sabbath are cited as pioneers of heavy metal music; the band helped define the genre with releases such as Black Sabbath and Master of Reality. The band had multiple line-up changes, with Iommi being the only constant member throughout its history. Formed in 1968 as the Polka Tulk Blues Band, a blues rock band, the group went through line up changes, renamed themselves as Earth, broke up and reformed. By 1969, they had named themselves Black Sabbath after the film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff, began incorporating occult themes with horror-inspired lyrics and tuned-down guitars; the band's first show as Black Sabbath took place on 30 August 1969, in Workington. Signing to Philips Records in November 1969, they released their first single, "Evil Woman" in January 1970, their debut album, Black Sabbath, was released on Friday the 13th, February 1970, on Philips' newly formed progressive rock label, Vertigo Records.
Though receiving a negative critical response, the album was a commercial success and reached number 8 in the UK Albums Chart, so the band returned to the studios to record the follow up, released in 1970. The band's popularity grew, by 1973's Sabbath Bloody Sabbath, critics were starting to respond favourably. Osbourne's regular use of alcohol and other drugs led to his dismissal from the band in 1979, he was replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio. Following two albums with Dio, Black Sabbath endured many personnel changes in the 1980s and 1990s that included vocalists Ian Gillan, Glenn Hughes, Ray Gillen and Tony Martin, as well as several drummers and bassists. In 1991, Iommi and Butler rejoined drummer Vinny Appice to record Dehumanizer; the original line-up released a live album Reunion. Black Sabbath's final studio album and nineteenth overall, 13, features all of the original members but Ward, who left the band prior to the recording sessions due to a contract dispute. A year after embarking on a farewell tour, the band played their final concert in their home city of Birmingham on 4 February 2017, after which they broke up.
Iommi has stated that he has not ruled out the possibility of new material or one-off shows under the Black Sabbath name. They were ranked by MTV as the "Greatest Metal Band" of all time, placed second in VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock" list. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them number 85 in their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", they have sold over 70 million records worldwide. Black Sabbath were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006, they have won two Grammy Awards for Best Metal Performance, in 2019 the band were presented a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Following the break-up of their previous band Mythology in 1968, guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward sought to form a heavy blues rock band in Aston, Birmingham, they enlisted bassist Geezer Butler and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, who had played together in a band called Rare Breed, Osbourne having placed an advertisement in a local music shop: "Ozzy Zig Needs Gig – has own PA".
The new group was named the Polka Tulk Blues Band, the name taken either from a brand of talcum powder or an Indian/Pakistani clothing shop. The Polka Tulk Blues Band included slide guitarist Jimmy Phillips, a childhood friend of Osbourne's, saxophonist Alan "Aker" Clarke. After shortening the name to Polka Tulk, the band again changed their name to Earth and continued as a four-piece without Phillips and Clarke. Iommi became concerned that Phillips and Clarke lacked the necessary dedication and were not taking the band seriously. Rather than asking them to leave, they instead decided to break up and quietly reformed the band as a four-piece. While the band was performing under the Earth title, they recorded several demos written by Norman Haines such as "The Rebel", "Song for Jim", "When I Came Down"; the demo titled. Jim Simpson was a manager for the bands Bakerloo Blues Line and Tea & Symphony, as well as being trumpet player for the group Locomotive. Simpson had started a new club named Henry's Blueshouse at The Crown Hotel in Birmingham and offered to let Earth play there after they agreed to waive the usual support band fee in return for free t-shirts.
The audience response was positive and Simpson agreed to manage Earth. In December 1968, Iommi abruptly left Earth to join Jethro Tull. Although his stint with the band would be short-lived, Iommi made an appearance with Jethro Tull on The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus TV show. Unsatisfied with the direction of Jethro Tull, Iommi returned to Earth in January 1969. "It just wasn't right, so I left", Iommi said. "At first I thought Tull were great, but I didn't much go for having a leader in the band, Ian Anderson's way. When I came back from Tull, I came back with a new attitude altogether, they taught me that to get on, you got to work for it."While playing shows in England in 1969, the band discovered they were being mistaken for another English group named Earth. They decided to change their name again. A cinema across the street from the band's rehearsal room was showing the 1963 horror film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff and directed by Mario Bava. While watching people line up to see the film, Butler noted that it was "strange that people spend so much money to see scary movies".
Following that and Butler wrote the lyrics for a song called "Black Sabbath", which was
Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and fast tempo. The songs use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work; the lyrics deal with social issues and criticism of The Establishment, using direct and denunciatory language, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the fast drum beats and attitude of hardcore with the double bass drumming and heavy, complex guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal, it emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop music–infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. Thrash metal was an inspiration for subsequent extreme genres such as black metal. Thrash metal features fast tempos, low-register, complex guitar riffs, high-register guitar solos and double bass drumming; the genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the drum beats of hardcore punk with the guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal.
It emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop-infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. The rhythm guitar parts are played with heavy distortion and palm muted to create a tighter and more precise sound. Vocally, thrash metal can employ anything from melodic singing to shouted vocals. Most guitar solos are played at high speed and technically demanding, as they are characterized by shredding, use advanced techniques such as sweep picking, legato phrasing, alternate picking, tremolo picking, string skipping, two-hand tapping; the guitar riffs use chromatic scales and emphasize the tritone and diminished intervals, instead of using conventional single scale based riffing. For example, the intro riff of Metallica's "Master of Puppets" is a chromatic descent, followed by a chromatic ascent based on the tritone. Speed and time-changes define thrash metal. Thrash tends to have an accelerating feel which may be due in large part to its aggressive drumming style.
For example, drummers use two bass drums, or a double-bass pedal, in order to create a relentless, driving beat. Cymbal stops/chokes are used to transition from one riff to another or to precede an acceleration in tempo; some common characteristics of the genre are fast guitar riffs with aggressive picking styles and fast guitar solos, extensive use of two bass drums as opposed to the conventional use of only one, typical of most rock music. To keep up with the other instruments, many bassists use a plectrum. However, some prominent thrash metal bassists have used their fingers, such as Frank Bello, Greg Christian, Steve DiGiorgio, Robert Trujillo and Cliff Burton. Several bassists use a distorted bass tone, an approach popularized by Motörhead's Lemmy. Lyrical themes in thrash metal include warfare, injustice, suicide, alienation and other maladies that afflict the individual and society. In addition, politics pessimism and dissatisfaction towards politics, are common themes among thrash metal bands.
Humor and irony can be found, but they are limited, are exception rather than a rule. Among the earliest songs to be labeled thrash metal was Queen's "Stone Cold Crazy", recorded and released in 1974; the song was described as being thrash metal "before the term had been invented". Black Sabbath's "Symptom of the Universe", released in 1975, was the inspiration for Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?". Since NWOBHM bands directly influenced the development of early thrash; the early work of artists such as Diamond Head, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Motörhead, Tygers of Pan Tang and Angel Witch, among others, introduced the fast-paced instrumentation that became an essential aspect of thrash. Void is hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover, whose chaotic musical approach is cited as influential, their 1982 split LP with fellow Washington band The Faith showed both bands exhibiting quick, high-speed punk rock. It has been argued that those recordings laid the foundation for early thrash metal, at least in terms of selected tempos.
In Europe, the earliest band of the emerging thrash movement was Venom from Newcastle upon Tyne, formed in 1979. Their 1982 album Black Metal has been cited as a major influence on many subsequent genres and bands in the extreme metal world, such as Bathory, Hellhammer and Mayhem; the European scene was exclusively influenced by the most aggressive music Germany and England were producing at the time. British bands such as Tank and Raven, along with German band Accept, motivated musicians from central Europe to start bands of their own producing groups such as Sodom and Destruction from Germany, as well as Switzerland's Coroner; the Swedish punk band Warheads have been described as a proto-thrash band. In 1981, a Southern California band Leather Charm wrote a song entitled "Hit the Lights". Leather Charm soon disbanded and the band's primary songwriter, vocalist/rhythm guitarist James Hetfield met drummer Lars Ulrich through a classified advertisement. Together and Ulrich formed Metallica, the first of the "Big Four" thrash bands, with lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, who would form Megadeth, another of the "Big Four" originators of thrash, bassist Ron McGovney.
Metallica relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area. McGovney was replaced with Cliff Burton, Mustaine was replaced with Kirk Hammett. "Hit the Lights" was featured on th
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
Freddie Mercury was a British singer-songwriter, record producer and lead vocalist of the rock band Queen. He is regarded as one of the greatest singers in the history of popular music, was known for his flamboyant stage persona and four-octave vocal range. Born in 1946 in Zanzibar to Parsi parents from India, he attended English-style boarding schools in India from the age of eight, returned to Zanzibar after secondary school. In 1964, his family fled the Zanzibar Revolution, moving to England. Having studied and written music for years, he formed Queen in 1970 with guitarist Brian May and drummer Roger Taylor. Mercury wrote numerous hits for Queen, including "Bohemian Rhapsody", "Killer Queen", "Somebody to Love", "Don't Stop Me Now", "Crazy Little Thing Called Love", "We Are the Champions", he led a solo career and served as a producer and guest musician for other artists. Mercury died in 1991 at age 45 due to complications from AIDS, he confirmed the day before his death. As a member of Queen, Mercury was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2003, the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004.
In 1990, he and the band Queen were awarded the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to British Music. In 1992 a tribute concert was held at London. In 2002, Mercury ranked as number 58 in the BBC's 2002 poll of the 100 Greatest Britons; the 2018 film about Mercury and Queen, Bohemian Rhapsody, is the highest-grossing musical biographical film of all time. Rami Malek won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as Mercury in the film, among critical praise and other accolades. Mercury was born Farrokh Bulsara in Stone Town in the British protectorate of Zanzibar on 5 September 1946, his parents and Jer Bulsara, were Parsis from the Gujarat region of the then-province of the Bombay Presidency in British India. They had moved to Zanzibar so that Bomi could continue his job as a cashier at the British Colonial Office; as Parsis, the Bulsara family practised the Zoroastrian religion. Mercury had a younger sister, Kashmira Bulsara, now based in Nottingham, who took her husband's surname after marrying Roger Cooke.
He was born with four supernumerary incisors. As Zanzibar was a British protectorate until 1963, Mercury was born a British citizen, he remained so throughout his life. Mercury spent most of his childhood in India where he began taking piano lessons at the age of seven while living with relatives. In 1954, at the age of eight, Mercury was sent to study at St. Peter's School, a British-style boarding school for boys, in Panchgani near Bombay. At the age of 12, he formed a school band, the Hectics, covered rock and roll artists such as Cliff Richard and Little Richard. One of Mercury's former bandmates from the Hectics has said "the only music he listened to, played, was Western pop music." A friend from the time recalls that he had "an uncanny ability to listen to the radio and replay what he heard on piano". It was at St. Peter's where he began to call himself "Freddie", he attended St. Mary's School, Mumbai. In February 1963 he moved back to Zanzibar. In 1964, Mercury and his family fled from Zanzibar to escape the violence of the revolution for independence, in which thousands of ethnic Arabs and Indians were killed.
They moved into a small house at 22 Gladstone Avenue, Middlesex, England. After first studying art at Isleworth Polytechnic in West London, Mercury studied graphic art and design at Ealing Art College, graduating with a diploma in 1969, he used these skills to design heraldic arms for his band Queen. Following graduation, Mercury joined a series of bands and sold second-hand clothes in Kensington Market in London with girlfriend Mary Austin, he held a job as a baggage handler at Heathrow Airport. Friends from the time remember him as a shy young man with a great interest in music. In 1969 he joined the Liverpool-based band Ibex renamed Wreckage, he lived in a flat above a Liverpool pub, The Dovedale Towers. When this band failed to take off, he joined another called Sour Milk Sea, but by early 1970 this group had broken up as well. In April 1970, Mercury teamed up with guitarist Brian May and drummer Roger Taylor, to become lead singer of their band Smile, they were joined by bassist John Deacon in 1971.
Despite the reservations of the other members and Trident Studios, the band's initial management, Mercury chose the name "Queen" for the new band. He said, "It's regal and it sounds splendid. It's a strong name universal and immediate. I was aware of the gay connotations, but, just one facet of it." At about the same time, he changed his surname, Bulsara, to Mercury. Shortly before the release of Queen's self-titled first album, Mercury designed the band's logo, known as the "Queen crest"; the logo combines the zodiac signs of the four band members: two lions for Deacon and Taylor, a crab for May, two fairies for Mercury. The lions embrace a stylised letter Q, the crab rests atop the letter with flames rising directly above it, the fairies are each sheltering below a lion. A crown is shown inside the Q, the whole logo is over-shadowed by an enormous phoenix; the Queen crest bears a passing resemblance to the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with the lion supporters. Although Mercury's speaking voice fell in the baritone range, he delivered most songs in the tenor range.
His known vocal range extended from bass low F to soprano high F. He co
Queen are a British rock band formed in London in 1970. Their classic line-up was Freddie Mercury, Brian May, Roger Taylor, John Deacon, their earliest works were influenced by progressive rock, hard rock and heavy metal, but the band ventured into more conventional and radio-friendly works by incorporating further styles, such as arena rock and pop rock. Before forming Queen and Taylor had played together in the band Smile. Mercury was a fan of Smile and encouraged them to experiment with more elaborate stage and recording techniques, he joined in 1970 and suggested the name "Queen". Deacon was recruited before the band recorded their eponymous debut album in 1973. Queen first charted in the UK with their second album, Queen II, in 1974. Sheer Heart Attack that year and A Night at the Opera in 1975 brought them international success; the latter featured "Bohemian Rhapsody", which stayed at number one in the UK for nine weeks and helped popularise the music video format. The band’s 1977 album News of the World contained "We Will Rock You" and "We Are the Champions", which have become anthems at sporting events.
By the early 1980s, Queen were one of the biggest stadium rock bands in the world. "Another One Bites the Dust" became their best-selling single, while their 1981 compilation album Greatest Hits is the best-selling album in the UK and is certified eight times platinum in the US. Their performance at the 1985 Live Aid concert has been ranked among the greatest in rock history by various publications. In August 1986, Mercury gave his last performance with Queen at England. In 1991, he died of bronchopneumonia, a complication of AIDS, Deacon retired in 1997. Since 2004, May and Taylor have toured under the "Queen +" name with vocalists Paul Rodgers and Adam Lambert. Estimates of Queen's record sales range from 170 million to 300 million records, making them one of the world's best-selling music artists. Queen received the Outstanding Contribution to British Music Award from the British Phonographic Industry in 1990, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001. Each member has composed hit singles, all four were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2003.
In 2005, Queen received the Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Song Collection from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. In 2018, they were presented the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1968, guitarist Brian May, a student at London's Imperial College, bassist Tim Staffell decided to form a band. May placed an advertisement on a college notice board for a "Mitch Mitchell/Ginger Baker type" drummer; the group called themselves Smile. While attending Ealing Art College in west London, Tim Staffell became friends with Farrokh “Freddie” Bulsara, a fellow student from Zanzibar of Indian Parsi descent. Bulsara, working as a baggage handler at London’s Heathrow Airport, felt that he and the band had the same tastes and soon became a keen fan of Smile. In 1970, after Staffell left to join the band Humpy Bong, the remaining Smile members, encouraged by now-member Bulsara, changed their name to "Queen" and performed their first gig on 18 July; the band had a number of bass players during this period.
It was not until February 1971 that they settled on John Deacon and began to rehearse for their first album. They recorded four of their own songs, "Liar", "Keep Yourself Alive", "The Night Comes Down" and "Jesus", for a demo tape, it was around this time Freddie changed his surname to "Mercury", inspired by the line "Mother Mercury, look what they've done to me" in the song "My Fairy King". On 2 July 1971, Queen played their first show in the classic line-up of Mercury, May and Deacon at a Surrey college outside London. Having attended art college, Mercury designed Queen's logo, called the Queen crest, shortly before the release of the band's first album; the logo combines the zodiac signs of all four members: two lions for Leo, a crab for Cancer, two fairies for Virgo. The lions embrace a stylised letter Q, the crab rests atop the letter with flames rising directly above it, the fairies are each sheltering below a lion. There is a crown inside the Q and the whole logo is over-shadowed by an enormous phoenix.
The whole symbol bears a passing resemblance to the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with the lion supporters. The original logo, as found on the reverse-side of the cover of the band's first album, was a simple line drawing. Sleeves bore more intricate-coloured versions of the logo. In 1972, Queen entered discussions with Trident Studios after being spotted at De Lane Lea Studios by John Anthony. After these discussions, Norman Sheffield offered the band a management deal under Neptune Productions, a subsidiary of Trident, to manage the band and enable them to use the facilities at Trident to record new material, whilst the management searched for a record label to sign Queen; this suited both parties, as Trident were expanding into management, under the deal, Queen were able to make use of the hi-tech recording facilities used by other musicians such as the Beatles and Elton John to produce new material. Roger Taylor described these early off-peak studio hours as "gold dust". In 1973, Queen signed to a deal with Trident/EMI.
By July of that year, they released their eponymous debut album, an effort influenced by heavy metal and progressive rock. The album was received well by critics.
Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails abbreviated as NIN, is an American industrial rock band formed in Cleveland, Ohio in 1988. The band consists of producer and multi-instrumentalist Trent Reznor, as well as English musician Atticus Ross. Over the course of their three-decade existence, the band has signed with several major labels, the most current being Capitol Records, under the name The Null Corporation; the origins of the band date back to 1988, while Reznor was employed as a janitor at a studio in Cleveland. Utilizing off-hour sessions, Reznor recorded and released the band's debut album, the synth-pop oriented Pretty Hate Machine, under TVT Records to minor success. However, Reznor feuded with the label about promotion. While attempting to terminate his contract, Reznor signed with Interscope Records and released the extended play Broken, a release that diverged from the sound of their debut, their second and third albums, The Downward Spiral and The Fragile, were released to critical acclaim and commercial success, bringing the band massive popularity, before going on hiatus.
The band released their fourth album, With Teeth, to further success. Following the release of their fifth album, Year Zero, Reznor left Interscope over a dispute of physical copies of the album; the band continued touring and independently released their sixth and seventh albums, Ghosts I-IV and The Slip, before going on hiatus a second time. Returning in 2013, the band released their eighth album, Hesitation Marks, under Columbia Records, followed by a trilogy of releases spanning from 2016-2018, including the EPs Not The Actual Events and Add Violence, as well as their ninth album, Bad Witch. Prior to 2016, Reznor was considered the only constant member and creative force of the band, acting as its founder, lead singer and multi-instrumentalist. In December 2016, English musician Atticus Ross, a frequent collaborator with Reznor, was introduced as a permanent member of Nine Inch Nails. Furthermore, Reznor assembles a live band to perform with him onstage; the touring band has comprised several lineups over the course of three decades, the current of, composed of Robin Finck, Alessandro Cortini, Ilan Rubin.
Their tours employ thematic visual elements to accompany on-stage performances, which include elaborate light shows, songs are rearranged to fit a live setting. In addition to sales of over 20 million records worldwide, Nine Inch Nails have been nominated for thirteen Grammy Awards, winning twice for the songs "Wish" and "Happiness in Slavery" in 1992 and 1996, respectively. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time magazine's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine has described him as "the most vital artist in music". In 2004, Rolling Stone placed Nine Inch Nails at 94 on the magazine's list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. Nine Inch Nails was named as a nominee for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2014, its first year of eligibility; the band was not inducted. In 1987, Trent Reznor played keyboard in a Cleveland, Ohio band called the Exotic Birds managed by John Malm Jr. Reznor and Malm became friends, when Reznor left the Exotic Birds to work on music of his own, Malm informally became his manager.
At the time, Reznor was employed as an assistant engineer and janitor at Right Track Studios, in Cleveland. Koster agreed and allowed Reznor to use it whenever it was empty, commenting that it cost him "just a little wear on tape heads". While completing the early recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate the material as he desired. Instead, inspired by Prince, Reznor played all the instruments, except drums, himself; this role remains Reznor's on most of the band's studio recordings, though he has involved other musicians and assistants. Nine Inch Nails' debut was at the Phantasy Theater in Lakewood, Ohio on October 21, 1988 as part of the Pretty Hate Machine Tour Series. In 1988, after playing its first shows supporting Skinny Puppy, Reznor's ambition for Nine Inch Nails was to release one 12-inch single on a small European label. Several labels responded favorably to the demo material and Reznor signed with TVT Records. Nine selections from the Right Track demos recorded live in November 1988, collectively known as Purest Feeling, were released in revised form on the band's first full-length studio release, Pretty Hate Machine.
The overall sound on Purest Feeling is lighter than that of Pretty Hate Machine. Reznor coined the name "Nine Inch Nails" because it "abbreviated easily", rather than for "any literal meaning". Other rumored explanations have circulated, alleging that Reznor chose to reference Jesus' crucifixion with nine-inch spikes, or Freddy Krueger's nine-inch fingernails; the English letters NIN are noted for their resemblance to the modern Hebrew characters of the Tetragrammaton. The Nine Inch Nails' logo, which consists of the letters set inside a border, was designed by Reznor and Gary Talpas, first appeared on the music video for Nine Inch Nails' debut single, "Down in It", was inspired by Tibor Kalman's typography on the Talking Heads album Remain in Light. Talpas, a native of Cleveland, would continue to design Nine Inch Nails packaging art until 1997. Written and performed by Reznor, Nine Inch Nails' first album Pretty Hate Machine debuted in 1989, it marked his first collaborati
Hollywood Records, Inc. is an American record label of the Disney Music Group. The label focuses in pop, alternative, hip hop, country genres, as well as specializing in mature recordings not suitable for the flagship Walt Disney Records label. Founded in 1989, its current roster includes artists such as Jordan Fisher, Zella Day, Demi Lovato, Zendaya, Ocean Park Standoff, Bea Miller, Martina Stoessel, Breaking Benjamin, Jorge Blanco, Sabrina Carpenter, R5, Olivia Holt, Sofia Carson, Forever in Your Mind, New Hope Club, Maddie Poppe and In Real Life; the label releases Marvel Studios's soundtrack and compilation albums in conjunction with Marvel Music. Hollywood Records was founded in 1989 by Michael Eisner CEO of The Walt Disney Company as a way of expanding the company's music operations by looking to develop and promote the careers of a wide variety of artists in various genres. At the time, the company was limited to the release of soundtracks from Touchstone, Hollywood Pictures films. Lawyer Peter Paterno was the first president of the label, until his resignation in 1993 because of the division's lackluster sales.
After failing to sign new artists such as Nirvana, Smashing Pumpkins, Naughty By Nature, Cypress Hill and Dr. Dre, the label experienced its first major success in February 1990, when it acquired the North American distribution rights to Queen's entire catalog for $10 million; the following year, the first Queen album under Hollywood, was released. The deal's outlook as an important economic opportunity was affected by the premature death of the band's lead singer Freddie Mercury, although the band's catalog sales managed to generate nearly $94 million in revenue for Disney from 1991 to 1995. Bob Pfeifer was named President of the label in March 1995 after a whole year without a President, but problems continued to the label and Pfeifer was fired in 1997, after the label revealed that he had lost over 150 million dollars since 1989. In 1997, Disney acquired Mammoth Records, in order to get an already-established record label that could succeed. However, the acquisition of Mammoth was a failure and the label was closed and integrated to Hollywood in 2003.
Additionally, during this time, they had signed Duran Duran to a three-album contract, subsequently released Pop Trash, only to terminate their contract after disappointing album sales. In 1998, the company decided to form Buena Vista Music Group, integrating the operations of Walt Disney Records along with Hollywood, Lyric Street and Walt Disney Music Publishing. Bob Cavallo, former manager of Earth, Wind & Fire and Prince was appointed as chairman of the group, president of Hollywood Records; this movement looked to organize the music operations of the company under a more integrated direction. After some years of development, Hollywood Records had its first major success in 2003, when Metamorphosis, Hilary Duff's first non-holiday album, was released and became a success to the label, selling over three million copies in the United States; the launch of Duff's career represents a new business model for the record, utilising the synergies around the company, including important outlets like Disney Channel, Radio Disney, ABC Family & ABC.
Duff's albums released under Hollywood proved to be successful including 2004's Hilary Duff and 2005's Most Wanted. A similar business model was utilized in subsequent Hollywood's artists like Demi Lovato, Miley Cyrus, Bridgit Mendler and Selena Gomez with several productions that gained Platinum or Gold certifications, their musical careers proved. At the same time, the label continued to develop the careers of artists with a less mainstream profile like Grace Potter & the Nocturnals, Breaking Benjamin or Plain White T's, but, successful in its own terms; the label continued to release soundtracks from films and TV shows those derived from Marvel Studios productions. In 2010, Hollywood absorbed the remaining operations of country music label Lyric Street Records, which became an imprint for the catalog of the defunct-label managed by Hollywood. In 2011, Queen left EMI for Universal-owned Island Records, with Hollywood continuing to remain the group's North American music distributor. In January 2012, after 14 years of a successful tenure, Bob Cavallo retired as chairman of the Group and Ken Bunt was appointed as president of the group.
Several changes have been done under his tenure, including the retirement of long-time executives from the Cavallo's era like Abbey Konowitch, Justin Fontaine and Jhon Linda and the appointment of new A&R's like Mio Vukovic and Mike Daly. In March 2013, Disney Music Group and Universal Music Group announced the expansion of their relationship with a new commercial and creative agreement that enable Hollywood Records' artists to collaborate with the roster of producers and songwriters that are part of Universal. Since 2013, Hollywood Records uses the brand name DMG Nashville to specialize in country music; the genre label was founded to provide music licensing for Bigger Picture Music Group. After Bigger Picture's closure in 2014, DMG Nashville released its first studio album. Hollywood Basic was Hollywood’s short-lived hip-hop subsidiary, run by Dave Funkenklein, which existed from 1990 to 1995, it did not survive the distribution transition its parent made to PolyGram Records, all of its recordings were deleted, save for those by Organized Konfusion, which were repressed under the new deal.
It was the first label to record DJ Shadow, releasing his "Lesson 4" as the B-side of a 1991 single by Lifers Group, a hip hop group composed of prisoners at East Jersey State