Gettlinge is a village in the southwest portion of the island of Öland, Sweden. It is known for its impressive Viking stone ship burial ground, Gettlinge is situated on the western fringe of the Stora Alvaret, a World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO. The site is visible from the perimeter highway, Route 136. This ridge was one of the few places on the part of the island that had sufficient soil depth for creation of burial mounds. The standing stones of the Viking ship itself are granite, which moraine materials were pushed here from the mainland by ice age glaciers, at Gettlinge as for much of the island of Öland, bedrock layers are primarily Ordovician limestone that dates to at least 600 million years ago. Most of the supply of topsoil was created from glacial grinding of the limestone bedrock. It was the end of the last ice age which led to uplift, the village of Gettlinge, as well as the precursor civilizations from Stone Age to medieval time, is primarily developed on a narrow low-lying ridge running north/south parallel to the Baltic coast.
This ridge is the place along the southwestern coast that soil extends more than the two centimeter maximum of the Stora Alvaret. The ridge was formed by wave action during the post-Ice Age uplift, this thicker soil layer provided the only hospitable place for building foundations, burial grounds and agriculture. The earliest settlers in Öland built early Stone Age wooden huts and these earliest inhabitants would have crossed the Kalmar Strait from the mainland toward the end of the last Ice Age, before the glacial cap had fully melted, and thus provided an ice bridge. The settlements of the Stone Age are key resources on Öland that led to the UNESCO designation of the Stora Alvaret as a World Heritage Site, the principal evidence of life in the Gettlinge area from 1000 BC to 1000 AD is derived from the gravefields themselves. The Gettlinge Gravfeld is situated near the coast highway and contains some Bronze Age barrows as well as the more prominent stone ship burials and these burials span the late Bronze Age, Iron Age and Viking age.
Some of the standing stones are thought to predate the Viking era. Numerous artifacts have been recovered from gravefields elseshere on Öland, including bronze chains, Viking graves have been found at the Hulterstad Gravefield as well as the extensive Strandvalle Gravfeld, both on Oland. The first scientific study of the biota of the Stora Alvaret occurred in the year 1741 with the visit of Linnaeus to Öland, Linnaeus described this unusual ecosystem, It is noteworthy how some plants are able to thrive on the driest and most barren places of the alvar. Some relict species from the age are among the flora palette of the Stora Alvaret. A wide variety of wildflowers and other plants are found on the limestone pavement ecosystem, some of the species found include stonecrop, Artemisia Oelandica, Common spotted orchid and kidney vetch. Most of these wildflowers bloom from May to July, the alvar here is known for its severely dry conditions, evidenced by the dried appearance of ground cover and grasses in the upper right photo
Gutasaga is a saga regarding the history of Gotland before its Christianization. It was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript,1350, kept at the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm together with the Gutalag, the legal code of Gotland. It was written in the Old Gutnish dialect of Old Norse, the saga begins with Gotland being discovered by a man named Þieluar. He was a figure who shows up twice in the Prose Edda. Gotland is under a spell and under water during the day and out of only during the night. Þieluars son Hafþi and his wife Vitastjerna had three sons named Graip and Gunfjaun, the ancestors of the Gutes, after Havdes and Vitastjernas first night together, she had a dream about three snakes entwined in her bosom. This was interpreted as a symbol that all things are connected in circles, the subject is depicted on some of the picture stones on Gotland. The saga says that after his father died, Gute was appointed to be the chief and they shared Gotland, where Gute held the midsection, Graip the northern and Gunnfjaun the southern part.
Then they draw lots, and every person was picked to leave. … they went up the river Dvina, up through Russia and they went so far that they came to the land of the Greeks. … they settled there, and live there still, and still have something of our language, the events would have needed to be transmitted orally for almost a millennium before the text was written down. The mention of the Dvina river is in agreement with the Wielbark culture. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland and several other name of people from the Gutasaga are used for places and other Gotland related things like websites. A stone ship in Boge is called Tjelvars Grave, Boge is the place for the bay Tjäldersvik and the Tjäldersholm island. The Digerrojr cairn in Garde is known as to as Graips rojr, in 2011, a competition, hosted by the Swedish Astronomical Society, for naming a newly discovered asteroid in the asteroid belt was held in Visby. It was named 137052 Tjelvar after Tjelvar, the mythological first man to bring fire to the island, Norse saga Geats Goths Gotlander Original text English translation by Peter Tunstall Swedish-English facing-text translation
Gotland, Gutland in the local dialect Gutnish, is a province, county and diocese of Sweden. The province includes the islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north. The population is 57,221, of which about 23,600 live in Visby, the island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up less than one percent of Swedens total land area. From a military viewpoint, it occupies a location in the Baltic sea. The island is the home of the Gutes, and sites such as the Ajvide Settlement show that it has occupied since prehistory. This is consistent with the spread of peoples from the Middle East at about that time. Early on, Gotland became a center, with the town of Visby the most important Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea. In late medieval times, the island had twenty district courts, each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, new laws were decided at the landsting, which took other decisions regarding the island as a whole. Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar, according to some historians, it is therefore an effort not only to write down the history of Gotland, but to assert Gotlands independence from Sweden.
In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island, the Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights, an invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high, in the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia. The total sum is almost as great as the number that has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world, the Berezan Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian trader named Grani in memory of his business partner Karl. It is assumed that they were from Gotland, the Mästermyr chest, an important artefact from the Viking Age, was found in Gotland. The authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, sold to Eric of Pomerania, in late medieval times, the ting consisted of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants.
Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule, the Order never regained its territory, and eventually it reestablished itself in Rome as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. On 22 April 1808, during the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, a Russian army landed on the shores of Gotland near Grötlingbo. Under command of Nikolaus Andrejevich Bodisco 1,800 Russians took the city of Visby without any combat or engagement, and occupied the island
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of large stones without the use of mortar or concrete. For periods, the monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος, megalith denotes an item consisting of rock hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of stones are seen as megaliths, with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral. The construction of these took place mainly in the Neolithic and continued into the Chalcolithic. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered and they belong to the incipient phases of agriculture and animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved megalithic orthostats are a feature, e. g.
at Nevalı Çori. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, at Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20. Some measure up to 30 metres across, as well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, lions, birds and scorpions. Dolmens and standing stones have been found in areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo. They can be encountered in Lebanon, Iran, Jordan, the largest concentration can be found in southern Syria and along the Jordan Rift Valley, however they are being threatened with destruction. They date from the late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age, megaliths have been found on Kharg Island and pirazmian in Iran, at Barda Balka in Iraq, and at Jaintapur in Bangladesh. A semicircular arrangement of megaliths was found in Israel at Atlit Yam and it is a very early example, dating from the 7th millennium BC. The most concentrated occurrence of dolmens in particular is in an area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side.
They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, and in Jordan, in Saudi Arabia, only very few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz. They seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, the standing stone has a very ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian times
University of Helsinki
The University of Helsinki is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the oldest and largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available, around 36,500 students are currently enrolled in the degree programs of the university spread across 11 faculties and 11 research institutes. As of August 1,2005, the University complies with the structure of the Europe-wide Bologna Process and offers Bachelor, Licenciate. Admission to degree programmes is determined by entrance examinations, in the case of bachelors degrees. It has been ranked a top 100 university in the according to the 2016 ARWU, QS. The university is bilingual, with teaching officially provided both in Finnish and Swedish, generally speaking, the university is monolingual Finnish, as courses taught in Swedish are very few and far apart. Teaching in English is extensive throughout the university at Master, remaining true to its traditionally strong Humboldtian ethos, the University of Helsinki places heavy emphasis on high-quality teaching and research of a top international standard.
It is a member of various prominent international university networks, such as Europaeum, UNICA, the Utrecht Network, the first predecessor of the university, The Cathedral School of Åbo, was presumably founded in 1276 for education of boys to become servants of the Church. It was the university founded in the Swedish Empire, following Uppsala University. The second period of the Universitys history covers the period when Finland was a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, as Finland became part of the Russian Empire in 1809, Emperor Alexander I expanded the University and allocated substantial funds to it. In the capital the primary task of the University was to educate the Grand Duchy’s civil servants, the University became a community subscribing to the new Humboldtian ideals of science and culture, studying humanity and its living environment by means of scientific methods. The Alexander University was a centre of life that promoted the birth of an independent Finnish State. The great men of 19th century Finland, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot, in the 19th century university research changed from being collection-centred to being experimental and analytical.
The more scientific approach of the university led to specialisation and created new disciplines, as the scientific disciplines developed, Finland received ever more scholarly knowledge and highly educated people, some of whom entered rapidly evolving industry or the government. The third period of the universitys history began with the creation of the independent Republic of Finland in 1917, once Finland gained her independence in 1917 the University was given a crucial role in building the nation state and, after World War II, the welfare state. Members of the community promoted the international relations of the new state. Furthermore, they were involved in national politics and the struggle for equality. In the 20th century, scholarly research at the University of Helsinki reached the level of the European elite in many disciplines. I, virtanen and the Nobel Prize in Medicine shared by Professor Ragnar Granit
Anklam, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg, is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated on the banks of the Peene river, just 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, Anklam has a population of 14,603 and was the capital of the former Ostvorpommern district. Since September 2011, it has been part of the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in the early Middle Ages, there was an important Scandinavian and Wendish settlement in the area near the present town now known as Altes Lager Menzlin. Anklam proper began as an associated Wendish fortress, during the German expansion eastwards, the abandoned fortress was developed into a settlement named Tanglim after its new founder. The site possesses importance as the head of navigation on the Peene and it was elevated to town status in 1244 and became a member of the Hanseatic League the same year or in 1483. The town remained small and non-influential, but achieved a measure of wealth, as a town of considerable military importance, it suffered greatly during the Thirty Years War when Swedish and Imperial troops battled over it across a twenty-year span.
Amid this and subsequent wars, it endured repeated outbreaks of fire and it was occupied by imperial forces from 1627 to 1630, and thereafter by Swedish forces. After the war, Anklam became part of Swedish Pomerania in 1648, in 1676, it was captured by Frederick William of Brandenburg. In 1713, Anklam was looted by soldiers of the Russian Empire and that it was not burned to the ground, as ordered by Peter the Great, was in large part due to the resistance of Christian Thomesen Carl, after whom a street is named in remembrance. The southern parts of the town were ceded to Prussia by the 1720 Treaty of Stockholm and it was damaged again during the Seven Years War in the 1750s and 60s, with its fortifications being effectively dismantled in 1762. Sweden yielded its remaining part of the town in 1815, when all of Western Pomerania became part of the Prussian province of Pomerania. In the 19th century, Anklam was connected with Berlin and Stettin by rail and developed its manufacture of linen and woolen goods, leather and its 1871 population was 10,739, which had risen to 14,602 by the turn of the century.
By the time of the First World War, it possessed a school and developed iron foundries. In 1939 the Wehrmacht took over the school and constructed a military prison on the grounds. That was soon to be dissolved and Anklam was within the district of Neubrandenburg, the town was rebuilt in the rather uniform socialist style. After the 1990 reunification of Germany, Anklam became part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Anklam was a prosperous medieval city but suffered severely during the Thirty Years War, the Seven Years War, and the Second World War, as well as from periodic fires. Nonetheless, Anklam has some significant buildings remaining, the 12th-century church of St Mary was rebuilt in the 15th century, had a modern spire added in the 19th, and was repaired in 1947. Museum im Steintor Otto-Lilienthal-Museum Anklam is connected with the Autobahn 20 coastal highway, Anklam railway station is served by national and local services to Angermünde, Dresden, Frankfurt, Münich and Stralsund. S
The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea. The adjective for the region is Pomeranian, inhabitants are called Pomeranians, forming part of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Western Pomeranias boundaries have changed through the centuries and it belonged to countries such as Poland, Sweden and Prussia. Before 1945, it embraced the whole area of Pomerania west of the Oder River, today the cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police are part of Poland, with the remainder of the region staying part of Germany. German Vorpommern now forms about one-third of the present-day north-eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, German Western Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 - while the Polish districts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012. So overall, about 1 million people live in the region of Western Pomerania today. Towns on the German side include Damgarten, Anklam, Demmin, Grimmen, Ueckermünde, the German prefix Vor- denotes a location closer to the speaker, and is the equivalent of Hither in English and Citerior/Cis- in Latin.
Historically the name Hither Pomerania has been used, but in modern English the German region is commonly called Western Pomerania or by its native name. The local dialect term is Low German, Vörpommern, the toponym Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea. Poland has both a historic and geographic term Western Pomerania as well as a province called West Pomerania, the major feature of Western Pomerania is its long Baltic Sea and lagoons coastline. Typical is a distinct double coast, whereby offshore islands separate lagoons from the open sea, the islands Rügen and Usedom are located in Western Pomerania The largest town in Western Pomerania is Szczecin on the Polish side and Stralsund on the German side. Today it is still an important town economically, the towns of Stralsund and Greifswald together, after Rostock, are the second largest centres of population in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In addition the region has the highest population density of the four planning regions in the state, consideration was given during an unsuccessful district reform project in 1994 to restoring the old boundary, but this was not implemented.
The Ribnitz and Fischland area of Vorpommern-Rügen were historically part of Mecklenburg, the old western boundary line is preserved in the division between the two Protestant church bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg and the Pomeranian Evangelical Church. Major cities and towns in Vorpommern include Stralsund, Bergen auf Rügen, Anklam, Sassnitz, heringsdorf does not have city rights, but is a semi-urban center. With Polish entry into the European Union and the opening of borders and you can sort the table of the 20 largest towns by clicking one of the upper columns. Popular tourist resorts can be all along the Baltic beaches of the Fischland-Darß-Zingst peninsula. The old Haneseatic towns are popular tourist destinations due to their brick gothic medieval architecture. In Mukran near Sassnitz on Rügen, there is a ferry terminal linking Western Pomerania to Sweden, Lithuania
Stone circle (Iron Age)
The stone circles of the Iron Age were a characteristic burial custom of southern Scandinavia, especially on Gotland and in Götaland during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age. In Sweden, they are called Domarringar, Domkretsar or Domarsäten and they should not be confused with the Stone circles of the Bronze Age and Britain. A tradition of making stone circles existed on the European continent in Wielbark culture near the mouth of the Vistula River in the first century, the practice suggests Norse influence but may have been established in the area before the arrival of the Goths. The stone circles were used as burial grounds. The circles are usually round, or elongated ellipses, the stones may be very large and they are usually between 9 and 12. Sometimes there are as few as 6–8, one stone circle, the circle of Nässja, comprises as many as 24 stones. Excavations have shown burnt coal in the centre of the circles, there is a widespread tradition that the circles were used for things, or general assemblies.
Similar circles were used for popular assemblies in Denmark until the 16th century, and in Vad parish in Västergötland, the village assemblies were held in a stone circle until the 19th century
Archaeology of Northern Europe
The region entered the Mesolithic around the 7th millennium BCE. The transition to the Neolithic is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE, the Chalcolithic is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, possibly the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion. The Nordic Bronze Age proper begins roughly one millennium later, around 1500 BCE, Northern Europe enters the protohistorical period in the early centuries CE, with the adoption of writing and ethnographic accounts by Roman authors. The following is a listing of Northern European archaeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions. During the 6th millennium BCE, the climate of Scandinavia was generally warmer, the bearers of the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Kongemose culture were mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The Kongemose culture was replaced by the Ertebølle culture, adapting to the changes and gradually adopting the Neolithic Revolution. During the 4th millennium BCE, the Funnelbeaker culture expanded into Sweden up to Uppland, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures were succeeded by the Pitted Ware culture Early Indo-European presence likely dates to the late 3rd millennium BCE, introducing the Nordic Bronze Age.
The tripartite division of the Nordic Iron Age into Pre-Roman Iron Age, Roman Iron Age, the Pre-Roman Iron Age was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia and North European Plain. Succeeding the Nordic Bronze Age, the Iron Age developed in contact with the Hallstatt culture in Central Europe, the Iron Age in northern Europe is markedly distinct from the Celtic La Tène culture south of it. Iron was extracted from bog iron in peat bogs and the first iron objects to be fabricated were needles and edged tools such as swords, Iron products were known in Scandinavia during the Bronze Age, but they were a scarce imported material. Similarly, imported bronze continued to be used during the Iron Age in Scandinavia, funerary practices continued the Bronze Age tradition of burning corpses and placing the remains in urns, a characteristic of the Urnfield culture. Archaeologists have found swords, shield bosses, scissors, pincers, needles, kettles, Bronze continued to be used for torcs and kettles, the style of which were continuous from the Bronze Age.
Some of the most prominent finds from the pre-Roman Iron Age in northern Europe are the Gundestrup cauldron, in Scandinavia, this period is often called the Findless Age due to the lack of archaeological finds. While the archaeological record from Scandinavia are consistent with a decline in population, the southern parts of the culture. It consequently appears that the climate played a important role in this southward expansion into continental Europe. The current view in the Netherlands hold that Iron Age innovations, starting with Hallstatt, did not involve intrusions, another Iron Age nucleus considered to represent a local development is the Wessenstedt culture. The bearers of this northern Iron Age culture were likely speakers of Germanic languages, the stage of development of this Germanic is not known, although Proto-Germanic has been proposed. The Roman Iron Age is the name gave to a part of the Iron Age