Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
United States Colored Troops
The United States Colored Troops were regiments in the United States Army composed of African-American soldiers, although members of other minority groups served with the units. They were first recruited during the American Civil War, by the end of that war in April 1865, the 175 USCT regiments constituted about one-tenth of the manpower of the Union Army. About 20% of USCT soldiers died, a rate about 35% higher than that for white Union troops. Despite heavy casualties, many fought with distinction, with 15 USCT receiving the Medal of Honor and numerous other honors; the USCT was the precursor to the Buffalo Soldier regiments in the American Old West. The U. S. Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1862 in July 1862, it freed slaves whose owners were in rebellion against the United States, Militia Act of 1862 empowered the President to use former slaves in any capacity in the army. President Abraham Lincoln was concerned with public opinion in the four border states that remained in the Union, as they had numerous slaveholders, as well as with northern Democrats who supported the war but were less supportive of abolition than many northern Republicans.
Lincoln opposed early efforts to recruit black soldiers, although he accepted the Army using them as paid workers. Native Americans played a significant role in the colored regiments of the American Civil War. In September 1862, Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, announcing that all slaves in rebellious states would be free as of January 1. Recruitment of colored regiments began in full force following the Proclamation in January 1863; the United States War Department issued General Order Number 143 on May 22, 1863, establishing the Bureau of Colored Troops to facilitate the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight for the Union Army. These units became known as the United States Colored Troops, although other people of color who were not of African descent, such as Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, Asian Americans fought under USCT regiments and made significant contributions. Regiments, including infantry, engineers, light artillery, heavy artillery units were recruited from all states of the Union.
175 regiments comprising more than 178,000 free blacks and freedmen served during the last two years of the war. Their service bolstered the Union war effort at a critical time. By war's end, the men of the USCT made up nearly one-tenth of all Union troops; the USCT suffered 2,751 combat casualties during the war, 68,178 losses from all causes. Disease caused the most fatalities for all troops, both white. In the last year and a half and from all reported casualties 20% of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives. Notably, their mortality rate was higher than white soldiers: find, according to the revised official data, that of the over two millions troops in the United States Volunteers, over 316,000 died, or 15.2%. Of the 67,000 Regular Army troops, 8.6%, or not quite 6,000, died. Of the 180,000 United States Colored Troops, over 36,000 died, or 20.5%. In other words, the mortality rate amongst the United States Colored Troops in the Civil War was thirty-five percent greater than that among other troops, notwithstanding the fact that the former were not enrolled until some eighteen months after the fighting began.
USCT regiments were led by white officers. The Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments in Philadelphia opened the Free Military Academy for Applicants for the Command of Colored Troops at the end of 1863. For a time, black soldiers received less pay than their white counterparts, but they and their supporters lobbied and gained equal pay. Notable members of USCT regiments included Martin Robinson Delany and the sons of Frederick Douglass; the USCT engineers built a Union supply depot, in Charles City, Virginia. The courage displayed by colored troops during the Civil War played an important role in African Americans gaining new rights; as the abolitionist Frederick Douglass wrote: Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letter, U. S. let him get an eagle on his button, a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship. Before the USCT was formed, several volunteer regiments were raised from free black men, including freedmen in the South.
In 1863 a former slave, William Henry Singleton, helped recruit 1,000 former slaves in New Bern, North Carolina for the First North Carolina Colored Volunteers. He became a sergeant in the 35th USCT. Freedmen from the Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, established in 1863 on the island formed part of the Free North Carolina Colored Volunteers and subsequently the 35th. Nearly all of the volunteer regiments were converted into USCT units. In 1922 Singleton published his memoir of his journey from slavery to freedom and becoming a Union soldier. Glad to participate in reunions, years at the age of 95, he marched in a Grand Army of the Republic event in 1938. Four regiments were considered Regular units, rather than auxiliaries, their veteran status allowed them to get valuable federal government jobs after the war, from which African Americans had been excluded in earlier years. However, the men received no formal recognition for combat honors and awards until the turn of the 20th century; these units were: 5th Regiment Massachusetts Colored Volunteer Cavalry 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment 55th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment 29th Connecticut (Color
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Rutherford County, Tennessee
Rutherford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,604, growing to an estimated 317,157 in 2017, making it the fifth-most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Murfreesboro, the geographic center of Tennessee. As of 2010, it is the center of population of Tennessee. Rutherford County is included in the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Rutherford County was formed in 1803 from parts of Davidson and Wilson counties, named in honor of Griffith Rutherford. Rutherford was a North Carolina colonial legislator and an American Revolutionary War general, who settled in Middle Tennessee after the Revolution, he was appointed President of the Council of the Southwest Territory in 1794. Rutherford County supported the Confederacy during the Civil War, having voted 2,392 to 73 in favor of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession on June 8, 1861. Rutherford County's central location and proximity to Nashville during the Civil War made it a contested area.
The county was home to one of the bloodiest battles of the war, the Battle of Stones River, fought between December 31, 1861, January 2, 1862. On July 13, 1862, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest conducted a series of cavalry operations known locally as Forrest's Raid; the raid led to the surrender of all Union forces occupying the area. Soon after his departure, Union troops held it until the end of the war. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 624 square miles, of which 619 square miles is land and 4.7 square miles is water. Wilson County Cannon County Coffee County Bedford County Marshall County Williamson County Davidson County Stones River National Battlefield Flat Rock Cedar Glades and Barrens State Natural Area Gattinger's Cedar Glade and Barrens State Natural Area Long Hunter State Park Manus Road Cedar Glade State Natural Area Overbridge State Natural Area Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area Elsie Quarterman Cedar Glade State Natural Area Fate Sanders Barrens State Natural Area Sunnybell Cedar Glade State Natural Area Stones River Cedar Glade and Barrens State Natural Area Walterhill Floodplain State Natural Area From the 2010 census, there were 262,604 people and 96,731 households residing in the county.
The population density was 424 people per square mile. There were 96,731 housing units at an average density of 114 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.7% White, 14.0% Black or African American, 3.3% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from two or more races. 7.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 182,023 people, 66,443 households, 47,440 families residing in the county; the population density was 294 people per square mile, there were 70,616 housing units. The racial makeup of the county was 85.73% White, 9.51% Black or African American, 1.90% Asian, 0.29% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.32% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 2.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 66,443 households out of which 37.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female head of household with no husband present, 28.60% were non-families.
20.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 13.20% from 18 to 24, 33.50% from 25 to 44, 19.40% from 45 to 64, 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,312, the median income for a family was $53,553. Males had a median income of $36,788 versus $26,555 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,938. About 5.80% of families and 9.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.50% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. The 2010 census put the population of Rutherford County at 262,604; this represents a greater than 40% population growth since the 2000 U.
S. Census; as of 2009, it was estimated that the total minority fraction of the population had grown to 20% of the total, with Hispanic population at 5.58%, African-American population at 12.09%, Asian population at 2.66% of the total. The Board of County Commissioners, the county legislative body, consists of 21 members elected for four-year terms from single-member districts based on equal populations; the county mayor is elected from the county at-large. This area of the state was predominately Democratic following the American Civil War, but the significant minority of African Americans joined the Republican Party; the white-dominated state legislature in the 1880s passed four laws that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites due to the requirement of payment of a poll tax in order to register to vote. This reduced the competitiveness of the Republican Party in the state for more than six decades, thus it held political power only in eastern Tennessee. Since the late 20th century, the majority of white conservatives in Rutherford County shifted toward the Republican Party.
After gaining enforcement o
Cowan is a city in Franklin County, United States. The population was 1,737 at the 2010 census, it is part of Tennessee Micropolitan Statistical Area. The earliest settlers arrived in the Cowan area in the late early 19th centuries; the home of one such settler, William Russell, served as the Franklin County Courthouse until the establishment of Winchester in 1810. The town was named for Dr. James Benjamin Cowan, a Civil War-era doctor whose family had lived in the area since the early 1800s; the town of Cowan dates from the mid-19th century and developed as a railroad town. It was the site where several branch lines met the main Nashville to Chattanooga trunk of the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway which ran through the important Cowan Tunnel; as the last stop before the uphill climb onto the nearby Cumberland Plateau, pusher engines to assist trains in making the steep ascent were based there, are still in use today. The town's economy declined with the importance of the railroad after United States Highway 41A was built in the 1940s.
The old passenger depot, built in 1904, was restored as a museum, is a focal point of the downtown area. Cowan is located at 35°10′0″N 86°0′43″W; the city is situated at the western base of the Cumberland Plateau, is concentrated around the point where U. S. Route 41A crosses; the edge of the Plateau juts out in a series of ridges creating several small valleys in the area, including Hawkins Cove to the northeast and Keith Cove to the south. Cowan is drained by a tributary of the Elk River. US 41A is the primary road in Cowan, connecting the city with Winchester and the Tims Ford Lake area to the west. To the east of Cowan, US 41A ascends nearly 1,000 feet to the top of the Cumberland Plateau, where it passes through Sewanee and Monteagle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,770 people, 746 households, 499 families residing in the city; the population density was 895.6 people per square mile.
There were 803 housing units at an average density of 406.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.68% White, 9.44% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.00% Asian, 0.79% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population. There were 746 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,448, the median income for a family was $33,882. Males had a median income of $27,321 versus $20,909 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,352. About 13.4% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under the age of 18 and 11.4% of those 65 and older. Visit Cowan - Cowan Commercial Club website Cowan Railroad Museum NC&StL Preservation Society City charter
National Military Park
National Military Park, National Battlefield, National Battlefield Park, National Battlefield Site are four designations for 25 battle sites preserved by the United States federal government because of their national importance. The designation applies to "sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States...."There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, one National Battlefield Site. The National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress; these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, although "park" appears to be reserved for the larger sites.
Only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, small, still bears that designation. Some battlefields are designated as National Monuments, such as Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument and Fort Pulaski National Monument; as with all historic areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. List of National Military Parks List of National Battlefield Parks List of National Battlefields Designation of National Park System Units The Origin & Evolution of the National Military Park Idea by Ronald F. Lee
Battle of Franklin (1864)
The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified positions occupied by the Union forces under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and was unable to break through or to prevent Schofield from executing a planned, orderly withdrawal to Nashville; the Confederate assault of six infantry divisions containing eighteen brigades with 100 regiments numbering 20,000 men, sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West", resulted in devastating losses to the men and the leadership of the Army of Tennessee—fourteen Confederate generals and 55 regimental commanders were casualties. After its defeat against Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas in the subsequent Battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee retreated with half the men with which it had begun the short offensive, was destroyed as a fighting force for the remainder of the war.
The 1864 Battle of Franklin was the second military action in the vicinity. Following his defeat in the Atlanta Campaign, Hood had hoped to lure Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman into battle by disrupting his railroad supply line from Chattanooga to Atlanta. After a brief period in which he pursued Hood, Sherman decided instead to cut his main army off from these lines and "live off the land" in his famed March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah. By doing so, he would avoid having to defend hundreds of miles of supply lines against constant raids, through which he predicted he would lose "a thousand men monthly and gain no result" against Hood's army. Sherman's march left the aggressive Hood unoccupied, his Army of Tennessee had several options in attacking Sherman or falling upon his rear lines; the task of defending Tennessee and the rearguard against Hood fell to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, commander of the Army of the Cumberland; the principal forces available in Middle Tennessee were IV Corps of the Army of the Cumberland, commanded by Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley, XXIII Corps of the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. John Schofield, with a total strength of about 30,000.
Another 30,000 troops under Thomas's command were in or moving toward Nashville. Rather than trying to chase Sherman in Georgia, Hood decided that he would attempt a major offensive northward though his invading force of 39,000 would be outnumbered by the 60,000 Union troops in Tennessee, he would move north into Tennessee and try to defeat portions of Thomas's army in detail before they could concentrate, seize the important manufacturing and supply center of Nashville, continue north into Kentucky as far as the Ohio River. Hood expected to pick up 20,000 recruits from Tennessee and Kentucky in his path of victory and join up with Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia, a plan that historian James M. McPherson describes as "scripted in never-never land." It should be noted here that Hood had recovered from but was affected by a couple of serious physical battle wounds to a leg and arm, which caused him pain and limited his mobility. Hood spent the first three weeks of November supplying the Army of Tennessee in northern Alabama in preparation for his offensive.
The Army of Tennessee marched north from Florence, Alabama, on November 21, indeed managed to surprise the Union forces, the two halves of which were 75 miles apart at Pulaski and Nashville. With a series of fast marches that covered 70 miles in three days, Hood tried to maneuver between the two armies to destroy each in detail, but Union general Schofield, commanding Stanley's IV Corps as well as his own XXIII Corps, reacted with a rapid retreat from Pulaski to Columbia, which held an important bridge over the Duck River on the turnpike north. Despite suffering losses from Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry along the way, the Federals were able to reach Columbia and erect fortifications just hours before the Confederates arrived on November 24. From November 24 to 29, Schofield managed to block Hood at this crossing, the "Battle of Columbia" was a series of bloodless skirmishes and artillery bombardments while both sides re-gathered their armies. On November 28, Thomas directed Schofield to begin preparations for a withdrawal north to Franklin.
He was incorrectly expecting that Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith's XVI Corps arrival from Missouri was imminent and he wanted the combined force to defend against Hood on the line of the Harpeth River at Franklin instead of the Duck River at Columbia. Meanwhile, early on the morning of November 29, Hood sent Cheatham's and Stewart's corps north on a flanking march, they crossed the Duck River at Davis's Ford east of Columbia, while two divisions of Lee's corps and most of the army's artillery remained on the southern bank to deceive Schofield into thinking a general assault was planned against Columbia. Now that Hood had outflanked him by noon on November 29, Schofield's army was in critical danger, his command was split at that time between his supply wagons and artillery and part of the IV Corps, which he had sent to Spring Hill nearly ten miles north of Columbia, the rest of the IV and XXIII corps marching from Columbia to join them. In the Battle of Spring Hill that afternoon and night, Hood had a golden opportunity to intercept and destroy the Union troops and their supply wagons, as his forces had reached the turnpike separating the Union forces by nightfall.
However, because of a series of command fa