Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters", its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River, it is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume, it is the 13th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake's shoreline is 712 miles long.
As the last lake in the Great Lakes' hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its maximum width is 53 statute miles; the lake's average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lake's primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet; the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both among years; these water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors near Prince Edward County and the easternmost shores; the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour.
Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu'ile Bay, Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park; these sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu'ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile isthmus near Trenton. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, the Salmon River; the lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had the same orientation as today's basin.
Material, pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom, reorganizing the region's entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so the lake surface was at a higher level; this stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic; the shoreline created during this stage can be recognized by the beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles from the present shoreline. When the ice receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea; the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet of ice, stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there.
This means the lake bed is tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners; the name Ontario is derived from the Huron word Ontarí'io, which means "great lake". The lake was a border between the Huron people and the Iroquois Confederacy in the pre-Columbian era. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario; when the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name. It is believed the first European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615; as was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson In
European Canadians known as White Canadians and Euro-Canadians, are Canadians with ancestry from Europe. They form the largest panethnic group within Canada; the French were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in. Hélène Desportes is considered the first white child born in New France, she was born circa 1620, to Françoise Langlois. In the 2016 census, the largest European ancestry groups were British Isles origins, Scottish, German, Italian. However, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian". Since 1996, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry, which caused English Canadians, British Canadians and French Canadians to become underrepresented; the grouping is similar to that of "American" in neighbouring United States and is most espoused by European Canadians whose ancestors have been some of the earliest European settlers of what is now Canada, to the point where they no longer feel a connection to their countries of origin.
In the 2011 National Household Survey Profile, 10,563,805 people chose "Canadian" as their ethnic group, making it the single largest group in the country. The table shows the European-Canadian population showing a gradual increase from the 1871 Census, their proportion of the total Canadian population has been decreasing since the mid-twentieth century to the most recent census in 2011. Canada enumerated its population by ethnic origins. European Canadians are still the largest ethnic group in Canada. Elements of Aboriginal, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour, the United States; the top ten cities as per population of European Canadians are as follows: Toronto 1,282,750 Montreal 1,082,615 Calgary 744,625 Ottawa 652,650 Edmonton 524,265 Quebec City 475,720 Hamilton 415,740 Winnipeg 412,645 Halifax 336,375 Mississauga 302,375The top ten such Census Metropolitan Areas are as follows: Montreal 3,070,210 Toronto 2,804,630 Vancouver 1,179,100 Ottawa - Gatineau 981,630 Calgary 869,555 Edmonton 857,085 Quebec City 729,310 Hamilton 590,310 Winnipeg 473,360 Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo 407,460 The culture of the Canadians of European descent, European-Canadian culture, is the main culture of Canada.
From their earliest presence in North America, European Canadians have contributed literature, architecture and theater, religion and philosophy, agricultural skills, medicine and technology, fashion and clothing styles, language, economics, legal system, political system, social and technological innovation to Canadian culture. European-Canadian culture derived its earliest influences from English, Scottish and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of Canadian culture; the overall Canadian culture reflects European-Canadian culture known as White Canadian culture. The culture has been developing since long. Much of Canadian culture shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes. Canadian flag - In 1964, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson formed a committee to resolve the issue, sparking a serious debate about a flag change to replace the Union Flag. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George Stanley, based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada, was selected.
The flag made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965. Another area of cultural influence are Canadian Patriotic songs: Canadian National Anthem - Two Canadians of French descent Adolphe-Basile Routhier wrote the lyrics and Calixa Lavallée composed the music in 1880; the English lyrics, the official and most popular version were written in 1908 by Scottish-Canadian Robert Stanley Weir. The Maple Leaf Forever - is an older but unofficial national anthem written by Scotsman Alexander Muir in 1867, it was in consideration for official national anthem, however, no French version was written, so, it was never popular with Francophones. Ice Hockey - British soldiers and immigrants to Canada and the United States brought their stick-and-ball games with them and played them on the ice and snow of winter. Ice hockey was first played in Canada during the early nineteenth century, based on similar sports such as field hockey that were played in Europe; the sport was played with a stick and ball, but in 1860 a group of English veterans from the Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment played a game in Kingston, utilising a puck for what is believed to be the first time.
This match, played on the frozen harbour by the city, is sometimes considered to be the birth of modern ice hockey. Most of the heritage that all twenty-three Canadian Prime Ministers come from: is British ancestry. Canadian Prime Ministers' ancestry can be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe. European diaspora Métis people Ethnic origins of people in Canada European Americans Demographics of Canada
Chinese Canadians are Canadians of full or partial Chinese ancestry which includes Canadian-born Chinese. They comprise a subgroup of East Asian Canadians, a further subgroup of Asian Canadians. Demographic research tends to include immigrants from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau as well as overseas Chinese who have immigrated from South East Asia and South America into the broadly defined Chinese Canadian category as StatsCan refers to Taiwanese Canadians as a separate group apart from Chinese Canadians. Canadians of Chinese descent make up about five percent of the Canadian population, or about 1.76 million people as of 2016. The Chinese Canadian community is the largest ethnic group of Asian Canadians, consisting 40% of the Asian Canadian population. Most Canadians of Chinese descent are concentrated within the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia; the first record of Chinese in what is known as Canada today can be dated back to 1788. The renegade British Captain John Meares hired a group of 70 Chinese carpenters from Macau and employed them to build a ship, the North West America, at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
This was an important but disputed European outpost on the Pacific coast, after Spanish seizure, was abandoned by Mears, leaving the eventual whereabouts of the carpenters unknown. Chinese railway workers made up the labour force for construction of two one-hundred mile sections of the Canadian Pacific Railway from the Pacific to Craigellachie in the Eagle Pass in British Columbia; the railway as a whole consisted of 28 such sections, 93% of which were constructed by workers of European origin. When British Columbia agreed to join Confederation in 1871, one of the conditions was that the Dominion government build a railway linking B. C. with eastern Canada within 10 years. British Columbia politicians and their electorate agitated for an immigration program from the British Isles to provide this railway labour, but Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, betraying the wishes of his constituency, Victoria, by insisting the project cut costs by employing Chinese to build the railway, summarized the situation this way to Parliament in 1882: "It is a question of alternatives: either you must have this labour or you can't have the railway.".
Chinese communities in Canada in the 19th and well into the 20th centuries were organized around the traditional kinship systems linking people belonging to the same clans together. As not everyone in the Chinese communities belonged to the same clans, "voluntary" associations that functioned in many ways like guilds that provided social welfare, community events and a forum for politics became important in Chinese-Canadian communities. Linking together all of the voluntary associations were Benevolent Associations that in effect ran the various Chinatowns in Canada, mediating disputes within the communities and providing for leaders who negotiated with Canadian politicians; as many Chinese immigrants knew little or no English, most white Canadians did not welcome them, the Chinatowns tended to be cut off from the wider Canadian communities, functioning as "islands". The Canadian media in the late 19th and early 20th centuries depicted the Chinatowns in lucid and sensationalist terms as centers of "filth".
Reflecting the popularity of "Yellow Peril" stereotypes, the media blamed Chinese immigrants for all the crime in Canada, depicting the Chinese as luring innocent white Canadians into gambling and drug addiction. Many workers from Guangdong Province arrived to help build the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 19th century as did Chinese veterans of the gold rushes; these workers accepted the terms offered by the Chinese labour contractors who were engaged by the railway construction company to hire them—low pay, long hours, lower wages than non-Chinese workers and dangerous working conditions, in order to support their families that stayed in China. Their willingness to endure hardship for low wages enraged fellow non-Chinese workers who thought they were unnecessarily complicating the labour market situations. From the passage of the Chinese Immigration Act in 1885, the Canadian government began to charge a substantial head tax for each Chinese person trying to immigrate to Canada; the Chinese were the only ethnic group.
Owing to the fear of the "Yellow Peril", in 1895 the government of Mackenzie Bowell passed an act forbidding any Asian-Canadian from voting or holding office. In 1902, the Liberal Prime Minister Sir Wilfred Laurier appointed a Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration, whose report stated that the Asians were "unfit for full citizenship... obnoxious to a free community and dangerous to the state." Following the Royal Commission's report, Parliament voted to increase the Chinese head tax to $500 dollars, which temporarily caused Chinese immigration to Canada to stop. However, those Chinese wishing to go to Canada began to save up money to pay the head tax, which led to agitation in British Columbia for the Dominion government to ban Asian immigration. Between 7–9 September 1907, an anti-Asian pogrom took place in Vancouver; the Asiatic Exclusion League organized attacks against homes and businesses owned by Chinese, Japanese and Indian immigrants under the slogan "White Canada Forever!".
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Ukrainian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukrainian-born people who immigrated to Canada. In 2016, there were an estimated 1,359,655 persons of full or partial Ukrainian origin residing in Canada, making them Canada's eleventh largest ethnic group and giving Canada the world's third-largest Ukrainian population behind Ukraine itself and Russia. Self-identified Ukrainians are the plurality in several rural areas of Western Canada. According to the 2011 census, of the 1,251,170 who identified as Ukrainian, only 144,260 could speak either the modern Ukrainian language or the historic Canadian Ukrainian dialect. Minority opinions among historians of Ukrainians in Canada surround theories that a small number of Ukrainians settled in Canada before 1891. Most controversial is the claim that Ukrainians may have been infantrymen alongside Poles in the Swiss French "De Meurons" and "De Watteville" regiments who fought for the British on the Niagara Peninsula during the War of 1812 – it has been theorized that Ukrainians were among those soldiers who decided to stay in Upper Canada.
Other Ukrainians arrived as part of other immigrant groups. "Galicians" are noted as being among the miners of the British Columbia gold rushes and figure prominently in some towns in that new province's first census in 1871. Because there is so little definitive documentary evidence of individual Ukrainians among these three groups, they are not regarded as among the first Ukrainians in Canada. During the nineteenth century the territory inhabited by Ukrainians in Europe was divided between the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires; the Austrian crownlands of Galicia and Bukovyna were home to many Ukrainian speakers. Austrian Galicia was one of the poorest and most overpopulated regions in Europe, had experienced a series of blights and famines. Emigration on a large scale from Galicia to the Balkans and to Brazil was underway by 1891; the first wave of Ukrainian immigration to Canada began with Iwan Pylypow and Wasyl Eleniak, who arrived in 1891, brought several families to settle in 1892. Pylypow helped found the Edna-Star Settlement east of Edmonton, the first and largest Ukrainian block settlement.
However, it is Dr. Josef Oleskow, along with Cyril Genik, who are considered responsible for the large Ukrainian Canadian population through their promotion of Canada as a destination for immigrants from western Ukraine in the late 1890s. Ukrainians from Central Ukraine, ruled by the Russian monarchy came to Canada – but in smaller numbers than those from Galicia and Bukovyna. 170,000 Ukrainians from the Austro-Hungarian Empire arrived in Canada from September 1891 to August 1914. Clifford Sifton, Canada's Minister of the Interior from 1896 to 1905 encouraged Ukrainians from Austria-Hungary to immigrate to Canada since he wanted new agricultural immigrants to populate Canada's prairies. After retirement, Sifton defended the new Ukrainian and East European immigrants to Canada – who were not from the United Kingdom, the United States, Iceland, France or Germany – by stating: This Ukrainian immigration to Canada was agrarian, at first Ukrainian Canadians concentrated in distinct block settlements in the parkland belt of the prairie provinces: Alberta and Manitoba.
While the Canadian Prairies are compared to the steppes of Ukraine, the settlers came from Galicia and Bukovyna – which are not steppe lands, but are semi-wooded areas in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. This is why Ukrainians coming to Canada settled in the wooded aspen parklands – in an arch from Winnipeg and Stuartburn, Manitoba to Edmonton and Leduc, Alberta – rather than the open prairies further south; as well, the semi-feudal nature of land ownership in the Austrian Empire meant that in the "Old Country" people had to pay the pan for all their firewood and lumber for building. Upon arriving in Canada, the settlers demanded wooded land from officials so that they would be able to supply their own needs if this meant taking land, less productive for crops, they attached deep importance to settling near to family, people from nearby villages or other culturally similar groups, furthering the growth of the block settlements. Fraternal and benevolent organizations established by these settlers include the Ukrainian Labour Farmer Temple Association, the Ukrainian Catholic Brotherhood, the Ukrainian Self-Reliance League.
The ULFTA transformed itself into the Association of United Ukrainian Canadians in 1946, the UCB and USRL are part of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress today. By 1914, there were growing communities of Ukrainian immigrants in eastern Canadian cities, such as Toronto, Montreal and Windsor. Many of them arrived from the provinces of Podillia, Volhynia and Bessarabia in Russian-ruled Ukraine. In the early years of settlement, Ukrainian immigrants faced considerable amounts of discrimination at the hands of non-Slavic, non-Southern European Canadians, an example of, the
Hamilton Street Railway
The Hamilton Street Railway is a public transport agency in Hamilton, Canada. The name is a legacy of the company's early period, when public transit in Hamilton was served by streetcars. Although streetcars are no longer used in the city today, the HSR operates bus and paratransit services, with a ridership of 21 million passengers a year; the HSR uses the Presto card as its method of fare payment, allowing for connections with GO Transit and other transit systems in the Greater Toronto area. From 1873 to 1889, the HSR was operated as a private business. In 1889 HSR was sold to Hamilton Cataract Interests known as Dominion Power and Transmission Company; the HSR was acquired by Ontario Hydro. Provincial ownership ended in 1946. CCL was purchased by the city of Hamilton in 1960. Hamilton-Wentworth Region began ownership of CCL and HSR in 1977, in 2001 regional amalgamation placed its ownership back to the city of Hamilton. 1873–1923: Hamilton & Dundas Street Railway 1891–1931: Hamilton, Grimsby & Beamsville Electric Railway 1893–1925: Hamilton Radial Electric Railway 1896–1931: Brantford & Hamilton Electric Railway 1907–1930s: Hamilton Terminal Company In the early 1990s the HSR eliminated many routes by expanding current routes.
The following is a list of replaced and withdrawn routes: The HSR operated horsecars from 1874 to 1892 and electric streetcars from 1892 to 1951. Trolley buses replaced streetcars in Hamilton in 1951. Trolley buses were used by the HSR from 1951 to 1992 along the following routes: Introduced in 1998 as a two-year pilot project, Trans-Cab is a shared-ride taxi service between HSR and specific local taxi providers offered in portions of Glanbrook and Stoney Creek. Accessible Transportation Services is the section that administers a variety of accessible services on behalf of the City Accessible low-floor buses provide level entry and exit to accommodate wheelchairs and walkers, it is anticipated that the entire HSR fleet will be accessible by 2009. Disabled and Aged Regional Transportation System is a non profit charitable organization, the paratransit service provider. Taxi Scrip program provides discounted taxi coupons for ATS registered persons who are unable to access regular transit buses.
In 1981, during Bill Davis's Progressive Conservative administration, the Province of Ontario offered to finance the construction of a light rail line in Hamilton, from Lloyd D. Jackson Square to the Lime Ridge Mall; the line would have used the same technology as the Scarborough RT in Toronto. The plans triggered a lot grass-roots opposition, Hamilton-Wentworth Council turned the proposal down; the plan called for an elevated track -- one of the element. Residents being concerned commuters would be invading their privacy, by looking down on their back-yards and in their second floor windows; when the CBC News compared the rejected 1981 plan with the 21st Century rapid transit plan they quoted the individual, the planning and development manager for Hamilton-Wentworth Regional Government, Doug Lychak, who pointed out that Vancouver's introduction of the same elevated light rail technology, just four years is acknowledged to have been successful. The 1980s light rail plans were to use the UTDC ICTS technology, but the project was scrapped and no lines were created for the HSR.
Hamilton is considering the use of LRT in the city, is working with Metrolinx on a plan to get an LRT with 15 years after plans are approved. The planned BLAST network routes may include:B-Line – Main/King corridor from McMaster University to Eastgate Square L-Line – Downtown to Waterdown A-Line – James/Upper James corridor from Downtown to John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport S-Line – Centennial to Ancaster Business Park T-Line – Mohawk to MeadowlandsNo vehicles have been chosen, but it may be similar to the Flexity Freedom to be used in Ion rapid transit and Eglinton Crosstown LRT. 1875 first horsebarn opens 1887 second horsebarn opens 1889 Sanford Avenue carhouse opens 1927–1990 Wentworth Street North carbarn/garage opens 1984–1996, 1998–present Mountain Regional Transit Centre on Upper James Street 1990–1998 Wentworth Street Transit Centre HSR routes from downtown to the Mountain use MacNab Transit Terminal, while several lower city routes have an on-street terminal layover at the intersection of Main and James Streets.
34 has a layover location on King at James. HSR connects with GO Transit at Hamilton GO Centre, which serves as the terminus for four HSR routes; the station, located at 36 Hunter Street East, a few blocks south of King and James, is the terminus of the GO's Lakeshore West railway line and Express Highway 407 and Queen Elizabeth Way GO Buses. It is the main Greyhound Lines bus stop in Hamilton. Canada Coach Lines, once owned by HSR, is now served by Coach Canada Trentway-Wagar, operates routes between Kitchener-Waterloo and Niagara, it is the former Toronto and Buffalo Railway passenger station, there is a small museum above the public concourse. HSR routes 2 and 4 connect with GO at Barton Street & Nash Road in East Hamilton, where a GO bus travels between there and the Burlington GO Station. At the Mountain Transit Centre transfer point and a contract with Blue Line Taxi, the HSR connects with other areas in the northwest portion of the former Glanbrook. In addition, the HSR is connected with Burlington Transit, as one route travels into Burlington via Burlington Beach, 18 Waterdown connects with BT at
Erland Lee Museum
The Erland Lee Museum is a National Historic Site of Canada located on the ridge of the Niagara Escarpment in Stoney Creek, Ontario. A farmhouse belonging to Erland and Janet Lee, the museum is recognized as the birthplace of the first Women's Institutes, an international organization formed in 1897 to promote the education of isolated rural women; the oldest part of the home, a log cabin, dates to 1808. An addition was built onto the log cabin in 1873 in the Carpenter Gothic style, part of the Gothic Revival Architectural tradition; this is best exemplified by the steeply-pitched gables, gingerbread trim, the board-and-batten planks. The Lee Family lived in the house from 1808 until 1970, its first historical designation was granted by the South Wentworth Women's Institute. In 1972, the home was opened to the public as a museum, has since been owned and operated by the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario. In 1995, the museum was designated as a historic home under the Ontario Heritage Act, in 2003, the museum was granted status as a National Historic Site of Canada.
The museum itself contains three floors of original Victorian furniture and furnishings, with an emphasis on the history of the Lee family, the events surrounding the 1897 founding of the Women's Institutes. For example, the dining room table on which Janet Lee wrote the first Women’s Institute constitution still stands in its original location; the farmhouse is complemented by an 1873 carriage house, which contains two floors of local history exhibits. Erland Lee Museum Website website of organization Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario Website website of organization Associated Country Women of the World Website website of organization