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Stony Brook University

The State University of New York at Stony Brook referred to as Stony Brook University, SBU, or SUNY Stony Brook, is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of New York system; the institution was founded 63 years ago in 1957 in Oyster Bay as State University College on Long Island, moved to Stony Brook in 1962. In 2001, Stony Brook was elected to the Association of American Universities, it is a member of the larger Universities Research Association. It is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity."Stony Brook University, in partnership with Battelle, manages Brookhaven National Laboratory – a national laboratory of the United States Department of Energy. The university acquired land for a Research & Development Park adjacent to its main campus in 2004, has four business incubators across the region; the university's impact on the Long Island economy amounts to $7.23 billion in increased output, research expenditures have surpassed the $230 million mark annually.

Stony Brook is the largest single-site employer on Long Island. Stony Brook's intercollegiate athletic teams are the Seawolves. Since 1999, they have competed in Division I of the NCAA, are members of the America East Conference, Colonial Athletic Association, Missouri Valley Conference; the State University of New York at Stony Brook referred to as SUNY Stony Brook, was established in Oyster Bay in 1957 as the State University College on Long Island, by the governor and state of New York. Established a decade after the creation of New York's public higher education system, the institution was envisioned as a college for the preparation of secondary school teachers. Leonard K. Olson was appointed as the first dean of the institution and was instrumental in the recruitment of faculty staff and planning of the Stony Brook campus. SUCOLI opened with an inaugural class of 148 students, on the grounds of the William Robertson Coe Planting Fields estate; these first students were admitted on a tuition-free basis.

1961 was a year of firsts as thirty students were conferred degrees in the first commencement and the University was appointed its first president, John Francis Lee. Lee left that year due to political and bureaucratic matters regarding the future of the University and the central administration at Albany. Lee fulfilled his primary task of reshaping the university from a technical science and engineering college of limited degree options to a full-scale university featuring liberal arts programs. In 1960 the Heald Report, commissioned by Governor Nelson Rockefeller, recommended a major new public university be built on Long Island to "stand with the finest in the country", a report that would shape most of the University's growth for years to come. Ward Melville, a philanthropist and businessman from the Three Village area in western Suffolk County donated over 400 acres of land to the state for the development of a state university and in 1962 the institution relocated to Stony Brook and renamed as the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

However, the longer name has fallen out of favor. The campus had 782 students enrolled in 1962, but enrollment had increased more than tenfold by 1969, surpassing the 8,000 mark, fueled by the large funding of public higher education in the Sputnik era. In 1963, only three years after the release of the Heald Report, the Governor commissioned the "Education of Health Professions" report; the report outlined the need for expansion of the university system to prepare medical professionals for the future needs of the state. The report was important for Stony Brook as it recommended creation of a Health Science Center and academic hospital at the campus to serve the need of the fastest-growing counties in New York at the time. In 1965, the State University appointed John S. Toll, a renowned physicist from the University of Maryland as the second president of Stony Brook. In 1966, the University set forth initial timetables for the development of the Health Science Center, which would house the University's health programs and hospital.

Despite the budgetary concerns and challenges from Albany, the University released a formalized plan early in 1968 and funding for recruitment of faculty was provided. At the same time, residential housing was expanded to 3,000, the Stony Brook Union opened in 1970, in 1971, the massive expansion project for the campus library was completed. Despite the fast-paced growth, campus infrastructure struggled to keep pace: overcrowding, landscaping and safety were persistent problems at the University, which led to multiple protests and growing tension between the student body and the administration. In January 1968, the infamous "Operation Stony Brook" drug raid resulted in the arrest of twenty nine students and in the fall of 1968, tension climaxed as the administration and students decided on a three-day moratorium to bring together the entire university with the goal of improving communication between the students and administration. Despite the initiatives of the "Three Days" in improving the campus, in February 1973, a tragedy occurred when a freshman student fell to his death into one of the many uncovered steam pipe manholes at the University.

The 1970s witnessed the growth of the University and its transformation as a major research institution within New York's public scho

Banking in Australia

Banking in Australia is dominated by four major banks: Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Westpac Banking Corporation and New Zealand Banking Group, National Australia Bank. There are several smaller banks with a presence throughout the country, a large number of other financial institutions, such as credit unions, building societies and mutual banks, which provide limited banking-type services and are described as authorised deposit-taking institutions. Many large foreign banks have a presence; the central bank is the Reserve Bank of Australia. Since 2008 the Australian government has guaranteed deposits up to $250,000 per customer per institution against banking failure. Banks require a bank licence under the Banking Act 1959. Foreign banks require a licence to operate through a branch in Australia, Australian-incorporated foreign bank subsidiaries. Complying religious charitable development funds are exempt from the licence requirement. Australia has a sophisticated and profitable financial sector and a strong regulatory system.

For the 10 years ended mid-2013, the Commonwealth Bank was ranked first in Bloomberg Riskless Return Ranking a risk-adjusted 18%. Westpac Bank was in fourth place with 11% and ANZ Bank was in seventh place with 8.7%. The four major banks are among the world's largest banks by market capitalisation and all rank in the top 25 globally for safest banks, they are some of the most profitable in the world. Australia's financial services sector is the largest contributor to the national economy, contributing around $140 billion to GDP a year, it employs 450,000 people. Deregulation of the financial sector commenced in the mid-1960s, with the removal of the distinction between and separation of trading and savings banks. Building societies were allowed to take deposits from the public. Banking in Australia is notable by the small number of large banks in the market. Much of this concentration is the result of bank acquisitions. English and Australian Bank was acquired by the ANZ Bank in 1970. In 1982, Bank of New South Wales merged with the Commercial Bank of Australia to form Westpac.

There were many acquisitions throughout Australia's banking history. Beginning in the 1980s, several building societies sought to convert to banks, but were required to demutualise before they were permitted to do so; this included NSW Building Society, which became Advance Bank, St. George, Metway Bank, Challenge Bank, Bank of Melbourne and Bendigo Bank. A change in regulations allowed building societies and credit unions to become banks without having to demutualise, several including Heritage Bank have converted since 2011 while retaining their status and structure as mutual organisations. In 1990, the government, under political pressure, adopted a strategy to halt the further concentration in the banking industry, which came to be called the "four pillars policy". In 1990, the government adopted a "four pillars policy" in relation to banking in Australia and announced that it would reject any mergers between the big four banks; this is long-standing policy rather than formal regulation, but it reflects the broad political unpopularity of further bank mergers.

A number of commentators have argued that the "four pillars policy" is built upon economic fallacies and works against the Australia's better interests. The four pillars policy does not prevent the four major banks from acquiring smaller competitors. In 2000, CBA acquired the Colonial group, which had emerged as a major bank–insurance combine in the 1990s, after the Colonial Mutual insurance group took over State Bank of NSW in 1994; the Commonwealth Bank acquired the State Bank of Victoria in 1990 and BankWest in 2008. Westpac acquired the Challenge Bank in 1995, Bank of Melbourne in 1997, St. George Bank in 2008. Banking in Australia is dominated by four major banks: Commonwealth Bank, Westpac, ANZ Bank, the National Australia Bank; the top four banking groups in Australia ranked by market capitalisation at share price 1 December 2017: The Customer Owned Banking Association is the industry body representing the more than 100 credit unions, building societies and mutual banks that constitute the Australian mutual or cooperative banking sector.

Collectively, Australian customer-owned banks service 4.6 million customers or'members', with total assets of over A$85 billion. The ten largest customer-owned banks in Australia are: Heritage Bank is Australia's largest customer-owned bank, having changed its name from Heritage Building Society in December 2011. A number of credit unions and building societies changed their business names to include the word'bank', to overcome adverse perceptions of smaller deposit-taking entities. For example, in September 2011 Bank Australia was announced as Australia's first customer-owned bank. Three teachers' credit unions have become known as'banks'; the Police & Nurses' Credit Union began trading as P&N Bank in March 2013, some credit unions are electing to use'mutual banking' as a business tagline, rather than as a business name, as they do not meet the criteria to be called a'bank'. There are other retail banks in Australia; these are smaller and regional banks, including the Bendigo and Adelaide Bank, Suncorp-Metway, the Bank of Queensland and ME Bank.

Other banks, such as Bankwest, St George Bank and Bank of Melbourne, are subsidiaries or alternate trading names o


Taşmedrese is a 13th-century religious complex in Akşehir, Turkey. It is at 38°21′36″N 31°24′34″E in Akşehir ilçe of Konya Province; the complex was commissioned by the vizier of Sultanate of Rum. As the name implies, it was a madrasa, built in 1250. With additions it became a religious complex with a mosque, hankah, a fountain etc, but now only the madrasa, the mosque, built in 1261 and a tomb are standing. In 1965 it was opened as a museum. In 1986 it was put under restoration; the building has an open yard with four iwans. The students' rooms and the classrooms are around the yard; the marble columns supporting the porticos around the yard are collect material from a former Byzantine building. The marble entrance is a modern reconstruction. One of the most interesting features of the building is a double şerefe minaret, uncommon during the Seljukid age


Asterostomatidae is an extinct family of sea urchins belonging to the order Spatangoida. They are slow-moving, shallow infaunal, or sediment-dwelling organisms, are deposit feeders or detritivores, they lived during the Eocene and Miocene in what is now of Cuba and United States, from 55.8 to 5.332 Ma Antillaster Asterostoma Brissolampas Brissomorpha Cleistechinus Heterobrissus Megapetalus Moronaster Platybrissus Prosostoma Pygospatangus

Born alive laws in the United States

"Born alive" laws in the United States are fetal rights laws which extend various criminal laws, such as homicide and assault, to cover unlawful death or other harm done to a fetus in utero or to an infant, no longer being carried in pregnancy and exists outside of its mother. The basis for such laws stems from advances in medical science and social perception which allow a fetus to be seen and medically treated as an individual in the womb and perceived as a person, for some or all of the pregnancy; such laws overturn the common law legal principle that until physically born, a fetus or unborn child does not have independent legal existence and therefore cannot be the victim of such crimes. They provide for transferred intent so that an unlawful act which happens to affect a pregnant woman and thus harm her fetus can be charged as a crime with the fetus as a victim, in addition to crimes against any other people; the born alive rule was a principle at common law in England, carried to the United States and other former colonies of the British Empire.

First formulated by William Staunford, it was set down by Edward Coke in his Institutes of the Laws of England: If a woman be quick with childe, by a potion or otherwise killeth it in her wombe, or if a man beat her, whereby the child dyeth in her body, she is delivered of a dead childe, this is great misprision, no murder. The phrase "a reasonable creature, in rerum natura" as a whole is translated as "a life in being", i.e. where the umbilical cord has been severed and the baby has a life independently of the mother. "Reasonable" here is used as in the 16th century, meaning "something that may reasonably be considered ". In English law this meant that until born, the fetus was not accounted a person under criminal law, nor a separate person from its mother, could not have the capacity to be the subject of an actus reus – a prerequisite for a criminal offense in the absence of any statute to the contrary. In the 19th century, some began to argue for legal recognition of the moment of conception as the beginning of a human being, basing their argument on growing awareness of the processes of pregnancy and fetal development.

They succeeded in drafting laws which criminalized abortion in all forms and made it punishable in secular courts. Advances in the state of the art in medical science, including medical knowledge related to the viability of the fetus, the ease with which the fetus can be observed in the womb as a living being, treated clinically as a human being, demonstrate neural and other processes considered as human, have led a number of jurisdictions – in particular in the United States – to supplant or abolish this common law principle. Changes to the law proceed piecemeal, from case to case and from statute to statute, rather than wholesale. One such landmark case with respect to the rule was Commonwealth vs. Cass, in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, where the court held that the stillbirth of an eight-month-old fetus, whose mother had been injured by a motorist, constituted vehicular homicide. By a majority decision, the Supreme Court of Massachusetts held that a viable fetus constituted a "person" for the purposes of vehicular homicide law.

In the opinion of the justices, We think that the better rule is that infliction of perinatal injuries resulting in the death of a viable fetus, before or after it is born, is homicide. Several courts have held that it is not their function to revise statute law by abolishing the born alive rule, have stated that such changes in the law should come from the legislature. In 1970 in Keeler v. Superior Court of Amador County, the California Supreme Court dismissed a murder indictment against a man who had caused the stillbirth of the child of his estranged pregnant wife, stating that: he courts cannot go so far as to create an offense by enlarging a statute, by inserting or deleting words, or by giving the terms used false or unusual meanings Whether to extend liability for murder in California is a determination within the province of the Legislature. Several legislatures passed laws to explicitly include injuries to fetuses in utero; the general policy has been that an attacker who causes the stillbirth of a fetus should be punished for the destruction of that fetus in the same way as an attacker who attacks a person and causes their death.

Some legislatures have expanded their existing offences to explicitly include fetuses in utero. Others have created wholly new, separate, offences; the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act extends legal protection to an infant born alive after a failed attempt at induced abortion. It passed into law on August 5, 2002; the law defines a "born alive" infant as the complete expulsion of an infant at any stage of development that has a heartbeat, pulsation of the umbilical cord, breath, or voluntary muscle movement, regardless of circumstances of birth or severance of the umbilical cord, provides rights for such infants. The Unborn Victims of Violence Act recognizes a "child in utero" as a legal victim, if he or she is injured or killed during the commission of any of over 60 listed federal crimes of violence; the law defines "child in utero" as "a member of the species Homo sapiens, at any stage of development, carried in the womb". It applies only to certain offenses over which the United States government has jurisdiction, including certa

Monsieur Lazhar

Monsieur Lazhar is a 2011 Canadian French-language drama film directed by Philippe Falardeau and starring Mohamed Saïd Fellag, Sophie Nélisse and Danielle Proulx. Based on Bashir Lazhar, a one-character play by Évelyne de la Chenelière, it tells the story of an Algerian refugee in Montreal who steps in to teach at an elementary school after the former full-time teacher commits suicide. Falardeau opted to film the story for the Canadian company micro_scope, despite the challenges of adapting a play with only one character. De la Cheneliere recommended casting Algerian comedian Fellag, it was filmed in Montreal. After premiering at the Locarno International Film Festival, where it won the Audience Award and the Variety Piazza Grande Award, it received critical acclaim; the film was subsequently nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, won six Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture. In Montreal, an elementary school teacher hangs herself. Bachir Lazhar, a recent Algerian immigrant offers his services to replace her, claiming to have taught in his home country.

Desperate to fill the position, the principal, Mme Vaillancourt, takes him at his word and gives him the job. He gets to know his students despite both the evident culture gap and his difficulty adapting to the school system's constraints; as the children try to move on from their former teacher's suicide, nobody at the school is aware of Bachir's painful past, or his precarious status as a refugee. His wife, a teacher and writer, died along with the couple's daughter and son in an arson attack; the murderers were angered by her last book, in which she pointed a finger at those responsible for the country's reconciliation, which had led to the liberation of many perpetrators of huge crimes. The film goes on to explore Bachir's relationships with the students and faculty, how the students come to grips with their former teacher's suicide. One student, writes an assignment on the death of their teacher, revealing the deep pain and confusion felt by each of the students. Bachir comes to be loved and respected by the students he is teaching, but the teacher's death still haunts the students.

During a school dance, a student named. It is revealed that he tried to get her into trouble after she tried to help him through his family struggles. Bachir gets the students to open up about the death Simon, blamed and blames himself for causing the teacher's suicide; some parents discover that Bachir has no teaching qualification. He is fired from the school, he asks the principal to be able to teach one more day, convincing her by noting that the old teacher never got to say goodbye to her students. On his last day, Bachir has his students correct a fable he wrote, a metaphor of his tragic past life in Algeria and the loss of his family in a fire. Before he leaves, one of his students, Alice gives him a tearful hug goodbye; the source material Bachir Lazhar is a one-character play, making it a challenge to adapt for the screen. However, producers Luc Dery and Kim McCraw attended a performance with director Philippe Falardeau, Falardeau expressed excitement about making a film version. Bachir Lazhar author Évelyne de la Chenelière suggested Falardeau cast comedian Mohamed Fellag as the protagonist, Falardeau learned how to contact Fellag by researching the comedian's YouTube videos.

Falardeau said. It was shot in Montreal. There were 28 days of shooting, about an average time for a film to be shot in Quebec; the principal filming occurred in the summer so the production could use the school and so the educations of the child actors were not disrupted. Four of the shooting days occurred in the winter. Child actress Sophie Nélisse turned 10 shortly. Monsieur Lazhar debuted at the Locarno International Film Festival in August 2011, followed by a screening at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2011, it was featured at the Whistler Film Festival in December 2011, selected for the 2012 Sundance Film Festival. The film opened in Montreal on 22 October 2011, it was released in Toronto and Vancouver on 27 January 2012, a few days after it was announced in January 2012 that it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. A limited release in the United States was planned for April 2012. By 15 November 2011, the film made $1 million in Quebec theatres.

By 19 December 2012, it made over $1 million in the U. S. with Falardeau claiming success in Japan, the Netherlands and Spain. Monsieur Lazhar grossed $2,009,517 in North America and $4,572,398 in other countries, for a worldwide total of $6,581,915. Telefilm Canada credited it, along with Incendies and other films, with doubling domestic and worldwide gross on its works in 2011; the film received critical acclaim. At Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a rating of 97%, based on 117 reviews and an average rating of 8.1/10. It has a score of 83 on Metacritic based on 31 reviews. In Canada, Jennie Punter gave it four stars in The Globe and Mail, praising it as "an exquisite and subtly topical work of cinema art." Peter Howell gave it four stars in The Toronto Star, complimenting the film for simplicities and complexities, for Fellag's emotion. The Montreal Gazette's Brendan Kelly credited Philippe Falardeau for keeping the film from becoming overly sentimental. Roger Ebert awarded it three and a half stars, calling it a film of "no simple questions and simple answers."

In The Los Angeles Times, Kenneth Turan praised i