Comparison of baseball and cricket
Baseball and cricket are the best-known members of a family of related bat-and-ball games. Despite their similarities, the two sports have many differences in play and in strategy. A comparison between baseball and cricket can be instructive to followers of either sport, since the similarities help to highlight nuances particular to each game. Bat-and-ball games, in general, are sports in which one team has possession of the ball and delivers it to a member of the other team, who tries to hit it; the two opposing teams take turns playing these two distinct roles, which are continuous during a specified interval. This contrasts with "goal-oriented" games, such as all forms of football and basketball, in which possession of the ball or puck can change in an instant, thus "attackers" and the "defenders" reverse roles during the course of the game. In both cricket and baseball, the players of one team attempt to score points known as runs by hitting a ball with a bat, while the members of the other team field the ball in an attempt to prevent scoring and to put batting players out.
Once a certain number of batting players are out, the teams swap roles. This sequence of each team taking each role once is called an inning in baseball, an innings in cricket; the single/plural usage in cricket is comparable to the baseball slang term for a single inning as the team's "ups". A baseball game consists of nine innings per team, while a cricket match may have either one or two innings per team. Other present-day bat-and-ball games include softball, rounders, pesäpallo or Finnish baseball, punchball and British baseball. Earlier forms include The Massachusetts Game of baseball, similar to rounders, Old Cat. Baseball is played in a quadrant of fair territory between foul lines; the official minimum distance from home plate to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction is 250 feet, the recommended distances are at least 325 feet along the foul lines and 400 feet in centre field. This produces a recommended fair territory field area just over 100,000 square feet. Most Major League Baseball parks have fair territory areas in the range of 110,000 to 120,000 square feet.
In contrast and One Day International cricket is played on a field with a minimum width of 420 feet and length 426 feet, giving a minimum area of 140,500 square feet, assuming an elliptical shape. However the shape of a cricket ground is not fixed. Test grounds around the world are 450 by 500 feet, an area of about 175,000 square feet, ranging up to 479 by 561 feet or 270,000 square feet at a venue such as the MCG. In cricket, the pitch is a prepared rectangular area between two wickets, its length is the distance between the wickets, 22 yards. While its width is 12 feet or 3.66 metres in length, the width of the playing area on that pitch is distance between two return creases, which are 8 feet 8 inches or 2.44 metres apart. The popping creases at each end of the pitch, from which the bowler bowls and the batsman plays, are 4 feet or 1.22 metres in front of the wickets. The bowling and return creases are defined by contrasting lines white in color. In baseball, the pitcher must deliver from a rubber slab that lies atop a raised area of the infield called the "pitcher's mound".
The front of the rubber is 60.5 feet from the rear point of home plate. Before the advent of the pitcher's mound and the rubber, the pitcher threw from within a rectangular "pitcher's box". There was a large rectangular dirt area, between the pitcher's box and the batting areas around home, which resembled the cricket pitch; the bowler at the moment of delivery must have part of the front foot behind the popping crease and be within the return crease. The rules do not prohibit delivery of the ball from behind the popping crease, the ball may be released from well behind the crease; the ball must be "bowled," not thrown, since 2000, not delivered with an underarm action. The batsmen "take guard" or "block" in front of the wicket, they may choose to do so in front of or behind the popping crease; that nets to a typical distance of about 58 feet between the delivery batsman. In baseball, the pitcher's release point could be about 55 feet depending on his delivery style, but the batter tends to stand back or "deep" in the batter's box, to maximise his time to "look the ball over", up to 2 feet further from the pitching rubber than the point of home plate is.
Thus the horizontal distance, from release of the ball by the pitcher/bowler to its arrival at the batter/batsman, is similar in both sports. However, the ball travels further in cricket as it bounces off the ground first, adding a significant vertical component to the total distance travelled; the main difference in fielding in the two sports is that though a cricket ball is harder and heavier than a baseball fielders in cricket are not permitted to use gloves or external leg guards.. The only fielders who wear protective gear are the wicket-keeper, allowed to wear padded gloves as well as leg guards and an abdominal protector or box. In baseba
Baseball in the United Kingdom
Baseball, a major national sport in the United States, is a minor sport in the United Kingdom with about 3,000 participants. The sport is governed by the British Baseball Federation; the national team has taken part in international competitions. There are independent regional leagues, about 20 universities field teams; the sole purpose-built facility in the UK is at Buckinghamshire. There is a youth baseball academy. Although early varieties of baseball may have originated in England in the 18th century, the modern baseball code started to be played in Britain in 1890, when the National Baseball League of Great Britain and Ireland was established. Professional baseball was popular in Britain during the 1930s. Occasional exhibition matches between American teams have been staged in Britain over the years; the sport may have originated in England in the 18th century. In 1890 the international version of the game was introduced to the United Kingdom in Derby by Francis Ley, a Derby man who had'discovered' the game on a trip to the United States, Albert Goodwill Spalding, an American former star player and sporting goods businessman who saw opportunities to expand his business across the Atlantic.
Aston Villa, now known as a football club, won the only professional baseball championship in 1890. The competition was hindered by poor weather and disappointing crowds and made a loss to its investors. One of the first baseball clubs was the Derby County Baseball Club who led the first championship after the National Baseball League of Great Britain and Ireland was established in 1890. However, pressure from other teams in the league over the number of American players on the Derby team and low attendances forced Derby to resign before the end of the season, though the baseball club itself lasted until 1898; the so-called Baseball Ground continued to be used under that name as the home of football's Derby County F. C. for over a century, from 1895 to 1997. Baseball's peak popularity in Britain was in the years preceding World War II. Baseball teams shared grounds with football clubs and the game was run at a professional standard with up to 10,000 spectators per game. One milestone of baseball in the United Kingdom was the 1938 victory of Great Britain over the United States in the 1938 Amateur World Series, considered the first World Cup of Baseball.
Today, there are 74 active baseball teams, 1500 adult and Junior players ranging geographically from London to Liverpool, St. Austell to Edinburgh; the Junior Great British National Team consists of 15 players and competed in the European championships. There have been numerous league formats since 1890; the British Baseball Federation is the governing body for baseball in the UK and the baseball leagues. The season runs from April until August. Affiliated baseball clubs pay annual affiliation fees to be a member of the BBF and play in the BBF Leagues and Junior Leagues. There are three leagues independent of the British Baseball Federation: the Scottish National League, run by Baseball Scotland, the Northern Baseball League containing teams based in Northern England and the South West Baseball League, representing all but one of the teams in the South West of England. There is a full Great Britain Baseball Programme which comprises the Great Britain Baseball Academy, junior national teams and Great Britain'Seniors' Baseball Team.
British national teams have competed in the European Baseball Championships and World Baseball Classic. The BBF league format is divided into the national divisions, consisting of four tiers from the National League, down to the Single A league. At the end of the season, all divisions compete in postseason tournaments where the top teams from each conference play knockout matches with the winning teams progressing to the Championship Series; the Championship Series of the National League is best of three, the AAA, AA and A championships are single games. The Independent leagues compete against the teams in their own leagues, in 2017 the first Independent leagues finals weekend was held at Hull, which consisted of semifinals between the champions of the Independent leagues and a final held the next day; this was followed by an England v Scotland friendly All-Star game. Baseball in Northern Ireland is affiliated to Baseball Ireland for practical reasons. Northern Ireland's only team, the Belfast Northstars, play in the Irish Adult League.
British University Baseball has been growing with 20 universities with clubs at the end of the 2015/16 season: Cambridge, Durham, Essex, Imperial, Leeds Beckett, Leeds Gryphons Baseball Club, Manchester Metropolitan University, Nottingham University, Nottingham Trent University, Southampton, Swansea, UCL and UEA. The University season runs from September to the typical off-season for the sport. Without a British Universities & Colleges Sport league, teams compete in the National University Baseball Championships tournament, which happens twice a year in the spring and the autumn and are run by BaseballSoftballUK; the Spring 2016 Champions are Loughborough, have won the past 3 NUBC tournaments. Despite not having a BUCS league a Northern University Baseball League was set up for the 2015/16 season, is planned to expand and be renamed to the National University Baseball League, have a similar set up to the BBF leagues. Championships by Region BIR Affiliate of Birmingham Bandits BRA Affiliate of Bracknell Blazers BRI Affiliate of Bristol Badgers CAM Affiliate of Cambridge Monarchs ESA Affiliate of Essex Arrows ESR Affiliate of Essex Redbacks GUI Affiliate of Guildford Mavericks HER Affiliate of Herts Falcons HUL Affi
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
The Cuban League was one of the earliest and longest lasting professional baseball leagues outside the United States, operating in Cuba from 1878 to 1961. The schedule operated during the winter months, so the league was sometimes known as the "Cuban Winter League." It was always a small league 3 to 5 teams, was centered in Havana, though it sometimes included teams from outlying cities such as Matanzas or Santa Clara. The league became racially integrated in 1900, during the first half of the 20th century the Cuban League was a premier venue for black and white players to meet. Many great black Northern American players competed in Cuba alongside native black and white Cuban stars such as José Méndez, Cristóbal Torriente, Adolfo Luque, Martín Dihigo. After 1947, the Cuban League entered into an agreement with Major League Baseball and was used for player development. Following the 1959 Cuban Revolution, tensions rose with the new Communist government, in March 1961 the government decreed the abolition of professional baseball.
The first game in what became known as the Cuban League took place in Havana on December 29, 1878. Esteban Bellán, the first Latin American to play professionally in the United States, was captain of Habana while the opposing Almendares was captained by Carlos Zaldo. Habana won the first game 21-20; the only other team in the league was Matanzas. In that first season, only four games were scheduled for each team, with the season lasting through February. Habana won the first championship with a record of 4-0-1. Early baseball in Cuba, as in the United States, was an amateur sport first organized by gentlemen's athletic clubs. Games were played on Sundays and were preceded by a picnic and followed by a dance. A unique feature of early Cuban baseball is; the tenth player was a "right shortstop", playing halfway between the second bases. By the mid-1880s, the best-known players were becoming celebrities and baseball began to become professional, as players jumped from team to team and Americans were sometimes brought in as reinforcements.
The gradual development of professionalism that took place in Cuba during the 1880s and 1890s echoed the development of professionalism in the United States two decades earlier in the National Association of Base Ball Players, which led to the formation of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players. In Cuba, the clubs that wished to remain amateur broke off from the Cuban League. Baseball in Cuba became associated with Cuban nationalism. González Echevarría notes, "Baseball was a sport played in defiance of Spanish authorities, who viewed this American invention as vaguely secessionist and dangerously violent because of the use of sticks. A ban was issued in 1869, just as the Ten Years' War was starting." Several of the sponsors of early baseball teams were supporters of the revolutionary cause. A number of ballplayers fought against Spain in the Cuban War of Independence, at least three lost their lives: Emilio Sabourín, Juan Manuel Pastoriza, Ricardo Cabaleiro. During the 19th century the Cuban League remained a whites-only institution.
However, black Cubans were developing their baseball skills playing for semi-professional and sugarmill teams. The Cuban War of Independence brought Cuban blacks and whites together in a common cause and created the pressures that brought integration; the other great legacy of 19th century Cuban League baseball was the enduring rivalry between Habana and Almendares. This rivalry began before the formation of the Cuban League and survived after its end, lasting for nearly a century. Growing up in Havana meant choosing between Almendares. On December 29, 1878 the Cuban League's first game took place in Havana. On December 21, 1879 an American professional team, the "Hop Bitters", visited Cuba and beat a Cuban team; the team's players comprised the Worcester team that had played in the minor league National Association in 1879 and would play in the major National League in 1880–1882. This tour began a long tradition of post-season exhibition series between major leaguers and Cuban teams. In 1881 the first Almendares Park opened.
For several decades it served as the principal Havana home for Cuban League baseball. On February 2, 1886, Carlos Maciá pitched a shutout for Almendares, the first in Cuban League history, beating Fe 16 to 0. In 1887 Habana won its sixth consecutive pennant. In the nine years since the founding of the Cuban League, Habana had so far been the only winner. In 1888 Fe became the first team other than Habana to win a championship. Antonio María García, known as El Inglés, wins the first of 4 batting championships, hitting.448 for Habana. In 1889 Wenceslao Gálvez writes the first history of baseball in El base-ball en Cuba. On May 17, 1890 the President of the league, Oscar Martínez Conill, was killed in a fire while serving in a volunteer fire-fighting brigade. In 1891, Alfred Lawson led two American teams on tours of Cuba; the first team to tour, in January and February, featured a mix of minor leaguers. It beat Matanzas and Almendares, but lost to Habana, Fe, an all-star team known as the All-Cubans.
The second team, the "All Americans", came in December and comprised major-league players including young stars like Bill Dahlen and John McGraw. This team beat the Cubans in five st
Baseball in Australia
In Australia, baseball is a game, played in all states and territories of the country. Baseball was believed to have been brought to Australia with Americans gold miners in the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, where miners would play baseball on the gold fields on their rest days; the first reports of organised teams and results appeared in Ballarat, Victoria in 1857. In 1867, Victorian cricketers William Gaggin and Louis Goldsmith tried to set up a game of baseball at Yarra Park but were disrupted by fans arriving for a local Australian football match; the first competitive series was played between the Surry Baseball Club and members of the New South Wales Cricket Association over June/July 1878. However, it is argued competitive organised one off matches from as early as 1875 were played before this time; the first interstate baseball games were played in 1890 when Victoria played South Australia at the East Melbourne Cricket Ground. The visitors won the best of three series 27-18 and 22-26 in Melbourne.
These two states in 1897 formed the first Australia representative baseball team which toured the United States. The Australian team sponsored by Mr A. J. Roberts with £1,500 was selected to tour the United States, they were outclassed by the home teams. The Americans were surprised to note. Many of the tourists relied on friends and relatives to get them home as the organisers ran out of credit to send them back home; those players on the team who could afford it continued on to tour England. Games were billed as Australia vs England and were played at the Crystal Palace Sports Ground, although the tour turned sour when the team manager left London with the gate receipts, leaving many more players in financial limbo; this set the game back several years in South Australia. The first Australian championships were in 1910 in Hobart, Tasmania between New South Wales and Tasmania and won by NSW; this was followed by a similar series in Melbourne, Victoria between Victoria, NSW, South Australia and Tasmania in August 1910.
NSW won this series. In December 1888, an American, Albert Spalding, brought his Chicago White Stockings and a team of U. S. all-stars as part of a world tour. Sydney Cricket Ground hosted three games. At the end of the 19th century, Americans tried to set up baseball leagues and competitions in Australia, with some success. A national league was initiated in 1934, the national team entered World Championship competition in the late 1970s. Prior to winning the silver medal at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, Australia had finished 7th in the Olympics twice, the highest position reached in World Championships. In the late 1980s to late 1990s the national league took off, with most capital cities having a team; the games were broadcast weekly on ABC television around the country. In the 12 months to March 1995 baseball hit its peak attendance rates with 133,000 people, equivalent to 0.9% of Australians over 15, having attended a baseball game that year. This was just above outdoor hockey and lawn bowls.
A national-level competition still exists, as well as lower-level club competitions, but the game attracts comparatively little or no spectator or media interest. Several Australians, have attracted the attention of American scouts and have gone on to play in the major leagues in the United States and Japan. Although baseball remains a fringe sport at adult level, it has experienced explosive growth at the youth level in the 21st century; the first Little League Baseball-affiliated league in the country was established in 2007. By mid-2012, the number of Little Leagues in the country had risen to about 400, making Australia the largest country in Little League participation outside of North America; this growth led the parent organisation to announce that Australia would receive an automatic berth in the Little League World Series starting in 2013. See: Australian Baseball League Baseball is considered traditionally a summer sport, meaning such that it will start in spring and end in autumn, this has changed many times in Australia for different reasons.
One of these reasons is because baseball in Australia was considered a sport for cricketers in the off-season, but as baseball became more popular as a standalone sport it was played more in summer. The Claxton Shield was traditionally played in the Australian winter so Sheffield Shield players could participate. However, the Australian Baseball League, International Baseball League of Australia and Claxton Shield in recent years have been played in the Australian summer, this is due to the MLB and other northern hemisphere baseball leagues being played in the northern summer, therefore many high-profile players from Australia were unable to play in the southern winter. Both summer and winter baseball was played in Melbourne in the 1920s and Sydney from 1913 until the end of World War II, when baseball across Australia became winter only; the exception to this was summer night baseball at Norwood Oval in Adelaide, South Australia in the 1950s and at Oriole Stadium in Sydney from 1969. During the late 1960s the trend swung back towards baseball's traditional season of summer.
When the New South Wales Major League decided to play summer only day baseball in 1973, a breakaway Sydney Winter League formed to continue playing in winter, while most NSW country centres continued in the winter. The Victorian Baseball Association in Melbourne switched to summer only in mid-1970. Since 1974 Sydney Baseball is now indeed an all year round sport. Th
Alexander "Alick" Joy Cartwright Jr. was a founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club in the 1840s. Although he was an inductee of the Baseball Hall of Fame and he was sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball," the importance of his role in the development of the game has been disputed; the rules of the modern game were long considered to have been based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed in 1845 by Cartwright and a committee from the Knickerbockers. However research called this scenario into question. After the myth of Abner Doubleday having invented baseball in Cooperstown in 1839 was debunked, Cartwright was inducted into the Hall of Fame as a pioneering contributor, 46 years after his death. Although it has been stated that Cartwright was declared the inventor of the modern game of baseball by the 83rd United States Congress on June 3, 1953, the Congressional Record, the House Journal, the Senate Journal from June 3, 1953, did not mention Cartwright. Cartwright was born in 1820 to Alexander Cartwright Sr. a merchant sea captain, Esther Rebecca Burlock Cartwright.
Alexander Jr. had six siblings. He first worked at the age of 16 in 1836 as a clerk for a Wall Street broker doing clerical work at the Union Bank of New York. After hours, he played bat-and-ball games in the streets of Manhattan with volunteer firefighters. Cartwright himself was a volunteer, first with Oceana Hose Company No. 36, Knickerbocker Engine Company No. 12. Cartwright's ancestor Edward Cartwright immigrated from Devonshire, England to New England around 1661. Cartwright married Eliza Van Wie, from Albany, on June 2, 1842. A fire destroyed the Union Bank in 1845, he became a bookseller with Alfred. One of the earliest known established clubs was the Gotham Base Ball Club, who played a brand of bat-and-ball game called "town ball" or "round ball," but in New York more "base ball," somewhat similar to but not identical to the English sport of rounders, on a field at 4th Avenue and 27th Street. In 1837, Gotham member William R. Wheaton drew up rules converting this playground game into a more elaborate and interesting sport to be played by adults.
In 1842, Cartwright led the establishment of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, a breakaway group from the Gothams. In 1845, a committee from the new club including Wheaton drew up rules resembling those of the Gothams; the major precepts included the stipulations that foul territories were to be introduced for the first time, the practice of retiring a runner by hitting him with a thrown ball was forbidden. Cartwright is erroneously credited for introducing flat bases at uniform distances, three strikes per batter, nine players in the outfield. However, modern scholarship has cast doubt on the originality of these rules, as information has come to light about the New York clubs that predated the Knickerbockers, in particular the rules devised by William R. Wheaton for the Gotham Club in 1837. Baseball historian Jeffrey Kittel has concluded that none of the Knickerbocker Rules of 1845 was original, with the possible exception of three-out innings; as MLB's Official Historian John Thorn wrote, Cartwright has "a plaque in the Baseball Hall of Fame on which every word of substance is false.
Alex Cartwright did not set the base paths at ninety feet, the sides at nine men, or the game at nine innings." The first documented match between two baseball clubs under these rules took place on June 19, 1846, at Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey. In this match, the Knickerbockers lost to the "New York nine" by a score of 23 to 1; some authors have questioned the supposed "first game" under the new rules. The Knickerbockers' scorebook shows intra-club games during 1845; those who have studied the score-book have concluded that the differences in the games of 1845 and 1846, compared with the specifications of the Knickerbocker rules, are minimal. In 1849, Cartwright headed to California for the gold rush, continued on to work and live in the Kingdom of Hawaii, his family came to join him in 1851: wife Eliza Van Wie, son DeWitt, daughter Mary, daughter Catherine Lee. In Hawaii, sons Bruce Cartwright and Alexander Joy Cartwright III were born; some secondary sources claim Cartwright set up a baseball field on the island of Oahu at Makiki Field in 1852, but Nucciarone states that before 1866, the modern game of baseball was not known or played in Honolulu.
She states that during Cartwright's lifetime he was not declared or documented as an originator of baseball in Hawaii. Cartwright served as fire chief of Honolulu from 1850 through June 30, 1863, he was an advisor to King David Queen Emma. Cartwright died on July 12, 1892, six months before the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893. One of the leaders of the overthrow movement was Lorrin A. Thurston, who played baseball with classmate Alexander Cartwright III at Punahou School, he was buried in Oahu Cemetery. After about two decades of controversy, invention of America's "national game" of baseball was attributed to Abner Doubleday by the Mills Commission; some baseball historians promptly cried others joined throughout the 20th century. Cartwright was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938. New York City librarian Robert W. Henderson documented Cartwright's contributions to baseball in his 1947 book Bat and Bishop. Although there is no question th
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players
The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, or known as the National Association, was founded in 1871 and continued through the 1875 season. It succeeded and incorporated several professional clubs from the previous National Association of Base Ball Players of 1857-1870, sometimes called "the amateur association". Shortened to be called the National League, it was founded 1876, the earliest one half of modern Major League Baseball in America, with the competing American League of Professional Base Ball Clubs in 1901, known too as the American League. In 1869, the amateur National Association of Base Ball Players, in response to concerns that some teams were paying players, established a professional category; the Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first team to declare their intention to become professional. Other teams followed suit. By 1871, several clubs, wanting to separate from the amateur association, broke away to found the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players..
In 1876, wanting an stronger central organization, six clubs from the NA and two independents established the National League: Boston Red Stockings, Mutual, Athletic and the St. Louis Brown Stockings from the NA plus independent clubs Louisville and Cincinnati; the NA was the first professional baseball league. Its status as a major league is in dispute. Major League Baseball and the Baseball Hall of Fame do not recognize it as a major league, but the NA comprised most of the professional clubs and the highest caliber of play in existence, its players and umpires are included among the "major leaguers" who define the scope of many encyclopedias and many databases developed by SABR or Retrosheet. Several factors limited the lifespan of the National Association including dominance by a single team for most of the league's existence, instability of franchises as several were placed in cities too small to financially support professional baseball, lack of central authority, suspicions of the influence of gamblers.
Professional baseball clubs in the 19th century were known by what is now regarded as a "nickname", although it was the club's name. This was a practice carried over from the amateur days; the singular form of a "nickname" was the team name itself, with its base city "understood" and was so listed in the standings. Rather than "Brooklyn Atlantics", the team was called "Atlantic", or "Atlantic of Brooklyn" if deemed necessary by the writer. Another common practice was to refer to the team in the plural, hence the "Bostons" the "Chicagos" or the "Mutuals". Sometimes the team would have a nickname something to do with the team colors, such as the Boston Red Stockings, Chicago White Stockings, Mutual Green Stockings; this practice of using the singular form of the "nickname" as the team name faded with time, although as as the early 1900s, the team known as "Philadelphia Athletics" was shown in the American League standings as "Athletic", the traditional way. That team sported an old-English "A" on its jerseys.
The Encyclopedia of Baseball attempted to retrofit the names into a modern context. In the following list, the bold names are the names most used by contemporary newspapers in league standings, the linked names after them are those ascribed to the teams now, using the Encyclopedia of Baseball standard. Boston – Boston Red Stockings Chicago – Chicago White Stockings Forest City – Cleveland Forest Citys Kekionga – Fort Wayne Kekiongas Mutual – New York Mutuals Athletic – Philadelphia Athletics Forest City – Rockford Forest Citys Troy – Troy Haymakers Olympic – Washington Olympics Atlantic – Brooklyn Atlantics Eckford – Brooklyn Eckfords Lord Baltimore – Baltimore Canaries Mansfield – Middletown Mansfields National – Washington Nationals Washington Blue Legs Maryland – Baltimore Marylands Philadelphia – Philadelphia White Stockings Resolute – Elizabeth Resolutes Hartford – Hartford Dark Blues Centennial – Philadelphia Centennials Elm City – New Haven Elm Citys St. Louis – St. Louis Brown Stockings St. Louis Reds – St. Louis Red Stockings Western – Keokuk Westerns 1871 Philadelphia Athletics 1872 Boston Red Stockings 1873 Boston Red Stockings 1874 Boston Red Stockings 1875 Boston Red Stockings James W. Kerns 1871 Robert V. Ferguson 1872–1875 Cap Anson Candy Cummings Pud Galvin Jim O'Rourke Albert Spalding Deacon White George Wright Harry Wright David Pietrusza Major Leagues: The Formation, Sometimes Absorption and Mostly Inevitable Demise of 18 Professional Baseball Organizations, 1871 to Present Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 1991.
ISBN 0-89950-590-2 William J. Ryczek Blackguards and Red Stockings: A History of Baseball's National Association Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 1999. ISBN 978-0-9673718-0-1