A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables run directly from the tower to the deck. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and this is the range where cantilever bridges would rapidly grow heavier if the span were lengthened, while suspension bridge cabling would not be more economical if the span were shortened. Cable-stayed bridges have been known since the 16th century and used widely since the 19th, early examples often combined features from both the cable-stayed and suspension designs, including the famous Brooklyn Bridge. The design fell from favor through the 20th century as larger gaps were bridged using pure suspension designs, Cable-stayed bridges date back to 1595, where designs were found in Machinae Novae, a book by Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio. Their designers found that the combination of technologies created a stiffer bridge, john A. Roebling took particular advantage of this to limit deformations due to railway loads in the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge.
Eduardo Torroja designed an aqueduct at Tempul in 1926. Albert Caquots 1952 concrete-decked cable-stayed bridge over the Donzère-Mondragon canal at Pierrelatte is one of the first of the modern type, the steel-decked Strömsund Bridge designed by Franz Dischinger is, more often cited as the first modern cable-stayed bridge. Other key pioneers included Fabrizio de Miranda, Riccardo Morandi, early bridges from this period used very few stay cables, as in the Theodor Heuss Bridge. However, this involves substantial erection costs, and more modern structures tend to use many more cables to ensure greater economy, Cable-stayed bridges may appear to be similar to suspension bridges, but in fact, they are quite different in principle and in their construction. In suspension bridges, large main cables hang between the towers and are anchored at each end to the ground and this can be difficult to implement when ground conditions are poor. The main cables, which are free to move on bearings in the towers, before the deck is installed, the cables are under tension from their own weight.
Along the main cables smaller cables or rods connect to the bridge deck, as this is done, the tension in the cables increases, as it does with the live load of traffic crossing the bridge. The tension on the cables is transferred to the ground at the anchorages. Difference between types of bridges In the cable-stayed bridge, the towers are the primary load-bearing structures which transmit the loads to the ground. A cantilever approach is used to support the bridge deck near the towers. The mono design uses a cable from its towers and is one of the lesser-used examples of the class. In the harp or parallel design, the cables are nearly parallel so that the height of their attachment to the tower is proportional to the distance from the tower to their mounting on the deck
Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of 486.2 km2 and 43,398 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010. Located in the Baltic sea, it is part of Region Sjælland and is administered by Guldborgsund Municipality, Falster includes Denmarks southernmost point, Gedser Odde, near Gedser. The largest town is Nykøbing Falster with over 40% of the islands inhabitants, other towns include Stubbekøbing, Nørre Alslev and Gedser. Falster has motor and railway links both to the island of Zealand to the north and to the island of Lolland to the south-west. These links lead to the islands of Masnedø and Farø. European route E47 links Copenhagen to Hamburg via Falster, from medieval times until 1766, most of Falster belonged to the crown. King Valdemars Census Book from c.1231 lists all the parishes, Falsters two main towns, Nykøbing and Stubbekøbing, were both founded towards the end of the 12th century. In medieval times, the island was marked by wars with the Wends in 1158, the census of 1509 includes only 90 of the 110 villages mentioned earlier.
By contrast, it mentions 29 new settlements mainly along the coast. In the 16th century, Falster had a number of farms which were owned by the nobility but, from 1560 to 1630. Therefore, Falster could therefore be used as the dowry for Frederick IIIs wife, Sophie Amalie but as a result of the taxes which resulted. Falster was managed as an estate from 1718 until 1766 when it was sold by auction and divided up into ten large farms. But as the fields had to be prepared through the serfdom of local peasants, the villages were replaced by the community from 1778 to 1814, and gradually moved to freehold tenants, a process which was only completed in about 1860. There was an increase in the cultivation of sugar beet which was processed in factories at Nykøbing and Stubbekøbing between 1890 and 1914, many seasonal workers, especially women, from Sweden and Poland came to help with harvesting the sugar beet and some of them stayed. With the new railway from Orehoved to Nykøbing in 1872 and railway ferries to Masnedø and Warnemünde and its position was reinforced by the construction of the Storstrøm Bridge and Farø Bridges.
Since 1975, Falster has been marked by high unemployment as a result of harder times for farming and industry. As of 2012, populations were as follows, With its marinas, sandy beaches and cycle tracks, one of the most popular resorts is Marielyst on the east coast. Nykøbing offers a number of attractions including its atmosphere with narrow streets
Vordingborg is an old ferry town in Vordingborg Municipality in Denmark. It has an urban area population of 11,843. These satellite towns have evolved during the last decades, due to three large estates surrounding Vordingborg and therefore prevented a collective development of the town, Vordingborg Municipality has a population of 46,000. Long term head coach of the Danish national football team, Morten Olsen, was born in Vordingborg, on January 1,2007 the old Vordingborg municipality was, as the result of Kommunalreformen, merged with Langebæk, Møn, and Præstø municipalities to form an enlarged Vordingborg municipality. Vordingborg is situated 37 km from Nykøbing Falster, roughly 50 km from Gedser, the town is situated on the island of Zealand and is linked to the island of Falster with Farø Bridges and Storstrøm Bridge. Vordingborg Municipality is home to 9,500 jobs, companies headquartered in Vordingborg include Vordingborg Køkkener, a kitchen manufacturer. Udbetaling Danmark, an institution under ARP, has one of its five regional centres in the town.
The ruins of Vordingborg Castle, the old castle which was built around 1364, is the towns most famous attraction. The only fully remaining part of the castle, the 26 meter tall Goose Tower, is the symbol of the city and it is the largest of King Valdemar Atterdags nine main castle towers. The name comes from the golden goose perched on top of the towers spire, legend has it that Valdemar Atterdag used the symbol to taunt the Hanseatic League. The current goose was put there in 1871 and it is not certain what was on top of the tower before 1871 and maybe it was just a weather vane made of gold. The tower was transferred into the national trust on December 24,1808, a historic garden is located on the site of the ruin. Vordingborg is the home of the South Zealand Museum, the city holds an annual festival, Vordingborg Fest Week in July. The Vordingborg Transmitter is one of the tallest towers in Denmark, the Danish Army operates a barracks facility on the edge of town, known as Vordingborg Kaserne.
Margaret I of Denmark, monarch Peter_Andreas_Heiberg, author N. F. S, media related to Vordingborg at Wikimedia Commons Official site of Vordingborg
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link
The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link is a planned immersed tunnel that is proposed to connect the Danish island of Lolland with the German island of Fehmarn. This route is known in German as the Vogelfluglinie and in Danish as the Fugleflugtslinjen, Fehmarn is already connected by bridge with the German mainland, and Lolland is already connected by a tunnel and bridges with Zealand over the island Falster. Furthermore, Zealand is already connected with the Swedish coast via the Øresund Bridge. The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link was tentatively expected to be completed in the year 2018, but in 2012 the completion date was estimated to be 2021, in 2014 further pushed to 2024, and in 2015 – to 2028. In June 2015, €589m of EU funding was awarded to Denmark by the European Commission under its Connecting Europe Facility scheme, beginning at least as early as 2000, German and Danish transportation planners pushed for a fixed link—either a bridge or a tunnel—across the Fehmarn Strait. A bridge was for years regarded the most likely scheme, but in late 2010 the Danish project planners declared that a tunnel would present fewer construction risks.
When the Danish Folketing ratified the project in March 2009, its cost was estimated at 42 billion Danish kroner and this cost included €1.5 billion for other improvements such as electrifying and improving 160 km of railway from single-track to double-track on the Danish side. In 2011 this was increased to a total of €5.5 billion, Construction estimates cover the period from 1 April 1998 until the opening of the fixed link in 2021. New bridges at Fehmarn Sound and Storstrøm would be needed, according to the treaty, the bridges do not have to be replaced. An upgrade of the Storstrom Bridge is however planned, the double-track railway construction in Germany may be delayed by up to seven years, according to the treaty. The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link and its double-tracks will shorten the journey from Hamburg to Copenhagen from four hours and 45 minutes to three hours and 15 minutes. According to current plans there will be one train and two freight trains in each direction per hour. Hence, there will probably be congestion and delays on the German side of the bridge, with much traffic.
The highway between Copenhagen and Hamburg is already a motorway except for 25 km in Germany, the rest is a two-lane expressway. The highway will be widened to a motorway except where it meets the Fehmarn Sound bridge and this project is comparable in size to that of the Øresund Bridge or the Great Belt Bridge. The Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link will be financed by state-guaranteed loans, the government of Denmark will own the fixed link outright, will be allowed to keep tolls after the loans have been repaid, and will enjoy any employment opportunities at the toll station. The fees are planned to pay for the Danish railway upgrading. On the German side, the road will be upgraded to four lanes, the project is expected to have 5% rate of return for Europe
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Banedanmark is a Danish company responsible for maintenance and traffic control of most of the Danish railway network. Branched off from DSB as a government agency in 1997, from 2004 to 2010 Banedanmark was a state-owned company under the Danish Ministry of Transport. In 2010 Banedanmark once again became a government agency under the Danish Ministry of Transport, in 2008, Banedanmark announced plans for the conversion of signalling across the entire national network to European Train Control System Level 2. This was necessitated by the obsolete nature of parts of the network. In 2009 the Danish government approved funding of €3.3 billion over several years to Banedanmark for the project and this makes Denmark the first European country to attempt a complete conversion of a national network to ETCS Level 2. Official website Details on the company from the CVR register Ministry of Transport
COWI A/S is an international consulting group, specialising in engineering, environmental science and economics, based in Lyngby, Denmark. COWI was founded in 1930 by civil engineer Christen Ostenfeld, wriborg W. Jønson became a partner 16 years later. From 1946 to 1973, the company operated as a partnership under the name of Chr, the initials of the two senior partners lent the company its name. In 1973, the company became foundation-owned enterprise and was renamed COWIconsult, in 1995, the company changed its name to COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS, eventually becoming COWI A/S in 2001. In 2008 the firm bought Flint & Neill, a UK civil, in November 2014, the firm acquired Donaldson Associates Ltd, a UK base tunneling specialist company. At the time of acquisition, Donaldson Associates Ltd had 150 staff, operating from 5 UK offices, the company regards employee shareholders as co-owners. The current company structure was adapted in 2010
Ringsted is a city located centrally in the Danish island of Zealand. It is the seat of a municipality of the same name, Ringsted is approximately 60 km from Copenhagen. Ringsted Station is the last station before trains bound for Funen and Jutland diverge from trains bound for Lolland-Falster, Ringsted is one of Denmarks busiest transit cities. The city is located in the middle of Zealand, connecting both the southern parts of Zealand as well as Funen and Jutland with the Copenhagen area. Danish Tramway Museum of Skjoldenæsholm, near Jystrup, St. Bendts Church — a Romanesque, former Benedictine, abbey church containing numerous tombs of medieval Danish royalty. Ringsted was the site of Sjællands Landsting during the Middle Ages, in 1805 it moved to Copenhagen and was renamed Østre Landsret, and is still active under this name. In 1131, Canute Lavard was killed in Haraldsted forest, leading to outbreaks of civil war, the town arms goes back to 1421. There has been discussion about what it portrays.
The traditional answer is at the top the hand of God, the city officially interprets the three figures as Saint Canute Lavard, King Eric Plovpenning, and Saint Benedict of Nursia. The church was consecrated in 1170, in front of the church is the spacious town square leading to the shopping streets with shops and boutiques for every taste. Ringsted features two shopping centers named RingStedet and Ringsted Outlet Center, Ringsted has a wide selection of cafes and restaurants, as well as two local breweries. During the summer months, a mobile tourist office is opened in the town square, jørgen Roed, painter Poul Ruders, composer P. C
In rail transport, track gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a network must have running gear that is compatible with the track gauge, as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still frequently used as a descriptor of a route or network. There is a distinction between the gauge and actual gauge at some locality, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, the nominal track gauge is the distance between the inner faces of the rails. In current practice, it is specified at a distance below the rail head as the inner faces of the rail head are not necessarily vertical. In some cases in the earliest days of railways, the company saw itself as an infrastructure provider only. Colloquially the wagons might be referred to as four-foot gauge wagons and this nominal value does not equate to the flange spacing, as some freedom is allowed for.
An infrastructure manager might specify new or replacement track components at a variation from the nominal gauge for pragmatic reasons. Track is defined in old Imperial units or in universally accepted metric units or SI units, Imperial units were established in United Kingdom by The Weights and Measures Act of 1824. In addition, there are constraints, such as the load-carrying capacity of axles. Narrow gauge railways usually cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, as well as smaller bridges, smaller tunnels. Narrow gauge is often used in mountainous terrain, where the savings in civil engineering work can be substantial. Broader gauge railways are generally expensive to build and require wider curves. There is no single perfect gauge, because different environments and economic considerations come into play, a narrow gauge is superior if ones main considerations are economy and tight curvature. For direct, unimpeded routes with high traffic, a broad gauge may be preferable, the Standard, and 46 gauges are designed to strike a reasonable balance between these factors.
In addition to the general trade-off, another important factor is standardization, once a standard has been chosen, and equipment and training calibrated to that standard, conversion becomes difficult and expensive. This makes it easier to adopt an existing standard than to invent a new one and this is true of many technologies, including railroad gauges. The reduced cost, greater efficiency, and greater economic opportunity offered by the use of a common standard explains why a number of gauges predominate worldwide