The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. The two continents are separated by 14.3 kilometres of ocean at the Strait's narrowest point. The Strait's depth ranges between 300 and 900 metres which interacted with the lower mean sea level of the last major glaciation 20,000 years ago when the level of the sea is believed to have been lower by 110–120 m. Ferries cross between the two continents every day in as little as 35 minutes; the Spanish side of the Strait is protected under El Estrecho Natural Park. The name comes from the Rock of Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jabal Ṭāriq, named after Tariq ibn Ziyad, it is known as the Straits of Gibraltar, the Gut of Gibraltar, the STROG in naval use, Bāb al-Maghrib, "Gate of Morocco". In the Middle Ages, Muslims called it Az-Zuqāq, "the Passage", the Romans called it Fretum Gaditanum, in the ancient world it was known as the "Pillars of Hercules".
On the northern side of the Strait are Spain and Gibraltar, while on the southern side are Morocco and Ceuta. Its boundaries were known in antiquity as the Pillars of Hercules. Due to its location, the Strait is used for illegal immigration from Africa to Europe; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Strait of Gibraltar as follows: On the West. A line joining Cape Trafalgar to Cape Spartel. On the East. A line joining Europa Point to P. Almina; the seabed of the Strait is composed of synorogenic Betic-Rif clayey flysch covered by Pliocene and/or Quaternary calcareous sediments, sourced from thriving cold water coral communities. Exposed bedrock surfaces, coarse sediments and local sand dunes attest to the strong bottom current conditions at the present time. Around 5.9 million years ago, the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean along the Betic and Rifan Corridor was progressively restricted until its total closure causing the salinity of the Mediterranean to rise periodically within the gypsum and salt deposition range, during what is known as the Messinian salinity crisis.
In this water chemistry environment, dissolved mineral concentrations and stilled water currents combined and occurred to precipitate many mineral salts in layers on the seabed. The resultant accumulation of various huge salt and mineral deposits about the Mediterranean basin are directly linked to this era, it is believed that this process took a short time, by geological standards, lasting between 500,000 and 600,000 years. It is estimated that, were the Strait closed at today's higher sea level, most water in the Mediterranean basin would evaporate within only a thousand years, as it is believed to have done and such an event would lay down mineral deposits like the salt deposits now found under the sea floor all over the Mediterranean. After a lengthy period of restricted intermittent or no water exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean basin 5.33 million years ago, the Atlantic-Mediterranean connection was reestablished through the Strait of Gibraltar by the Zanclean flood, has remained open since.
The erosion produced by the incoming waters seems to be the main cause for the present depth of the Strait. The Strait is expected to close again as the African Plate moves northward relative to the Eurasian Plate, but on geological rather than human timescales; the Strait has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because of the hundreds of thousands of seabirds which use it every year to migrate between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, including significant numbers of Scopoli's and Balearic shearwaters, Audouin's and lesser black-backed gulls and Atlantic puffins. A resident killer whale pod of some 36 individuals lives around the Strait, one of the few that are left in Western European waters; the pod may be facing extinction in the coming decades due to long term effects of PCB pollution. Evidence of the first human habitation of the area by Neanderthals dates back to 125,000 years ago, it is believed that the Rock of Gibraltar may have been one of the last outposts of Neanderthal habitation in the world, with evidence of their presence there dating to as as 24,000 years ago.
Archaeological evidence of Homo sapiens habitation of the area dates back c. 40,000 years. The short distance between the two shores has served as a quick crossing point for various groups and civilizations throughout history, including Carthaginians campaigning against Rome, Romans travelling between the provinces of Hispania and Mauritania, Vandals raiding south from Germania through Western Rome and into North Africa in the 5th century and Berbers in the 8th–11th centuries, Spain and Portugal in the 16th century. Beginning in 1492, the Strait began to play a certain cultural role in acting as a barrier against cross-channel conquest and the flow of culture and language that would follow such a conquest. In that year, the last Muslim government north of the Strait was overthrown by a Spanish force. Since that time, the Strait has come to foster the developm
The 6th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième; the arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, the École des hautes études en sciences sociales and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, the Jardin du Luxembourg; this central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and Luxembourg, has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism and literature it has hosted. With its world-famous cityscape rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia.
It is a major locale for art galleries and fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income; the current 6th arrondissement, dominated by the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés—founded in the 6th century—was the heart of the Catholic Church's power in Paris for centuries, hosting many religious institutions. In 1612, Queen Marie de Médicis bought an estate in the district and commissioned architect Salomon de Brosse to transform it into the outstanding Luxembourg Palace surrounded by extensive royal gardens; the new Palace turned the neighborhood into a fashionable district for French nobility. Since the 1950s, the arrondissement, with its many higher education institutions, world-famous cafés and publishing houses has been the home of much of the major post-war intellectual and literary movements and some of most influential in history such as surrealism and modern feminism.
The land area of the arrondissement is 2.154 km2. Académie française Café de Flore Café Procope Hôtel de Chimay Hôtel Lutetia Jardin du Luxembourg Latin Quarter Les Deux Magots Medici Fountain Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe Polidor Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Pont Saint-Michel Saint-Germain-des-Prés Quarter and former abbey Saint-Sulpice church French Senate Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier Fondation Jean Dubuffet Maison d'Auguste Comte Monnaie de Paris Musée – Librairie du Compagnonnage Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Musée de Minéralogie Musée Edouard Branly Musée Hébert Musée Zadkine Lycée Stanislas École des hautes études en sciences sociales École nationale des ponts et chaussées École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris Institut Catholique de Paris Lycée Fénelon Lycée Montaigne Lycée Saint-Louis Pantheon-Assas University Arcade du Pont-Neuf Cherche-Midi prison Comédie-Française Hôtel de Bourbon-Condé Hôtel de Condé The arrondissement attained its peak population in 1911 when the population density reached nearly 50,000 inhabitants per km2.
In 2009, the population was 43,143 inhabitants. Toei Animation Europe has its head office in the arrondissement; the company, which opened in 2004, serves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 6th and 7th arrondissements are the most expensive districts of Paris, the most expensive parts of the 6th arrondissement being Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter, the riverside districts and the areas nearby the Luxembourg Garden
Gael Tarleton is an American politician of the Democratic Party. She is a member of the Washington House of Representatives, representing the 36th Legislative District. Tarleton is running for Secretary of State of Washington in 2020 against incumbent Kim Wyman. Gael Tarleton was born on January 1959 in Beverly, Massachusetts, she is the daughter of Ann-Jean Donelan. She was raised in Manchester-by-the-Sea and graduated as class valedictorian and Manchester Scholar from Manchester Jr.-Sr. High School in 1977. Years Tarleton organized a group of her high school classmates and their parents to establish the Timothy C. Averill Debate Education Fund in honor of her debate coach and English teacher, Tim Averill, when he retired, she attended the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where she studied the Russian language and earned a Bachelor of Science degree. She graduated in 1981 with cum laude honors and earned the Karl Landeggar honors certificate in international business diplomacy and membership in Phi Alpha Theta.
In 1983, she earned a Masters degree in government and national security studies from Georgetown. During college, she worked in the office of a US Congressman and at the US Department of Treasury in the National Security Affairs office. Tarleton is married to Bob Tarleton, they live in their home for two decades. Defense Intelligence AgencyFollowing her graduation from Georgetown University, Tarleton joined the Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington, D. C. where she worked as a specialist in Soviet strategic issues for nine years. From September 1983 to August 1984, the Defense Intelligence Agency granted her a one-year leave of absence to accompany her husband during his one-year assignment to the US Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. During that year, she worked part-time as an Adjunct Research Instructor for the Postgraduate School's National Security Affairs Department. In 1984, Tarleton returned to the Defense Intelligence Agency's Washington, D. C. headquarters, where she held various positions supporting defense agencies and the US national intelligence community.
In 1989, she was awarded the Director of Central Intelligence's National Intelligence Medal of Achievement. Science Applications International CorporationIn September 1990, Tarleton and her husband moved to Seattle, where she worked for 12 years at Science Applications International Corporation, which at the time was a private, employee-owned science and technology company, she developed and led the organization's business in Russia, serving as Director of SAIC Global Technology, vice president and manager of international business, building collaborative science and technology partnerships between US and Russian scientists and engineers. Tarleton became the first American woman to address a joint session of the Russian Parliament in 1996. National Bureau of Asian ResearchIn August 2002, Tarleton began serving as the Director of Eurasian Policy Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research in Seattle. University of WashingtonIn 2004, she was hired as the first Director of Corporate and Foundation Relations for the University of Washington's College of Arts and Sciences.
During her employment with the University of Washington, she helped establish the endowed Herbert J. Ellison Center for Russian, East European and Central Asian Studies and the Institute for National Security Education and Research, she served as a Special Assistant in the Office of the Vice Provost for Global Affairs. She helped raise funding for education on behalf of faculty and students. Tarleton resigned from the UW when she was elected to the State House of Representatives in 2012. Port of SeattleIn 2007, Tarleton challenged a two-term incumbent and won her first four-year term as a Commissioner at the Port of Seattle, a King County-wide elected office for a part-time position overseeing the largest port in the Pacific Northwest with an annual budget nearing $1 billion; the five-member commission employs a port executive to manage Sea-Tac International Airport, Fishermen's Terminal, Shilshole Bay Marina and grain terminals, four shipping container terminals in Elliott Bay. Re-elected in 2011, Tarleton held various leadership positions, including Chair of the Commission Audit Committee and President of the commission.
During her tenure, the commission introduced numerous reforms to expand commission and staff accountability and transparency. The commission initiated the Century Agenda to help create an additional 100,000 jobs in the maritime, fishing and manufacturing-industrial sectors in the coming 25 years. Board membershipTarleton is a volunteer board member at The Ploughshares Fund, Women Legislators' Lobby and Women's Actions for New Directions, Northwest Progressive Institute and Space Research, Metropolitan Democratic Club of Seattle, she served a three-year term on the National Security Directorate's Advisory Committee at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gael Tarleton is a member of the Washington State House of Representatives. First elected in 2012, Tarleton serves Washington's 36th Legislative District, covering the neighborhoods of Ballard and Queen Anne in Seattle; this district is the center of the st