Cape Flattery is the northwesternmost point of the contiguous United States. It is in Clallam County, Washington on the Olympic Peninsula, where the Strait of Juan de Fuca joins the Pacific Ocean, it is part of the Makah Reservation, is the northern boundary of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Cape Flattery can be reached from a short hike, most of, boardwalked; the westernmost point in the contiguous United States is at Cape Alava, south of Cape Flattery in Olympic National Park. However, the westernmost tip of Cape Flattery is exactly as far west as Cape Alava, the difference being 5 seconds of longitude, about 360 feet, at high tide and somewhat more at low tide; the Cape Flattery Lighthouse is on Tatoosh Island, just off the cape. Makah Bay and Neah Bay are on either side of the cape. Neah Bay, Washington is the closest town to the cape. Cape Flattery is the oldest permanently named feature in Washington state, being described and named by James Cook on March 22, 1778. Cook wrote: "...
There appeared to be a small opening which flattered us with the hopes of finding an harbour... On this account I called the point of land to the north of it Cape Flattery." In 1834, the first Japanese persons known to have set foot on what is now Washington state arrived in a dismasted, rudderless ship that ran aground near Cape Flattery. The three survivors of the broken ship were held as slaves by the local Makah people; when William H. McNeill learned about them, he took them to British authorities at Fort Vancouver, under orders from John McLoughlin of the Hudson's Bay Company which controlled the site. Fuca Pillar is a tall rectangular, rock on the west side of Cape Flattery, it is named after a Greek sailor who explored for Spain. Fuca has a doubtful claim to being the first European explorer to see the Fuca Pillar and to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca named for him; the first accepted mention of the pillar was by John Meares in 1788. Ma and Pa Kettle movies were set in Cape Flattery.
The children's novel Ghost Canoe by Will Hobbs is set on Tatoosh Island and Neah Bay in 1874. Parts of the young adult novel Freaky Green Eyes by Joyce Carol Oates are set here in present day; the novel When Wolf Comes by John Pappas is set in Cape Flattery in 1801. D. G. Driver's novel Echo of the Cliffs, the third in the young adult trilogy of the Juniper Sawfeather series of novels, has parts that take place at Cape Flattery and Fuca Pillar
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Sequim is a city in Clallam County, United States. The 2010 census counted a population of 6,606. With the surrounding area, the population is about 28,000. Sequim is located along the Dungeness River near the base of the Olympic Mountains; the population served by the Sequim School District population was over 26,000 in 2018. Sequim lies within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains and receives on average less than 16 inches of rain per year — about the same as Los Angeles, California — leading it to give itself the nickname of Sunny Sequim. However, the city is close to some of the wettest temperate rainforests of the contiguous United States; this climate anomaly is sometimes called the blue hole of Sequim. Fogs and cool breezes from the Juan de Fuca Strait make Sequim's climate more humid than would be expected from the low average annual precipitation; some places have luxuriant forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western red cedar. Black cottonwood, red alder, bigleaf maple, Pacific madrone, lodgepole pine, Garry oak can be large.
Much of the area was an open oak-studded prairie supported by somewhat excessively drained gravelly sandy loam soil, though agriculture and development of the Dungeness valley have changed this ecosystem. Most soils under Sequim have been placed in a series, named after the city; this "Sequim series" is one of the few Mollisols in western Washington and its high base saturation, a characteristic of the Mollisol order, is attributed to the minimal leaching of bases caused by low annual rainfall. The city and the surrounding area are known for the commercial cultivation of lavender, supported by the unique climate, it makes rivaled only in France. The area is known for its Dungeness crab. Sequim is pronounced as one syllable, with the e elided: "skwim"; the name developed from the Klallam language. The local news publications consist of the community newspaper Sequim Gazette and the Peninsula Daily News. Sequim is served by several radio stations. KSQM, FM 91.5 is a non-commercial station staffed by community volunteers featuring a variety of music.
Z-104.9 FM, KZQM is a commercial station featuring classic hits. Sequim's sister city is Hyōgo, Japan. Sequim and Shiso have an exchange student program set up through Sequim High School and Sequim Middle School. Fossils discovered in the late 1970s at a dig near Sequim - by Carl Gustafson, an archaeologist at Washington State University - known as the Manis Mastodon Site included a mastodon bone with an embedded bone point, evidencing the presence of hunters in the area about 14,000 years ago. According to Michael R. Waters, an archaeologist at Texas A&M University, this is the first hunting weapon found that dates to the pre-Clovis period; the S'Klallam tribe had inhabited the region prior to the arrival of the first Europeans. S'Klallam means "the strong people"; the band of S'Klallam Indians disbanded into their own individual federally recognized tribes in the early 1900s. The local tribe is the Jamestown S'Klallam tribe, named after one of their early leaders, Lord James Balch. According to other tales, the town Sequim in S'Klallam means "a place for going to shoot", which represents the abundance of game and wildlife of the area.
Manuel Quimper and George Vancouver explored the region's coast in the 1790s. The first European settlers arrived in the Dungeness Valley in the 1850s, settling nearby Dungeness, Washington. While the lands along the river became fertile farmlands, the remainder of the area remained arid prairie, known as "the desert". Irrigation canals first brought water to the prairie in the 1890s, allowing the expansion of farmlands. Sequim was incorporated on October 31, 1913. For many decades small farms dairy farms, dotted the area around the small town. Near the end of World War I, Sequim became a stop for a railway that passed through from Port Angeles to Port Townsend, built to carry wood products from the forests of the western Olympic Peninsula. Sequim holds an Irrigation Festival every May; as of 2018, it is in its 123rd year. Sequim is home to a herd of Roosevelt elk; the herd crosses US 101 just to the southeast of the town. Radio collars on some members of the herd trigger warning lights for motorists.
Over the past two decades, Sequim has become known for growing lavender and holds the annual Sequim Lavender Weekend. The Museum and Arts Center features both natural and cultural exhibits, including a mastodon mural mounted with the remaining mastodon bones, a video on the excavation; the Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge is located just north of the city, near the mouth of the Dungeness River. It includes the Dungeness Spit and a five-mile hike to the New Dungeness Lighthouse at the end of the spit. To the east along Highway 101 is Sequim Bay, a 4-mile long inlet from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Along the western stretch is the Sequim Bay State Park; the inlet is a popular birdwatching area. Sequim is located at 48°4′41″N 123°6′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.37 square miles, of which 6.31 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Sequim experiences a mediterranean climate, sometimes classified as an oceanic climate owing to the cool temperatures.
Despite its low rainfall, extreme summer temperatures are marginally more moderate than nearby wet towns like Forks, owing to the coastal fog. Winters are mild with little snowfall. Many years there is no snow at all; the highest tem
The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle, contains Olympic National Park. It is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the east by Hood Canal. Cape Alava, the westernmost point in the contiguous United States, Cape Flattery, the northwesternmost point, are on the peninsula. Comprising about 3600 square miles, the Olympic Peninsula contained many of the last unexplored places in the Contiguous United States, it remained unmapped until Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon mapped most of its topography and timber resources between 1898 and 1900. The Olympic Peninsula is home to temperate rain forests, including the Hoh, Queets Rain Forest, Quinault. Rain forest vegetation is concentrated in the western part of the peninsula, as the interior mountains create a rain shadow effect in areas to the northeast, resulting in a much drier climate in those locales; the Olympic mountain range sits in the center of the Olympic Peninsula.
This range is the second largest in Washington State. Its highest peak is Mt. Olympus. Major salmon-bearing rivers on the Olympic Peninsula include, clockwise from the southwest: the Humptulips, the Quinault, the Queets, the Quillayute, the Sol Duc, the Lyre, the Elwha, the Dungeness, the Dosewallips, the Hamma Hamma, the Skokomish, the Wynoochee River. Natural lakes on the peninsula including, Lake Crescent, Lake Ozette, Lake Sutherland, Lake Quinault, Lake Pleasant. Two dammed rivers form the reservoirs of Wynoochee Lake; the peninsula contains many state and national parks, including Anderson Lake, Dosewallips, Fort Flagler, Fort Worden, Lake Cushman, Mystery Bay, Old Fort Townsend, Sequim Bay, Shine Tidelands, Triton Cove state parks. Within the Olympic National Forest, there are five designated wilderness areas: The Brothers, Colonel Bob, Mt. Skokomish, Wonder Mountain. Just off the west coast is the Washington Islands Wilderness. A major effort called the Wild Olympics campaign is under way to protect additional wilderness areas on the Olympic National Peninsula, protect salmon streams under the Wild and Scenic River Act and provide a means for Olympic National Park to offer to buy land adjacent to the Park from willing sellers.
Clallam and Jefferson Counties, as well as the northern parts of Grays Harbor and Mason Counties, are on the peninsula. The Kitsap Peninsula, bounded by the Hood Canal and the Puget Sound, is an separate peninsula and is not connected to the Olympic Peninsula. From Olympia, the state capital, U. S. Route 101 runs along the Olympic Peninsula's eastern and western shorelines. Most of the peninsula has Cfb under the Köppen climate classification. Most populated areas, have a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, or Csb; the Olympic Peninsula is represented in the U. S. House of Representatives by Derek Kilmer. Port Angeles Aberdeen Hoquiam Ocean Shores Port Townsend Sequim Olympic Peninsula travel guide from Wikivoyage Olympic National Park University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – The Pacific Northwest Olympic Peninsula Community Museum A web-based museum showcasing aspects of the rich history and culture of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula communities. Features cultural exhibits, curriculum packets and a searchable archive of over 12,000 items that includes historical photographs, audio recordings, maps, diaries and other documents.
Olympic Peninsula at Curlie
San Juan Island
San Juan Island is the second-largest and most populous of the San Juan Islands in northwestern Washington, United States. It has a population of 6,822 as of the 2000 census. Washington State Ferries serves Friday Harbor, San Juan Island's major population center, the San Juan County seat, the only incorporated town in the islands; the name "San Juan" originates from the 1791 expedition of Francisco de Eliza, who named the archipelago Isla y Archiepelago de San Juan to honor his patron sponsor, Juan Vicente de Güemes Padilla Horcasitas y Aguayo, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo. One of the officers under Eliza's command, Gonzalo López de Haro, was the first European to discover San Juan Island. During the Wilkes Expedition, American explorer Charles Wilkes renamed the island Rodgers Island; the island saw seasonal use for salmon fishing. The Hudson's Bay Company established the first permanent, non-native settlement on the island on December 13, 1853, with the intention of creating a sheep farm; the island was occupied by Native Americans, many of whom arrived seasonally for fishing.
Both the British and Americans asserted control of the island. A small force of American soldiers was sent to the island over concern for this issue and with Native American raids on American settlers; the territorial dispute over this island and the rest of the San Juan Islands heightened when an American settler shot an HBC pig, starting the Pig War in 1859. The dispute was resolved in favor of the Americans in 1872. San Juan Island has a number of weekly newspapers, two online daily news sites: the San Juan Islander, the online daily news site is the Island Guardian; the Island is dotted with numerous farms, is a tourist-driven economy. The island hosts one in Friday Harbor, the other in Roche Harbor. One sees tall ships and large yachts in the marinas; the Island has a new hospital: the Peace Health Peace Island Medical Center and a supermarket, the Friday Harbor Marketplace, a small supermarket/marine supply that services the marina, folks who live in town. There is a hardware store in town and a Home Center on the outskirts that services contractors and DIYers.
The island is home to a number of celebrities, one encounters them in the local stores recognizable, but treated as fellow islanders and not hassled or bothered for autographs. Transportation to the Island is by boat, Washington State Ferries.pr airplane. The Friday Harbor Airport is on the outskirt of town. Outside of Friday Harbor, the only major commercial establishment resort is the village of Roche Harbor, located on the northwest side of the island. Other landmarks are the old English and American Camps at opposite ends of the island, which together comprise the San Juan Island National Historical Park, which commemorates the 1859 Pig War. Interpretive centers and reconstructed buildings, formal gardens, etc. recall the history of early European settlement in the area. The University of Washington runs Friday Harbor Laboratories, a marine research lab and campus outside Friday Harbor; the campus has been extant since 1909 and has dormitories, a food service, classrooms for holding lectures.
San Juan Island is considered a "small town" community, in that it is quiet rural living with little distractions or incidents aside from tourism. One notable resident would be Lisa "Ivory" Moretti, a retired female professional wrestler of World Wrestling Entertainment fame, it has a number of attractions including The Whale Museum. Lime Kiln Park is so named because it housed a lime kiln, is home to the Lime Kiln Lighthouse listed on National Historic Register, September 15, 1978 Campgrounds: are San Juan County,Lakedale Resort, San Juan County Fairgrounds and Free Horse Farm Camping. Public schools are operated by the San Juan Island School District #149, it operates four schools: Friday Harbor Elementary School, Friday Harbor Middle School, Friday Harbor High School, Griffin Bay Schools, Stuart Island School. There are two operated schools; the waters surrounding San Juan Island are home to a variety of unique species including red sea urchins and pinto abalone. Though no commercial fishing of abalone has been allowed in this area, recreational fishing of abalone was outlawed in 1994.
The National Marine Fisheries Service listed pinto abalone as a Species of Concern in 2004. Westcott Bay Shellfish Co. is one of the few small, family-run aquaculture farms in the San Juan Islands. The soul of Westcott Bay is a philosophy of community and environmental stewardship, a respect for its unique natural and cultural history. Westcott Bay Shellfish Co. welcomes visitors by hiking in. Visitors can buy osyters and mussels while enjoying a picnic along the waterfront. Visitors can see first hand what an oyster operation looks like and can physically see where their oysters come from. Westcott Bay Shellfish Co. hand-raises Pacific Oysters, Manila clams and Mediterranean mussels on their tidelands in Westcott Bay. San Juan Islander - daily news site San Juan Island Chamber of Commerce San Juan Island at Curlie San Juan Island Heritage Historical collections from the San Juan Island Library District and local partners. American Biography A New Cyclopedia VOL 5 Pa