Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2017, the city proper had 280,966 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 494,089 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2016, making it the ninth-largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 958,421 inhabitants. Strasbourg is one of the de facto three main capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the European Parliament, the Eurocorps and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. An organization separate from the European Union, the Council of Europe is located in the city. Together with Basel and New York City, Strasbourg is among the few cities in the world not being a state capital and hosting international organisations of the first order.
The city is the seat of many non-European international institutions such as the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights. It is the second city in France in terms of international symposia, after Paris. Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second-largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second-largest on the Rhine after Duisburg in Germany, the second-largest river port in France after Paris.
Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum. That Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers. After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg; that name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads". The modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled.
Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl; the historic core of Strasbourg, lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by riv
The Norwegian Journal of Entomology is a biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering entomology, arthropodology more in general, with an emphasis on Norway. It was established in 1920 as the Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift, obtaining its current title in 1974. From 1979 to 1998 it was published under the name Fauna Norvegica Serie B; the journal is published by the Norwegian Entomological Society and the editor-in-chief is Øivind Gammelmo. The first issue of the journal appeared in 1921 under the name Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift; the first issue bore the year 1920 as the year of publication, but it was not printed until May 1921. From 1921 to 1975, 21 volumes of the journal were published. In 1975 the journal's name was changed to Norwegian Journal of Entomology in order to attract a broader international readership; the journal was consisted of two issues. There was difficulty financing the journal; the Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities withdrew its support for the journal in 1979.
An application for support for a new combined national zoology journal was sent to the NAVF. The new journal was a collaboration between the Norwegian Zoological Society and the Norwegian Ornithological Society; the first issue appeared in 1979 and the name of the journal was Fauna Norvegica Serie B. In 1993, the NAVF withdrew its support for the journal, but the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research took over responsibility. However, for financial reasons, NINA terminated the agreement in 1998, the journal's further existence was jeopardized; the journal was able to continue publication in 1999, now under the aegis of the Norwegian Entomological Society, thanks to support from the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. The journal's name was changed once more, back to its English name, Norwegian Journal of Entomology. Thomas Georg Münster, Karl Haanshus, Leif Reinhardt Natvig Thor Hiorth Schøyen Leif Reinhardt Natvig Nils Knaben Lauritz Sømme Ole Anton Sæther John O. Solem Lauritz Sømme Øivind Gammelmo The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews CAB Abstracts GEOBASE Scopus The Zoological Record Official website Norwegian Entomological Society
The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination is a health services research centre based at the University of York, England. CRD was established in January 1994, aims to provide research-based information for evidence-based medicine. CRD carries out systematic reviews and meta-analyses of healthcare interventions, disseminates the results of research to decision-makers in the NHS. CRD produces three databases: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects NHS Economic Evaluation Database Health Technology Assessment Database These are available from the CRD database website and as part of the Cochrane Library. CRD publishes a number of regular reports including Effective Health Care and Effectiveness Matters. CRD is funded by the UK Department of Health's NHS Research and Development Programme, as well as from a number of other sources. CRD was established in 1994. Along with the UK Cochrane Centre, the Centre was created as part of the Information Systems Strategy of the NHS Research and Development Programme.
The original aims of the centre were: To carry out and commission systematic reviews of research findings on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of health care relevant to the NHS To improve the accessibility of these and other research reviews by maintaining and updating an international register of research reviews and providing a single access point to this information for enquirers in the NHS To provide simple and effective mechanisms by which the results of systematic reviews on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions can be communicated to relevant audiencesProfessor Trevor Sheldon established and directed CRD from 1994 to 1998. He was followed as director by Professor Jos Kleijnen from 1998 to 2005; the current director is Professor Lesley Stewart who took up appointment in 2006. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination is part of the National Institute for Health Research and is a department of the University of York. CRD is one of the largest groups in the world engaged in evidence synthesis in the health field.
The Centre comprises health researchers, medical information specialists, health economists and a dissemination team. CRD undertakes systematic reviews evaluating the research evidence on health and public health questions; the findings of CRD reviews are disseminated and have impacted on health care policy and practice, both in the UK and internationally. CRD produce the DARE, NHS EED and HTA databases which are used by health professionals, policy makers and researchers. CRD undertake methods research and produce internationally accepted guidelines for undertaking systematic reviews; the Centre's role in developing research evidence to support decision making in policy and practice was highlighted in the Cooksey report on UK health research funding and subsequently in the Government national research strategy Best Research for Best Health. CRD was recognised by the Lancet as part of NHS R&D's most important contribution to the UK science base, namely building systematic review capacity and promulgating systematic reviews as a global public good.
CRD receives core funding through the NIHR. This funding enables the centre to function as a national resource and provides the necessary infrastructure to respond to requests from policy makers and healthcare professionals, to support the provision and promotion of the online databases. In addition to the core funding, the Centre has undertaken independent research for a number of different agencies including: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme Department of Health Policy Research Programme Economic and Social Research Council Home Office Medical Research Council Social Care Institute for Excellence NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement NIHR Service Delivery & Organisation Programme CRD is one of seven independent academic centres undertaking reviews commissioned by NICE. CRD collaborate with the Centre for Health Economics at the University of York to undertake technology assessment reviews that inform NICE Technology Appraisals on the use of new and existing medicines and treatments within the NHS.
CRD has close links with the UK Cochrane Centre and contributes to the work of several of the Cochrane Collaboration’s Review and Methods groups. The Centre has representation on the Steering and User groups of the Campbell Collaboration and is a member of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. CRD is a founder member of the Public Health Research Consortium with brings together researchers from 11 UK institutions; the PHRC aims to strengthen the evidence base for public health, with a strong emphasis on tackling socioeconomic inequalities in health. The centre is collaborating on a number of projects and is providing support for information retrieval and the knowledge transfer activities of the Consortium. CRD website Cooksey report on UK health research funding Best Research for Best Health Health research in the UK: the price of success Spanish user guideline published by Galician HTA Agency