Tampa is a major city in, the county seat of, Hillsborough County, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area; the bay's port is the largest in near downtown's Channel District. Bayshore Boulevard runs along the bay, is east of the historic Hyde Park neighborhood. Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; the four-county area is composed of 3.1 million residents, making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state, the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Washington, D. C. Miami, Atlanta; the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 385,430 in 2017; the Tampa Bay Partnership and U.
S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. Public Transportation in the area includes. There is the TECO Line Streetcar System; when the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", the name was shortened to "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa", in the form "Tanpa", appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida, he described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor.
The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, their locations, the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. Bahía Tampa and Bahía de Espíritu Santo were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa as early as 1695. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared on a British map of 1705, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando"; as late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm, the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language, or the Timucua language.
Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños", a term, still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, to all residents of Tampa inconsiderate of their ethnic background; the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming.
At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga, there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism.
The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entir
Yokota Air Base
Yokota Air Base, is a United States Air Force and Japan Air Self-Defense Force base in the city of Fussa, one of 26 cities in the Tama Area, or Western Tokyo. The base houses 14,000 personnel, it has a 3,353 m × 61 m runway. Among the bases' facilities are the broadcast center for the American Forces Network, Tokyo radio service, a detachment of Pacific Air Forces' Band of the Pacific and the headquarters of United States Forces Japan; the host unit at Yokota is the 374th Airlift Wing and is used for airlift missions throughout East Asia. The 374th includes four groups: operations, mission support and medical; each group manages a various number of squadrons. 374th Operations Group The 374th Operations Group maintains a forward presence by providing rapid responsive movement of personnel and operational support in the Asia-Pacific region. The group consists of: 374th Operations Support Squadron 36th Airlift Squadron 459th Airlift Squadron (UH-1N Iroquois, It is not uncommon to see a KC-135 Stratotanker, C-135 Stratolifter, C-5 Galaxy, KC-10 Extender, KC-767, KC-46 Pegasus, C-130, DC-8, C-17, L-100, Boeing 747, civilian charter airline aircraft and cargo on military charters on the Transient Aircraft ramp.
374th Maintenance GroupThe 374th Maintenance Group maintains C-130J, C-12 and UH-1N aircraft supporting intratheater airlift and distinguished visitor transport for Pacific Air Forces. 374th Mission Support GroupThe 374th Mission Support Group is responsible to the 374th Airlift Wing Commander for command and direction of support activities to 374 AW and 32 tenant units to include HQ US Forces Japan and Fifth Air Force. 374th Medical GroupThe 374th Medical Group, ensures medical readiness of 374 AW, 5 AF, US Forces Japan personnel. They maintain 64 War Reserve Materiel projects, including the USAF's largest Patient Movement Item inventory. Associate/Tenant Units U. S. Forces, Japan -- a nonoperational, politico-military unit that serves as the USPACOM front for US-Japanese military discussions. Fifth Air Force -- the air component to USFJ. 730th Air Mobility Squadron Air Force Band of the Pacific-Asia Stars and Stripes American Forces Network U. S. Coast Guard Activities Far East. Yokota Cadet Squadron, Civil Air Patrol Air Defense Command Headquarters Air Tactics Development Wing Headquarters Air Intelligence Wing Operations Support Wing Yokota Regional Air Police Squadron Yokota Weather Squadron The newly renovated Air Mobility Command Passenger Terminal is on the main part of the base next to the flightline.
It is a 5 to 7-minute walk from the Kanto Lodge and offers Space-Available flights to various destinations in PACAF such as Alaska, Hawaii, Okinawa, Singapore, as well as the Continental United States. The facility which houses Yokota Air Base was constructed by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1940 as Tama Airfield, used as a flight test center. During World War II Yokota became the center of Japanese Army Air Forces flight test activities and the base was the site of the first meeting between Japanese and Italian wartime allies. Tama was first identified by United States Army Air Forces in November 1944 by a 3d Reconnaissance Squadron F-13 Superfortress photo-reconnaissance aircraft, flying from Tinian in the Mariana Islands, it was identified as being associated with a nearby Musashino-Nakajima aircraft manufacturing plant. Along with the Showa Air Base to the northwest, Tachikawa Air Base to the east, it was compared to the aircraft development complex of the USAAF Wright-Patterson Field in Ohio.
According to the USAAF intelligence at the time, the three bases conducted all IJA flight testing. In the spring of 1945, XXI Bomber Command attacked the base eight times along with the aircraft manufacturing plant, but each time heavy clouds forced the bombers to attack secondary targets; the Nakajima plant was attacked in April 1945, but the Tama airfield never was bombed. With the Surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945, a detachment of the United States Army 1st Cavalry Division arrived at the base on 4 September; the airfield's buildings were intact, some 280 of the IJA's most modern aircraft were discovered in hangars. The 1st Cavalry named the facility Fussa Army Airfield at the end of September renamed it Yokota Army Airfield The name was to have been changed to Wilkins Army Air Base after Medal of Honor winner Raymond "Ray" Wilkins, but orders for this never arrived and it remained under the name Yokota until the USAAF became the USAF in 1947, at which point it became Yokota Air Base.
Some metal manhole covers stamped "WAAB" remain in use around the base as of 2017. The initial USAAF use for the base was for airlift operations when the 2d Combat Cargo Group arrived with four C-47 Skytrain squadrons; when the old runway deteriorated under heavy usage, the runway was repaired and Yokota supported operations of the A-26 Invader-equipped 3d Bombardment Group by August 1946. Additional construction during the 1940s and 1950s was completed and the base reached its current size around 1960. On the occasion of extension, the course of Hachiko Line and national highway Route 16 was changed, Itsukaichi highway was divided. During the initial postwar occupation years, Yokota hosted the foll
Curtis Emerson LeMay was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election. LeMay is credited with designing and implementing an effective, but controversial, systematic strategic bombing campaign in the Pacific theater of World War II, he served as Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from 1961 to 1965. LeMay joined the United States Army Air Corps while studying civil engineering at Ohio State University, he had risen to the rank of major by the time of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor. He commanded the 305th Operations Group from October 1942 until September 1943, the 3d Air Division in the European theatre of World War II until August 1944, when he was transferred to the China Burma India Theater, he was placed in command of strategic bombing operations against Japan and executing a massive fire bombing campaign against Japanese cities and Operation Starvation, a crippling minelaying campaign in Japan's internal waterways.
After the war, he was coordinated the Berlin airlift. He served as commander of the Strategic Air Command from 1948 to 1957, where he presided over the transition to an all-jet aircraft force that focused on the deployment of nuclear weapons; as Chief of Staff of the Air Force, he called for the bombing of Cuban missile sites during the Cuban Missile Crisis and sought a sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. After retiring from the Air Force in 1965, LeMay agreed to serve as pro-segregation Democrat Governor George Wallace's running mate in the 1968 United States presidential election; the ticket won 13.5% of the popular vote, a strong tally for a third party campaign, but the Wallace campaign came to see LeMay as a liability. After the election, LeMay retired to his Newport Beach, California and died in 1990. LeMay was born in Columbus, Ohio, on November 15, 1906. LeMay was of distant French Huguenot heritage, his father, Erving Edwin LeMay, was at times an ironworker and general handyman, but he never held a job longer than a few months.
His mother, Arizona Dove LeMay, did her best to hold her family together. With limited income, his family moved around the country as his father looked for work, going as far as Montana and California, they returned to his native city of Columbus. LeMay attended Columbus public schools, graduating from Columbus South High School, studied civil engineering at The Ohio State University. Working his way through college, he graduated with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering. While at Ohio State he was a member of the National Society of Pershing Rifles and the Professional Engineering Fraternity Theta Tau, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Air Corps Reserve in October 1929. He received a regular commission in the United States Army Air Corps in January 1930. While finishing at Ohio State, he took flight training at Norton Field in Columbus, in 1931–32. On June 9, 1934, he married Helen Maitland. LeMay became a pursuit pilot and, while stationed in Hawaii, became one of the first members of the Air Corps to receive specialized training in aerial navigation.
In August 1937, as navigator under pilot and commander Caleb V. Haynes on a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, he helped locate the battleship Utah despite being given the wrong coordinates by Navy personnel, in exercises held in misty conditions off California, after which the group of B-17s bombed it with water bombs. For Haynes again, in May 1938 he navigated three B-17s over 610 miles of the Atlantic Ocean to intercept the Italian liner Rex to illustrate the ability of land-based airpower to defend the American coasts. In 1940 he was navigator for Haynes on the prototype Boeing XB-15 heavy bomber, flying a survey from Panama over the Galapagos islands. War brought increased responsibility; when his crews were not flying missions, they were subjected to relentless training, as LeMay believed that training was the key to saving their lives. "You train as you fight" was one of his cardinal rules. It expressed his belief that, in the chaos and confusion of combat, troops or airmen would perform only if their individual acts were second-nature, performed nearly instinctively due to repetitive training.
Throughout his career, LeMay was and fondly known among his troops as "Old Iron Pants", the "Big Cigar". When the U. S. entered World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, LeMay was a major in the United States Army Air Forces, the commander of a newly created B-17 Flying Fortress unit, the 305th Bomb Group. He took this unit to England in October 1942 as part of the Eighth Air Force, led it in combat until May 1943, notably helping to develop the combat box formation. In September 1943, he became the first commander of the newly formed 3rd Air Division, he led several dangerous missions, including the Regensburg section of the Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission of August 17, 1943. In that mission, he led 146 B-17s to Regensburg, beyond the range of escorting fighters, after bombing, continued on to bases in North Africa, losing 24 bombers in the process; the heavy losses in veteran crews on this and subsequent deep penetration missions in the autumn of 1943 led the Eighth Air Force to limit missions to targets within escort range.
With the deployment in the European theater of the P-51 Mustang in January 1944, the Eighth Air Force gained an escort fighter with range to match the bombers. In a discussion of a report into high abort rates in bomber missions duri
Convair B-36 Peacemaker
The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" is a strategic bomber built by Convair and operated by the United States Air Force from 1949 to 1959. The B-36 is the largest mass-produced piston-engined aircraft built, it had the longest wingspan of any combat aircraft built, at 230 ft. The B-36 was the first bomber capable of delivering any of the nuclear weapons in the U. S. arsenal from inside its four bomb bays without aircraft modifications. With a range of 10,000 mi and a maximum payload of 87,200 lb, the B-36 was capable of intercontinental flight without refuelling. Entering service in 1948, the B-36 was the primary nuclear weapons delivery vehicle of Strategic Air Command until it was replaced by the jet-powered Boeing B-52 Stratofortress beginning in 1955. All but five examples were scrapped; the genesis of the B-36 can be traced to early 1941, prior to the entry of the United States into World War II. At the time it appeared there was a real chance that Britain might fall to the German "Blitz", making a strategic bombing effort by the United States Army Air Corps against Germany impossible with the aircraft of the time.
The United States would need a new class of bomber which would reach Europe and return to bases in North America, necessitating a combat range of at least 5,700 miles, the length of a Gander, Newfoundland–Berlin round trip. The USAAC therefore sought a bomber of intercontinental range, similar to the German Reichsluftfahrtministerium's ultra-long-range Amerikabomber program, the subject of a 33-page proposal submitted to Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering on May 12, 1942; the USAAC sent out the initial request on 11 April 1941, asking for a 450 mph top speed, a 275 mph cruising speed, a service ceiling of 45,000 ft, beyond the range of ground-based anti-aircraft fire, a maximum range of 12,000 miles at 25,000 ft. These requirements proved too demanding for any short-term design—far exceeding the technology of the day— so on 19 August 1941 they were reduced to a maximum range of 10,000 mi, an effective combat radius of 4,000 mi with a 10,000 lb bombload, a cruising speed between 240 and 300 mph, a service ceiling of 40,000 ft, above the maximum effective altitude of all of Nazi Germany's anti-aircraft Flak guns, save for the deployed 12.8 cm FlaK 40 heavy Flak cannon.
As the Pacific war progressed, the air force needed a bomber capable of reaching Japan from its bases in Hawaii, the development of the B-36 resumed in earnest. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, in discussions with high-ranking officers of the USAAF, decided to waive normal army procurement procedures, on 23 July 1943 – some fifteen months after the Germans' Amerikabomber proposal's submission made it to their RLM authority; the first delivery was due in August 1945, the last in October 1946, but Consolidated delayed delivery. The aircraft was unveiled on 20 August 1945, flew for the first time on 8 August 1946. After the establishment of an independent United States Air Force in 1947, the beginning in earnest of the Cold War with the 1948 Berlin Airlift, the 1949 atmospheric test of the first Soviet atomic bomb, American military planners sought bombers capable of delivering the large and heavy first-generation atomic bombs; the B-36 was the only American aircraft with the range and payload to carry such bombs from airfields on American soil to targets in the USSR.
The modification to allow the use of larger atomic weapons on the B-36 was called the "Grand Slam Installation". The B-36 was arguably obsolete from the outset, being piston-powered, coupled with the widespread introduction of first generation jet fighters in potential enemy air forces, but its jet rival, the Boeing B-47 Stratojet, which did not become operational until 1953, lacked the range to attack the Soviet homeland from North America without aerial refueling and could not carry the huge first-generation Mark 16 hydrogen bomb. The other American piston bombers of the day, the B-29 and B-50, were too limited in range to be part of America's developing nuclear arsenal. Intercontinental ballistic missiles did not become sufficiently reliable until the early 1960s; until the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress became operational in 1955, the B-36, as the only intercontinental bomber, continued to be the primary nuclear weapons delivery vehicle of the Strategic Air Command. Convair touted the B-36 as the "aluminum overcast", a so-called "long rifle" giving SAC global reach.
During General Curtis LeMay's tenure as head of SAC, the B-36, through intense crew training and development, formed the heart of the Strategic Air Command. Its maximum payload was more than four times that of the B-29, exceeded that of the B-52; the B-36 was slow and could not refuel in midair, but could fly missions to targets 3,400 miles away and stay aloft as long as 40 hours. Moreover, the B-36 was believed to have "an ace up its sleeve": a phenomenal cruising altitude for a piston-driven aircraft, made possible by its huge wing area and six 28-cylinder engines, putting it out of range of most of the interceptors of the day, as well as ground-based anti aircraft guns. Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation and Boeing Aircraft
In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, gives established players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warm climates of Arizona and Florida to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, spring training coincides with spring break for many US college students. Spring training starts in mid-February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, which falls in the last week of March. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days position players arrive and team practice begins. Exhibition games begin around the first of March. Spring training by major league teams in sites other than their regular season game sites first became popular in the 1890s and by 1910 was in wide use.
Hot Springs, has been called the original "birthplace" of spring training baseball. The location of Hot Springs and the concept of getting the players ready for the upcoming season was the brainchild of Chicago White Stockings team President Albert Spalding and Cap Anson. In 1886, the White Stockings traveled to Hot Springs to prepare for the upcoming season. After holding spring training at the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds, the White Stockings went on to have a successful season and other teams took notice. In subsequent years other teams joined Chicago and began holding spring training in Hot Springs, leading to the first spring training games; the Cleveland Spiders, Detroit Tigers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers, Boston Red Sox followed the White Stockings to Hot Springs. Whittington Field/Ban Johnson Park, Majestic Park, Fogel Field were all built in Hot Springs to host Major League teams. Famously, on St. Patrick's Day, 1918, a young successful pitcher named Babe Ruth of the Boston Red Sox was forced to play an emergency game at first base in a spring training game against Pittsburgh.
This game changed the course of baseball history, as it was the first time Ruth had played any position other than pitcher. Ruth responded by hitting two home runs that day in Hot Springs, the second was a 573-foot shot that landed across the street from Whittington Park in a pond of the Arkansas Alligator Farm and Petting Zoo; the Red Sox took notice and soon Ruth was playing the field more often. Over 130 Major League Baseball Hall of Famers, including such names as Ruth, Cy Young, Cap Anson, Honus Wagner, Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Walter Johnson, Rogers Hornsby, Mel Ott, Dizzy Dean, Jimmie Foxx, Stan Musial all trained in Hot Springs Spring Training; the First Boys of Spring is a 2015 documentary about Hot Springs Spring Training. The film was narrated by area native, actor Billy Bob Thornton, produced by filmmaker Larry Foley; the documentary began airing nationally on the MLB Network in February 2016. Early training sites include the St. Louis Cardinals in Tulsa, Oklahoma; the Detroit Tigers are credited with being the first team to conduct spring training camp in Arizona.
They trained in Phoenix at Riverside Park at Central Avenue and the Salt River in 1929. The Philadelphia Phillies were the first of the current major-league teams to train in Florida, when they spent two weeks in Jacksonville, Florida in 1889. Spring training in Florida began in earnest in 1913, when the Chicago Cubs trained in Tampa and the Cleveland Indians in Pensacola. One year two other teams moved to Florida for spring training, the real start of the Grapefruit League. Except for a couple of years during World War II, when travel restrictions prevented teams training south of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, Florida hosted more than half of the spring training teams through 2009. Since 2010, major league teams have been divided between Arizona and Florida during spring training, with 15 teams in Florida and 15 teams in Arizona. All but six of the major league teams have gone to spring training in Florida at one time or another. Many of the most famous players in baseball history have called Florida home for 4–6 weeks every spring.
According to the autobiography of former Cleveland Indians owner Bill Veeck, the avoidance of racism was one reason the Cactus League was established. In 1947, Veeck was the owner of the minor league Milwaukee Brewers and the team trained in Ocala, Florida. Veeck inadvertently sat in the Black section of the segregated stands and engaged in conversation with a couple of fans. According to Veeck's book, the local law enforcement told Veeck he could not sit in that section, called the Ocala mayor when Veeck argued back; the mayor backed down when Veeck threatened to take his team elsewhere for spring training and promised to let the country know why. Veeck sold the Brewers in 1945 and temporarily retired to a ranch in Tucson, but purchased the Cleveland Indians in 1946. Intending to introduce African-American players, Veeck decided to buck tradition and train the Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try, thus the
James Maitland Stewart was an American actor and military officer, among the most honored and popular stars in film history. With a career spanning 62 years, Stewart was a major Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player, known for his distinctive drawl and down-to-earth persona, which helped him portray American middle-class men struggling in crisis. Many of the films in which he starred have become enduring classics. Stewart was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one for The Philadelphia Story, received an Academy Lifetime Achievement award in 1985. In 1999, Stewart was named the third-greatest male screen legend of the Golden Age of Hollywood by the American Film Institute, behind Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant; the American Film Institute has named five of Stewart's films to its list of the 100 best American films made. He had a noted military career and was a World War II and Vietnam War veteran and pilot, who rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, becoming the highest-ranking actor in military history.
In 1985, Stewart was promoted to Major General, reserve list by President Ronald Reagan, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, the son of Elizabeth Ruth and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. Stewart was raised as a Presbyterian, he was descended from veterans of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War. The eldest of three children, young Jimmy was expected to one day inherit his father's store and continue a business, in the family for three generations, his mother was an excellent pianist. When his father once accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, Stewart learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture offstage during his acting career; as the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life. Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928, he was active in a variety of activities. He played on the football and track teams, was art editor of the KARUX yearbook, a member of the choir club, glee club, John Marshall Literary Society.
During his first summer break, Stewart returned to his hometown to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following two summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician, he made his first appearance as Buquet in the play The Wolves. A shy child, Stewart spent much of his after-school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing, chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation, it was a dream enhanced by the legendary 1927 flight of Charles Lindbergh, whose progress 19-year-old Stewart stricken with scarlet fever, was avidly following from home, foreshadowing his starring movie role as Lindbergh 30 years later. However, he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the United States Naval Academy he attend Princeton University. Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the class of 1932, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he became attracted to the school's drama and music clubs, including the Princeton Triangle Club.
His acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. The company had been organized in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust and Charles Leatherbee as directors. Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players' productions in Cape Cod during the summer of 1932, after he graduated; the troupe had included Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan. Stewart and Fonda became close friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick; when Stewart came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway tryout of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Fonda, who had by finalized his divorce from Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, Stewart debuted on Broadway in the brief run of Carry Nation and a few weeks – again with McCormick and Dalrymple – as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had two lines.
The New Yorker commented, "Mr. James Stewart's chauffeur... comes on for three minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause." The play was a moderate success. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. "From 1932 through 1934", Stewart recalled, "I'd only worked three months. Every play I got into folded." By 1934, he was given more substantial stage roles, including the modest hit Page Miss Glory and his first dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard's Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However and Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling. In the fall of 1934, Fonda's success in The Farmer Takes. Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw Stewart on the opening night of Divided by Three, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance, including Irving
Alexander Livingston "Alex" Nicol Jr. was an American actor and film director. Nicol appeared in many Westerns including The Man from Laramie, he appeared in more than forty feature films as well as directing many television shows including The Wild Wild West and Daniel Boone. He played many roles on Broadway. Nicol was born in Ossining, New York, in 1916; when his movie career started thirty-four years he adjusted the year to 1919. "I was a little older than some of the other people under contract so I thought,'Well, I'll cure that right now'," he confessed. His father was the arms keeper at Sing Sing, he studied at the Feagin School of Dramatic Art before joining Maurice Evans' theatrical company, with whom he made his Broadway debut with a walk-on in Henry IV, Part 1. A member of The Actors Studio, Nicol would play Brick in Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, under the direction of Studio co-founder Elia Kazan. However, it was as a character actor, he directed films, appeared on television.
His acting career was interrupted by a five-year stint in the army. He attained the rank of Technical Sergeant. Upon discharge, Nicol returned to Broadway in a revival of Clifford Odets' pro-union drama Waiting for Lefty. Shortly thereafter, he was admitted to The Actors Studio. Nicol next appeared in Forward the Heart, as part of the original cast of Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical South Pacific, playing one of the marines, but after a few weeks in the show he auditioned to replace Ralph Meeker as Mannion in Mister Roberts, was made understudy to the play's star Henry Fonda, but I never made it! He never missed a performance! And Henry's wife at the time died during the run of Mr. Roberts, but he still didn't miss the performance the night she died, he didn't show up, the stage manager said to me,'Okay, get dressed'. So I had the outfit on, the stage manager looked at his watch and said,'All right, two more minutes, we go up', and we were one minute away from curtain time, Fonda walked in, in costume, he just walked right out, hit his mark, he played the performance as though nothing had happened.
While acting in Mister Roberts, Nicol was seen by the Universal Studios director George Sherman, in New York City to film The Sleeping City. He cast Nicol as a young doctor. Nicol was given a contract by Universal, Sherman directed his second film, Tomahawk, in which he played a cavalry officer with a hatred of Indians. Small roles as a prisoner of war in Target Unknown and a trainee pilot in Air Cadet preceded Nicol's first major part, co-starring with Frank Sinatra and Shelley Winters in the musical drama Meet Danny Wilson. In his next film he was an antagonist again, causing Loretta Young to be wrongly sent to prison in Because of You, he played a troublesome sergeant in Red Ball Express, directed by Budd Boetticher. Nicol's first lead role was opposite Maureen O'Hara in The Redhead from Wyoming directed by Lee Sholem. Roll'Em Sholem" they used to call him. All he would say before every scene was "Roll'Em!" And when you got to the end of the scene he'd say "Cut!" and he'd look at the script clerk and say, "Did they say all the words?", if so, it.
When the picture was over I went to the front office at Universal and asked to be released from my contract. They thought, but I thought, "If this is my big break I'm not going far. Going freelance, Nicol was directed by Daniel Mann in About Mrs. Leslie starring Shirley Booth and Robert Ryan. Nicol returned to Universal to appear in two George Sherman films, The Lone Hand and Dawn at Socorro. Nicol made three films in England, most notably Ken Hughes' The House Across the Lake, it was a great script, Sidney James, a wonderful actor, was in it, along with Hillary Brooke. I got back to the United States and I was glad to come back; those British pictures kept me working, but they were fast cheaply budgeted. Anthony Mann directed Nicol in his role as a navigator in Strategic Air Command, it was Mann who gave the actor his best-remembered role as the weak psychopathic son of a patriarch rancher that menaced Jimmy Stewart in The Man from Laramie. After a supporting role in Jacques Tourneur's Great Day in the Morning Nicol believed his Hollywood career was not progressing.
In 1956 he returned to Broadway to replace Ben Gazzara in the lead role of Brick, in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. When the Broadway run ended Nicol starred in the tour. Nicol starred with Shelley Winters in the play Saturday Night Kid, he returned to Hollywood where he made his first film as a director, The Screaming Skull, in which he acted. I wasn't doing the kind of films as an actor that I wanted to do, so I thought, "Well, I'll try directing." We shot the picture in six weeks and it did well, so I was happy with that. Nicol traveled to Italy. While there he was offered parts in other movies, he and his family remained in Europe for two years. We lived in Rome. We did a lot of films quickly, with backing from Italian and Yugoslavian finance sources, it was one of the happiest times of my life. One of his last assignments in Italy was another directorial credit, Then The